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  • Boundary element method based on preliminary discretization

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Valyaev, Valery; Shanin, Andrey
    Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations
    Date of publication: 2014-03-01
    Journal article

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    A new numerical method for solving wave diffraction problems is given. The method is based on the concept of boundary elements; i.e., the unknown values are the field values on the surface of the scatterer. An analog of a boundary element method rather than a numerical approximation of the initial (continuous) problem is constructed for an approximate statement of the problem on the discrete lattice. Although it reduces the accuracy of the method, it helps to simplify the implementation significantly since the Green functions of the problem are no longer singular. In order to ensure the solution to the diffraction problem is unique (i.e., to suppress fictitious resonances), a new method is constructed similarly to the CFIE approach developed for the classical boundary element method.

  • Numerical estimation of coupling loss factors in building acoustics

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Journal of sound and vibration
    Date of publication: 2013-10-14
    Journal article

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    A study on the optimal procedure for obtaining SEA (statistical energy analysis) coupling loss factors (CLF) numerically is presented. The energies of an SEA system with two subsystems (one excited, the other one unexcited) are obtained from deterministic numerical simulations. Three different ways of isolating the CLF are explored: from the power balance of the excited subsystem (first approach) or the unexcited subsystem (second approach) and from the power transmitted through the connection (third approach). An error propagation analysis shows that the first approach is unreliable and that the second approach is the best option. As application examples, the CLF between some typical building structures is computed. These examples illustrate the potential of the estimated CLFs to solve larger problems with SEA and show the influence of the type of excitation on the coupling loss factor estimation. Finally, a simplified technique to account for the effect of studs in double walls with SEA is presented.

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    Modal-based prediction of sound transmission through slits and openings between rooms  Open access

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Journal of sound and vibration
    Date of publication: 2013-03-04
    Journal article

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    The transmission of sound through slits and openings between cuboid-shaped rooms is analysed. A deterministic model that describes the pressure fields inside the rooms in terms of eigenfunctions and uses the Dirichlet-to-Neumann technique in order to reproduce the slit effect is presented. An efficient formulation of the problem is obtained thanks to the splitting of the original domain into three domains: sending room, slit, receiving room. The geometry and boundary conditions of the problem can be modelled in detail like in an element-based numerical technique (such as the finite element method) but with smaller computational costs. The model is compared with numerical solutions, existent models and published experimental data. Afterwards it is used to analyse some aspects such as the influence of slit dimensions, opening position, room properties (dimensions and absorption) that cannot be taken into account with the available models. These usually suppose that the slit or opening connects two unbounded acoustic domains.

  • Efficient models for building acoustics: combining deterministic and statistical methods  Open access

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina
    Defense's date: 2013-11-15
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La modelización de problemas vibroacústicos en el ámbito de la edificación supone un desafío debido al gran tamaño de los dominios y al amplio rango frecuencial requerido por las normativas. Las técnicas numéricas estándares, como por ejemplo el método de los elementos finitos (MEF), fallan al tratar de alcanzar las frecuencias más altas, puesto que el tamaño de elemento requerido es muy inferior a las dimensiones del problema y el coste computacional asociado es excesivo para tratarse de un cálculo tan cotidiano.El análisis estadístico de energía (SEA) es un marco de análisis de problemas vibroacústicos basado en el comportamiento de las ondas a altas frecuencias. Trata directamente con magnitudes promediadas, tal y como requieren las normativas, y su coste computacional es muy bajo. Sin embargo, presenta numerosas limitaciones a la hora de analizar estructuras reales. Habitualmente la definición del modelo SEA necesita ser complementada con experimentos u otros datos añadidos.Esta tesis se centra en la modelización de problemas de acústica de la edificación con un coste computacional razonable. En ese sentido se han seguido dos líneas fundamentales de investigación.En la primera parte de la tesis se analiza el potencial uso de simulaciones numéricas para extender la aplicabilidad del SEA. En particular, se tratan tres aspectos diferentes: en primer lugar, se desarrolla una metodología sistemática para la estimación de factores de acoplamiento a partir de simulaciones numéricas. Estos factores se estiman a partir de pequeñas simulaciones deterministas y posteriormente se aplican para la resolución de problemas mayores con SEA. En segundo lugar, se presenta un modelo basado en el SEA para acoplamientos no conservativos, así como una estrategia para obtener los factores de acoplamiento conservativos y no conservativos a partir de simulaciones numéricas. Finalmente, se propone una metodología para la identificación de subsistemas SEA con análisis modal. Esta técnica consiste en realizar un análisis cluster basado en los modos propios del problema, y permite la detección de subdivisiones óptimas para dominios complejos, incluso si varios subsistemas coexisten en la misma región geométrica.En la segunda parte de la tesis, se analiza la transmisión sonora a través de paredes dobles desde diferentes puntos de vista, por ser éste un ejemplo paradigmático de las complejidades asociadas a las simulaciones vibroacústicas. En primer lugar, se presenta una compilación de modelos clásicos para este problema. A continuación, se propone la utilización del método de las capas finitas como una nueva manera de discretizar el campo de presiones en la cavidad interior de las paredes dobles, especialmente cuando esta se encuentra parcialmente llena con material absorbente. Este método combina una discretización de tipo MEF en la dirección perpendicular a la pared con funciones trigonométricas en las dos direcciones coplanarias con la misma. El coste computacional de esta técnica es inferior al del MEF, pero también permite la aplicación de las condiciones de continuidad y equilibrio entre capas fluidas. Seguidamente, esta técnica se compara tanto con datos experimentales como con otros modelos predictivos, con objeto de verificar la influencia de distintas simplificaciones habituales en estos modelos.Por último, se presenta la combinación de métodos deterministas y estadísticos como una posible solución para la modelización de problemas vibroacústicos compuestos por paredes dobles y otros elementos. El análsis global se realiza con SEA, pero se utilizan simulaciones numéricas de pequeñas partes del problema para obtener los parámetros necesarios. La combinación de ambas técnicas permite la realización de simulaciones con un coste computacional razonable.

    Modelling vibroacoustic problems in the field of building design is a challenging problem due to the large size of the domains and the wide frequency range required by regulations. Standard numerical techniques, for instance finite element methods (FEM), fail when trying to reach the highest frequencies. The required element size is too small compared to the problem dimensions and the computational cost becomes unaffordable for such an everyday calculation. Statistical energy analysis (SEA) is a framework of analysis for vibroacoustic problems, based on the wave behaviour at high frequencies. It works directly with averaged magnitudes, which is in fact what regulations require, and its computational cost is very low. However, this simplified approach presents several limitations when dealing with real-life structures. Experiments or other complementary data are often required to complete the definition of the SEA model. This thesis deals with the modelling of building acoustic problems with a reasonable computational cost. In this sense, two main research lines have been followed. In the first part of the thesis, the potential of numerical simulations for extending the SEA applicability is analysed. In particular, three main points are addressed: first, a systematic methodology for the estimation of coupling loss factors from numerical simulations is developed. These factors are estimated from small deterministic simulations, and then applied for solving larger problems with SEA. Then, an SEA-like model for non-conservative couplings is presented, and a strategy for obtaining conservative and non-conservative coupling loss factors from numerical simulations is developed. Finally, a methodology for identifying SEA subsystems with modal analysis is proposed. This technique consists in performing a cluster analysis based on the problem eigenmodes. It allows detecting optimal SEA subdivisions for complex domains, even when two subsystems coexist in the same region of the geometry. In the second part of the thesis, the sound transmission through double walls is analysed from different points of view, as a representative example of the complexities of vibroacoustic simulations. First, a compilation of classical approaches to this problem is presented. Then, the finite layer method is proposed as a new way of discretising the pressure field in the cavity inside double walls, especially when it is partially filled with an absorbing material. This method combines a FEM-like discretisation in the direction perpendicular to the wall with trigonometric functions in the two in-plane directions. This approach has less computational cost than FEM but allows the enforcement of continuity and equilibrium between fluid layers. It is compared with experimental data and also with other prediction models in order to check the influence of commonly assumed simplifications. Finally, a combination of deterministic and statistical methods is presented as a possible solution for dealing with vibroacoustic problems consisting of double walls and other elements. The global analysis is performed with SEA, and numerical simulations of small parts of the problem are used to obtain the required parameters. Combining these techniques, a realistic simulation of the vibroacoustic problem can be performed with a reasonable computational cost.

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    An energy model for the acoustic insulation of absorbing materials  Open access

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congress on Numerical Methods in Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work an energy model for the acoustic insulation of absorbing ma- terials is shown. This model is an extension of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) [1] in order to account for the effect of non-conservative connections [2, 3]. The energy-based approach allows to solve sound insulation problems in large domains (such as those in building acoustics) in an efficient way for the whole frequency range required by regulations (50-5000 Hz). In particular, this approach is applied here for the study of the insulating behaviour of an absorbing layer (mineral wool) filling the cavity of a double wall. The absorbing layer is considered as a non-conservative connection between the two leaves of the wall. This model is combined with detailed numerical computations to obtain the loss factors associated to the connection. With these parameters, a combined system including the transmission between rooms and double walls can be stated. Obtained results show that absorbing layers can be modelled as non-conservative cou- plings and incorporated in an SEA-like system to compute the sound insulation in buildings successfully.

    In this work an energy model for the acoustic insulation of absorbing ma- terials is shown. This model is an extension of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) [1] in order to account for the effect of non-conservative connections [2, 3]. The energy-based approach allows to solve sound insulation problems in large domains (such as those in building acoustics) in an efficient way for the whole frequency range required by regulations (50-5000 Hz). In particular, this approach is applied here for the study of the insulating behaviour of an absorbing layer (mineral wool) filling the cavity of a double wall. The absorbing layer is considered as a non-conservative connection between the two leaves of the wall. This model is combined with detailed numerical computations to obtain the loss factors associated to the connection. With these parameters, a combined system including the transmission between rooms and double walls can be stated. Obtained results show that absorbing layers can be modelled as non-conservative cou- plings and incorporated in an SEA-like system to compute the sound insulation in buildings successfully.

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    Pushing SEA beyond its limits: a model for real building structures  Open access

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The main challenge for models of building acoustics is being able to consider all the geometrical and physical details of real structures with a reasonable computational cost for high frequencies. The SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) framework is suitable for these frequencies, but presents some difficulties for dealing with complex structural configurations. For instance, modelling absorbing materials with SEA is an open issue, since they are neither reverberant subsystems nor conservative couplings. In this work, a model to account for absorbing materials with a SEA-like approach is performed. It is obtained by analogy with an electrical circuit. This approach is combined with numerical simulations in order to solve vibroacoustic problems in real structural configurations (including complex geometries or dissipative connections) throughout the entire frequency range required by regulations. The proposed technique is applied to modelling the sound insulation of double walls. These walls consist of two leaves of plasterboard connected through metallic studs and filled with a layer of absorbing material. The combination of numerical simulations and SEA arises as a good technique for modelling the acoustic behaviour of real life structures with an affordable computational cost.

    The main challenge for models of building acoustics is being able to consider all the geometrical and physical details of real structures with a reasonable computational cost for high frequencies. The SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) framework is suitable for these frequencies, but presents some difficulties for dealing with complex structural configurations. For instance, modelling absorbing materials with SEA is an open issue, since they are neither reverberant subsystems nor conservative couplings. In this work, a model to account for absorbing materials with a SEA-like approach is performed. It is obtained by analogy with an electrical circuit. This approach is combined with numerical simulations in order to solve vibroacoustic problems in real structural configurations (including complex geometries or dissipative connections) throughout the entire frequency range required by regulations. The proposed technique is applied to modelling the sound insulation of double walls. These walls consist of two leaves of plasterboard connected through metallic studs and filled with a layer of absorbing material. The combination of numerical simulations and SEA arises as a good technique for modelling the acoustic behaviour of real life structures with an affordable computational cost.

  • The finite layer method for modelling the sound transmission through double walls

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Journal of sound and vibration
    Date of publication: 2012-10-22
    Journal article

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    An SEA-like model for double walls filled with absorbing materials  Open access

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso Ibero-americano de Acústica
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Modelling absorbing materials with statistical energy analysis (SEA) is an open issue. They are neither reverberant subsystems nor conservative couplings. The absorbing material layers located inside the cavities of double walls should be treated as non-conservative couplings between the wall leaves. However, the standard SEA formulation cannot take into account non-conservative couplings. In this work, an equivalent circuit analogy is used to deduce how to introduce these couplings in an SEA-like system. Besides, a technique for obtaining the SEA-like factors associated to a double wall filled with absorbing material is presented. These factors are computed from numerical simulations of the vibroacoustic leaf-absorbing material-leaf system and applied for solving larger problems with SEA.

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    A numerical technique for obtaining SEA coupling loss factors in double walls  Open access

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso Ibero-americano de Acústica
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Double walls usually consist of two leaves of material connected by steel studs. Aside from improving the structural performance, studs create a vibration transmission path which connects the two leaves. There is interest in reliable models of the acoustic performance of these structures, for the frequency range required in regulations. Statistical energy analysis allows reaching high frequencies with a low computational cost. However, the best SEA approach for modelling double walls is not clear in the literature. The cavity may be considered as a subsystem or treated as a connecting device between the two leaves. The effect of the cavity is also often neglected compared to the coupling provided by the studs. In this work, numerical techniques are used to evaluate these approaches and to define a combined deterministic–statistical approach that accounts for all the transmission phenomena.

  • Sound transmission through double walls: statistical and deterministic models

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    European Conference on Noise Control
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A deterministic model of impact noise transmission through structural connections based on modal analysis

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Hetherington, Jack; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Journal of sound and vibration
    Date of publication: 2011-01-17
    Journal article

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  • The finite strip method for acoustic and vibroacoustic problems

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Journal of computational acoustics
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Journal article

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  • Time domain analysis of impact noise

     Nouri, N.; Ziaei-Rad, N; Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso en Métodos Numéricos em Engenharia
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Obtaining SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) parameters by means of numerical models

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso en Métodos Numéricos em Engenharia
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The block Gauss-Seidel method in sound transmission problems

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Journal of computational acoustics
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    Error estimation in vibroacoustic problems solved by means of finite elements  Open access

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The vibroacoustic equations can be solved by means of the finite element method. A discretisation of the structure and the acoustic domains is required and highly influences the quality of the numerical solution. There exist meshing criteria (a priori error estimators) for the case of the Helmholtz equation but these studies have not focused their attention in the case of the vibroacoustic problem. The fluid structure interaction represents a new source of numerical errors and meshes in the interaction zone should be designed by not only taking into account the physical properties of the acoustic medium but also the mechanical properties of the structure. The goal of the work is to obtain an a priori error estimation criterion for the vibroacoustic problem and Illustrate its efficiency by means of numerical experiments.

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    Numerical modelling of the radiation efficiency of asymmetrical structures  Open access

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio; Guigou-Carter, Catherine; Villot, Michel
    Applied acoustics
    Date of publication: 2009-05
    Journal article

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    The radiation efficiency of a structural element is required by some models in order to predict its sound insulation. A common assumption is that the radiation on both sides of the element is the same. This is not true for asymmetrical structural elements like lightweight floors consisting of a beam-supported flat board. The radiation efficiency is larger on the beam side, because the beams act as exciters and increase the pressure level in the room. These different radiation efficiencies are calculated here for a two-dimensional cross-section by using finite elements and boundary elements. The obtained preliminary results illustrate that considering a single radiation efficiency can be a source of errors and that further investigation is required in order to improve predictions.

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    The role of studs in the sound transmission of double walls  Open access

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio; Guigou-Carter, Catherine; Villot, Michel
    Acta acustica united with acustica
    Date of publication: 2009-06
    Journal article

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    Steel studs are used in double walls to provide structural stability. This creates a vibration transmission path between leaves that can often be more critical than the airborne path through the cavity. Some of the existing models for sound transmission consider the studs as elastic springs. The spring stiff ness may be taken as the cross-section elastic stiff ness of the stud, but this leads to an underestimation of the vibration transmission. A procedure to obtain more accurate parameters to be used in vibration and sound insulation models is presented. The results show that they must be obtained from dynamic models and/or experiments.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Modelización Numérica de ruido de impacto

     Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Análisis y aplicación del método de Gauss-Seidel por bloques en vibroacústica: Transmisión de ruido

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Numerical modelling of sound transmission in lightweight structures

     Poblet Puig, Jordi
    Defense's date: 2008-03-28
    Barcelona School of Civil Engineering (ETSECCPB), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Workpack design for Steel House (WISH)

     Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio; Poblet Puig, Jordi
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Modelización numérica de estructuras e infraestructuras: diseño, durabilidad y estados limite

     Muñoz Romero, Jose Javier; Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio; Sarrate Ramos, Jose; Parés Mariné, Núria; Vidal Segui, Yolanda; Roca Navarro, Francisco Javier; Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
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  • Numerical modeling of sound transmission in double walls

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Vilaseca Cabo, Roger; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Acta acustica united with acustica
    Date of publication: 2006-05
    Journal article

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  • Experimental and numerical characterization of metallic studs

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Guigou-Carter, Catherine; Villot, Michel; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Acta acustica united with acustica
    Date of publication: 2006-05
    Journal article

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  • Desarrollo de prototipos de estructura metálica con propiedades acústicas y de vibración mejoradas

     Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio; Poblet Puig, Jordi
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Experimental and numerical characterization of metallic studs  Open access

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Guigou-Carter, Catherine; Villot, Michel; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    The European Conference on Noise Control
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the characterization of metallic studs used to mount lightweight double wall systems is studied both experimentally and numerically. The metallic studs are usually considered by introducing translational and rotational springs to couple the plasterboards composing the double wall. Therefore, the characterization involves determining these spring characteristics. The performance of this type of lightweight double wall in terms of sound transmission is presented in a companion paper. Different experimental setups have been investigated to determine the equivalent translational and rotational spring values. These experimental setups are described and involve the measurement of an input mobility. A finite element model of the laboratory tests has been developed. Shell and massive finite elements are employed in order to reproduce the experimental setups. A comparison of the measured and numerical results is shown. The FEM modelling is intended to help in developing new type of studs for double walls in order to obtain better sound transmission performance.

    In this paper, the characterization of metallic studs used to mount lightweight double wall systems is studied both experimentally and numerically. The metallic studs are usually considered by introducing translational and rotational springs to couple the plasterboards composing the double wall. Therefore, the characterization involves determining these spring characteristics. The performance of this type of lightweight double wall in terms of sound transmission is presented in a companion paper. Different experimental setups have been investigated to determine the equivalent translational and rotational spring values. These experimental setups are described and involve the measurement of an input mobility. A finite element model of the laboratory tests has been developed. Shell and massive finite elements are employed in order to reproduce the experimental setups. A comparison of the measured and numerical results is shown. The FEM modelling is intended to help in developing new type of studs for double walls in order to obtain better sound transmission performance.

  • Numerical modeling of sound transmission in double walls

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Vilaseca Cabo, Roger; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    The European Conference on Noise Control
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Numerical models for the calculation of sound transmission in double walls are presented. The finite element method (FEM) or analytical solutions (for rectangular domains) are used for the acoustic part of the problem while the wall vibration is solved by means of structural finite elements. The vibroacoustic problem is formulated in the frequency range: the acoustic domains (rooms) are described by the Helmholtz equation, the absorbent materials as an equivalent fluid and the structures by means of dynamic linear elasticity. The acoustic and structural parts of the problem are coupled. The influence of the stiffness and spacing of the studs on the performance of lightweight walls is studied. The studs have been modelled with beam finite elements or by means of mechanical constraints. The effect of the boundary conditions of the walls and its dimensions are also analyzed.

  • Dos ejemplos de aplicación de métodos numéricos en la modelización de la transmisión de ruido en edificación

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso Nacional de Acústica
    Presentation's date: 2005
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Sobre la aplicación de métodos numéricos en la predicción de la transmisión de ruido: el problema vibro acústico, ventajas y limitaciones  Open access

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Congreso Nacional de Acústica
    Presentation's date: 2005
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The main numerical techniques actually employed in the modelling of sound transmission are rapidly reviewed. The most important restricting aspects for the application of the finite element method to vibro acoustic problems are presented. They are the cause of the restriction of the use of FEM to the low frequency range. However, several new numerical techniques (most of them concentrated in the invention of new methods for the Helmholtz equation in the mid frequency range) which use a priori known information about the solution are being developed. The new characteristics of them are mentioned and a small example of a structural calculation shown.

  • A one-dimensional model for vibroacustics

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Workshop on Numerical Methods in Applied Science and Engineering
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  • High quality acoustic and vibration performance of lightweight steel constructions (ACOUSVIBRA)

     Poblet Puig, Jordi; Kesti, Jyrki; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio
    Participation in a competitive project

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