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  • Manoeuvring and hotelling external costs: enough for alternative energy sources?

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    Maritime Policy & Management
    Date of publication: 2013-05-17
    Journal article

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    A simulation model for road and maritime environmental performance assessment  Open access

     Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez de osés, Xavier; Ölcer, Aykut
    Journal of Environmental Protection
    Date of publication: 2013-07-18
    Journal article

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    The White Paper published in 2011, Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area [1], urges on a 30% modal shift of road freight over 300 km to other modes (rail, maritime and inland waterways) by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050. However the environmentally friendly performance of maritime transport regarding air pollutant emissions in compari-son with road transport is in doubt. This paper presents a three dimension simulation model, in which performed trans-port work, arisen emissions and produced impact are estimated and inter-related for the assessment of the environmental performance of both road and maritime transport. The simulation model will be a valuable decision making tool for policymakers as it enables the precise assessment of considered transport alternatives in the EU27 until 2020, and hence supports the design of future intervening actions.

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    Cost assessment simulator for transport between mediterranean spanish ports and the Black Sea  Open access

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Nuevo, Manuel
    Journal of maritime research
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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    There is a strong imbalance in EU transport mode shares. In addition, issues like road traffic, noise, accident rates, and especially polluting emissions result not only in external costs to society, but also in high logistical costs to transport service customers. The present paper proposes an assessment model to evaluate final internal and external costs of transport chains served by trucks and short sea shipping (SSS). An efficient and fast tool is presented to help customers decide on the most convenient mode of transportation for a specific trade link. The trade links in this paper connect 19 Spanish provinces to the main ports in the Black Sea region (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine) through the ports of Barcelona and Valencia.

  • Analysis of safety inspections of recreational craft in the european union. A case of study

     Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Jubilee International Conference on Marine Navigation and Safety of sea transportation
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Inspections of pleasure boats in Spain can be carried out by collaborating entities of inspection, and these entities must have the previous authorization by the administration. This authorization allows these entities performing effective inspections and technical controls of pleasure craft. Recreational crafts are subjected to surveys that are based on the registration list and hull construction material. In addition the required safety equipment of the recreational boat depends on the distance that the recreational boat is authorized to navigate. The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the types of survey / inspections to be carried pleasure craft (non-commercial use), periodicity and required safety equipment in some member states of the European Union. A case study of Spain is presented. From the results obtained, we can determine if there is a lack of coordination in this area and, if required, indicate the need to unify a common pattern in inspections and surveys of recreational boats in the EU.

    Inspections of pleasure boats in Spain can be carried out by collaborating entities of inspection, and these entities must have the previous authorization by the administration. This authorization allows these entities performing effective inspections and technical controls of pleasure craft. Recreational crafts are subjected to surveys that are based on the registration list and hull construction material. In addition the required safety equipment of the recreational boat depends on the distance that the recreational boat is authorized to navigate. The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the types of survey / inspections to be carried pleasure craft (non-commercial use), periodicity and required safety equipment in some member states of the European Union. A case study of Spain is presented. From the results obtained, we can determine if there is a lack of coordination in this area and, if required, indicate the need to unify a common pattern in inspections and surveys of recreational boats in the EU.

  • Monitoring and operational services for motorways of the seas project (MOS4MOS). Activity 4.2: training module

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Ordas Jimenez, Santiago; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Rodrigo De Larrucea, Jaime; Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose
    International Conference of Black Sea Association of Maritime Institutions
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Monitoring and Operational Services for Motorways of the Seas Project (MOS4MOS) aims to contribute to the establishment of a European maritime space without barriers, to facilitate and simplify the compliance with regulations (customs, safety and other national and European rules), to promote intermodal sustainable transport solutions that reinforce the EU Motorways of the Sea. MOS4MOS project is divided into 5 activities and 15 initiatives distributed into 4 thematic areas: Port Level initiatives, Port-to-Port initiatives, Port-to-Hinterland Initiatives and Door-to-Door initiatives. This paper describes the activity realised by Nautical Faculty of Barcelona: Activity 4.2, the Training module. The main objective of this activity is the production of training materials and seminars for disseminating the concepts analysed in previous activities and their potentials benefits. This paper is structured into following sections: Section 1 describes a brief introduction of the MOS4MOS project; Section 2 provides some general information of the activity 4.2; Section 3 explains the aims and results of each module of the activity 4.2 and finally Section 4 remarks some conclusions of the MOS4MOS project.

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    Analysis of the prevailing weather conditions criteria to evaluate the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea  Open access

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Usabiaga Santamaría, Juan José
    International Conference Onmarine Navigation and Safety pf sea Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Modernizing and harmonizing maritime education in Montenegro and Albania - MArED

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Moncunill Marimon, Jorge
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • MONALISA 2.0. Securing the chain by intelligence at sea

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Ordas Jimenez, Santiago; Moncunill Marimon, Jorge
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Simulation-based model course to demonstrate seafarers' competence

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Ordas Jimenez, Santiago; Barahona Fuentes, Claudia; Moncunill Marimon, Jorge; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge; Martínez Marín, Jesús Ezequiel; Delgado Ortega, Olga; Rodriguez Castillo, Manuel
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    Road and maritime transport enviornmental performance : short sea shipping vs road transport  Open access

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Usabiaga Santamaría, Juan José; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    Journal of maritime research
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Recreational boat licensing, lack of uniformity in the european union

     Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Journal of marine technology and environment
    Date of publication: 2012-06-01
    Journal article

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  • Road and maritime transport environmental performance: Short sea shipping vs road transport

     Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    International Conference on Maritime Transport
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-28
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    Is natural gas the solution for port pollution avoidance in Spanish SSS ports?  Open access

     Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    International Research Conference on Short Sea Shipping
    Presentation's date: 2012-04-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Assessment for possible future ECA adoption in the Mediterranean area (Short Sea Shipping vs. Road Transport)  Open access

     Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    International Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Study on the license requirements for pleasure boats in the european union  Open access

     Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    International Conference on Maritime Transport
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Many European countries require the skippers of a pleasure craft to be able to provide evidence of their competence. The pleasure craft operator card or boating license permits people operate a pleasure craft. One of the requirements of this license is intended to decrease the number of boat accidents. This paper analysis the regulation related on recreational boat licensing of some European Union (EU) members. As a result of this study, no uniformity at European Union in terms of the requirements for sailing in pleasure boats can be proven. It is also important to note that requirements for obtaining the licenses and the personal training of each future skipper are different depending on the member state of the European Union. So this diversity of training criteria should be regulated and standardized equity for all member states. The main purpose of this paper is to make clear that in the European Union there is a lack of coordination in this area, highlighting the differences training patterns depending on the member state in which the skipper has obtained the license and indicate the need to unify the training and licensing for recreational boating.

  • Sustainable development program at the Faculty of Nautical Studies of Barcelona, Nautical engineering education

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martin Mallofre, Agustin; Ordas Jimenez, Santiago; Aguilar, S.; Solé, M.
    Journal of marine technology and environment
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Port-city closeness and turnaround time critical for short sea shipping sustainable performance. A case study: Spain.

     Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    International journal for traffic and transport engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-09-01
    Journal article

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    Air pollution is the most relevant externality of maritime transport and its effects are more acute in urban areas. As Short Sea Shipping (SSS) services call ports frequently and expend significant time in port, both the overall turnaround time and the port city closeness, become critical in its sustainable performance. This paper analyses the impact of maritime transport at Spanish SSS ports and identifies the ideal ones, reflecting the differences in their sustainable performance and finally identifying the characteristics that a harbour needs to gather in order to minimize air pollution impact in the maritime transport sector.

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    Development of a costs simulator to assess new maritime trade routes  Open access

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Rodríguez Nuevo, Manuel
    Internationnal Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation
    Date of publication: 2011-09-30
    Journal article

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  • Diseño de un simulador de costes y tiempos, para evaluar el transporte rodado de mercancías versus transporte marítimo de corta distancia

     Rodríguez Nuevo, Manuel
    Defense's date: 2011-03-30
    Department of Nautical Sciences and Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Development of a cost simulator to assess new maritime trade routes  Open access

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Rodríguez Nuevo, Manuel
    International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper is going to describe the design process of a simulator that assesses the costs of different means of transport. The evaluation not only will be done regarding the internal costs but also the external costs that will be translated to environmental costs, based on existing databases. The paper shows the development carried out to create this simulator and analyse all components of the logistical chain, i.e. port operation costs, road haulage costs and maritime leg costs. The simulation results have been validated with real data of actual maritime routes to check its reliability. As a conclusion, the costs simulator permits assess costs of new maritime trade routes comparing them with road transport.

  • Port-city closeness and turnaround time critical for Short Sea Shipping sustainable performance

     Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    REACT Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Patrón de embarcaciones de recreo (cuarta edición)

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Mateu Llevadot, Jordi; Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge; Jaime Pérez, Ricard
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Book

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  • Patrón de Yate

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Mateu Llevadot, Jordi; Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Book

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  • Monitoring and Operation Services For Motorways of The Sea

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Ordas Jimenez, Santiago; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Usabiaga Santamaria, Juan Jose; Rodrigo De Larrucea, Jaime
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • The impact on emissions in sw european short sea shipping based on mopsea emission model

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Journal of marine technology and environment
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    According to the mid-term review of the EU White Paper on Transport, Short Sea Shipping is expected to grow at a rate of 59% (metric tonnes) between 2000 and 2020. Even with Marpol Annex VI in operation, the share of emissions from maritime transport can no longer be ignored because they would become increasingly important. There is an existing need to evaluate the impact of the maritime transport on emissions. This paper analyses emissions of maritime transport in SW European Short Sea Shipping, considering actual routes and ships’ particulars based on MOPSEA emission model and the results of LAERTES project carried out by TRANSMAR Research group. This paper will conclude proposing some results that would justify the need to reduce atmospheric emissions from sea-going vessels to compete with road transport mode. Policy makers have to be aware of the results and its effect on the current legislation for maritime transport.

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    Una propuesta de ecobono español  Open access

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Estudios de construcción y transportes
    Date of publication: 2010-07-31
    Journal article

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    El presente estudio, fue financiado en la convocatoria del año 2008 según ORDEN FOM/2219/2008, de 22 de julio (BOE del 29), de subvenciones para la realización de estudios y acciones de difusión relacionados con el transporte, sus infraestructuras y demás competencias del Ministerio de Fomento. El objeto del mismo fue la elaboración de un análisis comparativo entre los costes externos generados por el transporte por carretera y el marítimo en un mismo recorrido. De esta comparativa se dedujo en cada caso una diferencia entre los costes externos producidos por cada modo de transporte. En el caso que esa diferencia en costes externos fuera favorable al transporte marítimo, los autores proponen una subvención a los transportistas que usen el modo marítimo, con un tope igual a ese diferencial citado pro recorrido y camión.

  • Emission Models: A comparison to determine the impact of maritime transport on emissions in SW european short sea shipping

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    51st Transportation Research Forum
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Proposal of a costs simulator, for traffics between Spain and the Black Sea  Open access

     Rodríguez Nuevo, Manuel; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    International Conference on Maritime and Naval Science and Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    There is a strong imbalance in EU transport mode share. In addition issues like road congestion, noise, accident rate and especially pollutant emissions result not only in external costs to society but also in high logistical costs to customers of transport services. The present paper proposes an assessment model to evaluate final internal and external costs of transport chains served by road and short sea transport as an efficient, fast tool to help customers decide on the most convenient transportation mode for a specific trade link. The links in this work connect Spanish Mediterranean coasts and the Black Sea with up to 19 Spanish provinces, with freight being imported and exported from/to Barcelona and Valencia and the main ports of Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

  • Short Sea Shipping Alternatives in front of the road alternative in the western Mediterranean

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Journal of marine technology and environment
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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    The external costs of speed at sea: An analysis based on selected short sea shipping routes  Open access

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    World Maritime University. Journal of Maritime Affairs
    Date of publication: 2009-03-09
    Journal article

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    According to the mid-term review of the EUWhite Paper on Transport, Short Sea Shipping (SSS) is expected to grow at a rate of 59%(metric tonnes) between 2000 and 2020. If we consider that the overall expected increase in both freight exchanges and volume is 50%, sea transport is one of themost feasible alternatives to reduce traffic congestion on European roads. Maritime transportation may compete with road transport as far as certain traffics are concerned, but only when assuming external costs. This paper analyzes several intermodal transport chains involving a sea leg by comparing the effect of pollutant emissions from different ship types and road transport in terms of potential external cost savings.The translation of these emissions into environmental costs shows, for certain conditions, savings in the case of sea transport that would justify the use of an environmental bonus to promote the sea option.

  • The ecobono: a proposal based on external costs savings

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Journal of marine technology and environment
    Date of publication: 2009-11-02
    Journal article

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    According to the mid-term review of the EU White Paper on Transport, Short Sea Shipping is expected to grow at a rate of 59% (metric tonnes) between 2000 and 2020. If we consider that the overall expected increase in both freight exchanges and volume is 50%, sea transport appears as one of the most feasible options to reduce traffic congestion on European roads. However, this alternative has not been definitely adopted because of technical, administrative and legal reasons. Moreover, society still regards maritime transport as a slow, inefficient mode since shippers do not yet offer the best value for money. Infrastructures need to be balanced by using tariff principles which reflect the exact external costs incurred by these infrastructures. Along this line of action, in 1998 the European Union published the White Paper on Fair Payment for Infrastructure Use: A Phased Approach to a Common Transport Infrastructure Charging Framework in the EU COM (1998) 466. This paper will conclude proposing an environmental bonus based on external cost savings associated with the use of the short sea alternative instead of road-only transport

  • Short Sea Shipping efficiency analysis considering high-speed craft as an alternative to road transport in SW Europe.  Open access  awarded activity

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Defense's date: 2009-05-07
    Department of Nautical Sciences and Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La política Europea de transporte pretende alcanzar un sistema donde la sostenibilidad juegue un papel predominante. La reducción de lasemisiones contaminantes, de la accidentabilidad, la descongestión del tráfico en las carreteras constituyen un pilar fundamental paraalcanzar tal objetivo.La Unión Europea, a través de la Estrategia para un Desarrollo Sostenible del Libro Blanco de Transporte, ha manifestado en repetidasocasiones su preocupación por los impactos generados por el sector de los transportes; es por eso que existe la aplicación de medidaspara la solución de estos problemas para la integración de las cuestiones medioambientales en las políticas de transporte y los sectoresafines.En el conjunto del transporte, la carretera genera más del 80 por 100 de las emisiones de CO2, siendo con diferencia el modo máscontaminante, mientras que el transporte marítimo se mantiene como el modo menos contaminante. Esta situación, favorable al transportemarítimo se mantiene también para las emisiones de NOx a la atmósfera. Del total de este tipo de emisiones de la Unión Europea, el 51por 100 procede de los vehículos por carretera y un 12 por 100 de los medios de transporte.Hoy en día muchos países están trasladando el tráfico de mercancías de las autopistas congestionadas a otros modos de transporte.Muchas veces el tráfico marítimo, a parte del tráfico ferroviario de mercancías, son la alternativa más plausible para prevenir el incrementode transporte por carretera y las fuertes consecuencias económicas que comporta.A raíz de la firma del Tratado de Adhesión de España a la Unión Europea el año 1986, con el cual el transporte por carretera adquirió uncierto protagonismo, las tasas de crecimiento de tráfico, durante ese año, pasaron del 2,8% al 8,4%, manteniendo y totalizando unmovimiento de 70 millones de toneladas en ambos sentidos, lo que se traduce en una media de 3.500 camiones diarios en tránsito, através de los pasos de La Jonquera e Irún. Para el año 2020, aplicando una tasa de crecimiento similar a la experimentada estos últimosaños, el tráfico de mercancías podría verse incrementado a unos 250 millones de toneladas en total, y más de 30.000 camionesatravesando los Pirineos.Ante esta situación y las consecuencias derivadas de la congestión, es deseable lograr un trasvase de las clásicas cadenas de transporteunimodales a las cadenas multimodales, con la participación de medios terrestres y marítimos. Hoy en día, el reparto del tráfico demercancías se mantiene a un 50% entre ambas cadenas, aunque con una ligera ventaja del camión, sobretodo en recorridos cortos comoes el caso de trayectos entre España y Francia, mientras que a medida que las distancias se amplían lógicamente existe un trasvase haciael modo marítimo.De acuerdo con la revisión del Libro Blanco del Transporte de la Unión Europea, se espera que el Transporte Marítimo de Corta Distancia,en inglés Short Sea Shipping, crezca un 59% en toneladas métricas, desde el año 2000 al año 2020.La principal ventaja del Transporte Marítimo de Corta Distancia consiste en la posibilidad de combinar las ventajas inherentes de losdistintos modos de transporte implicados, reduciendo los costes e incrementando la capacidad de transportar gran volumen de carga enlargas distancias. Pero para poder convertir el transporte multimodal en una alternativa real al transporte unimodal por carretera a parte decuantificar y reducir los costes de fricción al cambiar de modo se deben identificar y estudiar un número de variables relacionadas con eltransporte de mercancías que nos permitirán conocer la viabilidad de una ruta.Para este trasvase de mercancías al modo marítimo se consideran principalmente los buques convencionales como la solución más viable,ya que pueden penetrar en el mercado por carretera reduciendo, en algunos casos, los costes internos y externos. Mientras esteargumento está basado en que el transporte por mar debería competir en precio (por ejemplo ofreciendo un precio más bajo que otrosmodos de transporte) también se debe de considerar la importancia de los buques de alta velocidad que ofrecen calidad al servicio. Losbuques de alta velocidad pueden ser unos posibles competidores del transporte terrestre en determinadas rutas; aunque estos buquespresentan problemas de operación cuando navegan con mal tiempo.El Transporte Marítimo de Corta Distancia debe responder a una serie de requisitos básicos para su identificación y puesta en servicio:buenas conexiones con un hinterland intermodal, un transporte mayoritariamente especializado en tráfico Ro-Ro, una velocidad mínima enlos buques, una alta frecuencia con un mínimo de salidas semanales y ofrecer la máxima fiabilidad aportando al mismo tiempo una mejorasignificativa de los costes de la cadena logística. A su vez, existen elementos críticos para su puesta en marcha que hay que tener encuenta: la consolidación de los flujos, la calidad del conjunto de la cadena de transporte, el compromiso de todos los elementos de lacadena de suministro y la compatibilidad con las otras vías de transporte hacia un modelo multimodal.Se evidencia la voluntad de la Comisión Europea para promocionar el Transporte Marítimo de Corta Distancia, como un modo mássostenible. Uno de los posibles caminos para mejorar su competitividad frente al transporte por carretera y el aéreo, puede pasar por eluso extensivo de buques rápidos o de alta velocidad.Es evidente que los buques de alta velocidad reducen el tiempo de viaje, pero para mantener la ganancia en tiempo en la mar, lasoperaciones en puerto también deben de reducirse para poder mantener la ventaja en el tiempo de viaje.Sin embargo más velocidad implica mayor consumo y más emisiones contaminantes. El aumento de velocidad es viable comercialmenteen unas rutas concretas y en unas condiciones determinadas: buen tiempo durante todo el año, una demanda suficientemente alta paracubrir la necesidad de una alta frecuencia y una situación geográfica favorable.

    The European transport policy aims to achieve a sustainable communication system. A reduction in pollutant emissions, accident rate andtraffic congestion is central to reaching this goal.Through the Strategy for Sustainable Development of the EU White Paper on Transport Policy, the European Union has expressed concernabout transport-related impacts. For this reason, appropriate policies to balance transport growth and its environmental effects are being made.In general, road transport accounts for over 80% of CO2 emissions. It is, therefore, the most polluting mode of transportation whereas seatransport remains the least polluting. The same applies to NOx emissions. Road transport is responsible for 51% of these pollutant emissionsin the European Union, as opposed to 12% for the other modes.In many countries a shift from congested highways to other alternatives for freight transport has been observed. Apart from railway transport,the maritime option is often preferred to relieve road traffic congestion and its negative environmental effects.After Spain joined the European Union at 1986, the traffic volume increase had grown from 2.8% to 8.4% per year, accounting for a movementof 70 million tonnes in both directions. This means a daily average of 3,500 trucks travelling through La Jonquera and Irún passes. At this rate,by the year 2020, freight transport could increase to a total of 250 million tonnes, with over 30,000 trucks crossing the Pyrenees.In view of this and the consequences of traffic congestion, a change from traditional unimodal to multimodal transport chains involving the seaand road modes is desirable. Freight transport is currently shared by both chains, with a slight advantage of road over maritime transport,particularly in short distances like trips between France and Spain while the sea option logically becomes more common as distances increase.According to the review of the EU White Paper on Transport Policy, a 59% increase in tonnes carried by Short Sea Shipping is expectedbetween 2000 and 2020.The main benefit of Short Sea Shipping lies in the possibility of combining the inherent advantages provided by the involved modes, thusreducing costs and increasing freight transport capacity over long distances. However, for multimodal transport to become a real alternative tothe road-only mode, the feasibility of routes must be explored with several variables related to freight transport. Moreover, friction costs derivedfrom the mode shift must be quantified and reduced.Conventional ships are typically regarded as the most viable solution since they can penetrate the road market, sometimes leading to a declinein internal and especially external costs. While this opinion is based on the fact that sea transport should compete price-wise with other modes,it must be born in mind that high-speed vessels offer greater speeds, which may be perceived as quality of service by some shippers. In someroutes, high-speed vessels can become serious competitors to road transport although these ships pose operational problems in bad weather.Short Sea Shipping must meet a number of basic requirements to be efficiently implemented: good links with an intermodal hinterland, atransport mode specialised in Ro-Ro traffic, fast enough ships, sufficient number of weekly trips, maximum reliability and sharp decline in costsderived from the logistic chain. Also, certain critical factors must be taken into account, i.e. consolidation of flows, quality of the whole transportchain, commitment and compatibility of all elements of the supply chain with other transport modes with a view towards a multimodal model.The European Commission’s interest in promoting Short Sea Shipping as a more sustainable mode is made clear. One possible way ofincreasing competitiveness against road and air transport may be the extensive use of fast conventional or high-speed vessels.It is evident that high-speed vessels reduce travel time, but in order to maintain this advantage, port operations must also take less time.However, more speed implies greater consumption and a higher level of pollutant emissions. An increase in speed is commercially feasible incertain route and freight types and under specific conditions: good weather all year around, a demand large enough to justify high tripfrequency and a favourable geographical location.The use of fast conventional and high-speed ships is not always the best solution. It was necessary to examine each particular case. If in thefuture more policies towards sea transport are implemented and freight volume increases, high-speed services will have a market share largeenough to be commercially and economically feasible.The purpose of this thesis is to find alternatives to relieve road traffic congestion by using sea transport more extensively with a view toachieving sustainable mobility. To this end, the use of conventional, fast conventional and high-speed vessels in multimodal transport wasexamined. However, the above objective should not be achieved by the competition of sea transport with railway transport. Instead, thesemodes must capture part of the road transport share. It must also be clear that no direct competition exists between maritime and roadtransport but rather the need for both to be complementary.

  • Patrón de Navegación Básica

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Mateu Llevadot, Jordi; Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge
    Date of publication: 2009-01
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  • Patrón de embarcaciones de recreo (tercera edición)

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Mateu Llevadot, Jordi; Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge; Jaime, R
    Date of publication: 2009-06
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  • The green tax, an anaysis of its implementation in Spanish short sea traffics  Open access

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    International Conference on Maritime Transport
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Seminario conjunto sobre trafico maritimo de corta distancia y su impacto ambiental

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martínez Marín, Jesús Ezequiel; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • EVALUACIÓN Y COMPARATIVA DE LAS EMISIONES CONTAMINANTES, DE LOS BUQUES UTILIZADOS EN LÍNEAS MARÍTIMAS DE CORTA DISTANCIA CON LA ESP

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • SISTEMA DE APOYO A LA INVESTIGACION DEL ORIGEN DE VERTIDOS ILEGALES EN EL MAR

     Ortigosa Barragán, Inmaculada; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Maidana Silanes, Augusto; Garcia Espinosa, Julio
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Análisis de la aplicación del ecobono, en los tráficos marítimos españoles: una propuesta basada en los costres externos generados

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Date of publication: 2009-07-01
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  • Eurocampus. Una assignatura intercampus dl'abast europeu.

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation's date: 2009-02-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The importance of the improvements on the maritime transport in the global trade  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Maritime Transport IV
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sustainability of motorways of the sea and fast ships  Open access

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The European transport policy undertakes to enhance sustainability in transport in order to boost economic activities in the whole EU. The reduction of pollutant emissions and a better balance among modes of transportation to cut road congestion are the pillars of the above policy. These factors are encouraging public and private stakeholders to use the freight maritime alternative more extensively. Short sea shipping is considered the quickest way to reach sustainability. Another advantage of ships over trucks and trains is that vessels consume less fuel as a result of the relatively low speeds at which they travel. However, increasingly faster ships are in a position to compete with trucks, but the former’s greater power demand and consumption rate result in higher pollutant emission levels which, in turn, lead to the loss of their environmental advantage over road transport. This problem is analyzed below.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Nuevos criterios de navegación de alta velocidad en las rutas de las Autopistas del Mar

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Congreso Internacional Autopistas del Mar
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Heavy Weather in European Short Sea Shipping: Its Influence on Selected Routes

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Journal of navigation
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Autopistas del mar, enlaces veloces y sostenibles

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Marina civil
    Date of publication: 2008-06
    Journal article

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  • Selection of Short Sea Shipping Transport Chain in Western Europe. based on external costs

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Journal of maritime research
    Date of publication: 2008-12
    Journal article

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  • Patrón de Embarcación de Recreo (actualización segunda edición)

     Jaime Pérez, Ricard; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Mateu Llevadot, Jordi; Torralbo Gavilan, Jorge
    Date of publication: 2008-11
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  • 12è Concurs d'Idees Ambientals de la UPC

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Leon Arias, Alejandro
    Award or recognition

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  • Selection of short sea shipping transport chains in western Europe based on external factors

     Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier
    Revista del Instituto de la Navegación de España
    Date of publication: 2007-12
    Journal article

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  • Wave height incidence on Mediterranean Short Sea Shipping routes

     Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Tethys: revista del temps i el clima de la Mediterrània occidental
    Date of publication: 2007-01
    Journal article

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