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  • Pedestrian hazard criteria for flooded urban areas

     Russo, Beniamino; Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Macchione, Francesco
    Natural hazards
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Urban floods are sudden phenomena normally characterized by short flooding durations and devastating effects due to the high concentrations of persons, goods, and properties located in urban areas. In these cases, uncontrolled runoff can flow on urban streets, creating a significant hazard for pedestrians and vehicles. The safety of people can be compromised when they are exposed to flows that exceed their ability to remain standing or to traverse flow paths. With the aim of studying the stability of pedestrians in flooded street during storm events, a model representing an urban street in real scale was designed and built. Following a specific protocol that considering several flow rates (up to 500 l/s) and different longitudinal slopes (up to 10 %), 834 tests, using 23 human subjects, were carried out in good and poor light conditions. Hazard conditions were classified into three groups (low, medium, and high), and the parameters for which these conditions occurred were recorded. Results showed that for subjects weighing 50-60 daN (50-60 kg mass) and flow depths between 9 and 16 cm, velocities of 1.5-2 m/s can generate loss of stability due to phenomena of dragging or overturning. Empirical expressions were proposed to relate human subject characteristics (weight and height) and limiting flow conditions at which loss of stability occurs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

    Urban floods are sudden phenomena normally characterized by short flooding durations and devastating effects due to the high concentrations of persons, goods, and properties located in urban areas. In these cases, uncontrolled runoff can flow on urban streets, creating a significant hazard for pedestrians and vehicles. The safety of people can be compromised when they are exposed to flows that exceed their ability to remain standing or to traverse flow paths. With the aim of studying the stability of pedestrians in flooded street during storm events, a model representing an urban street in real scale was designed and built. Following a specific protocol that considering several flow rates (up to 500 l/s) and different longitudinal slopes (up to 10 %), 834 tests, using 23 human subjects, were carried out in good and poor light conditions. Hazard conditions were classified into three groups (low, medium, and high), and the parameters for which these conditions occurred were recorded. Results showed that for subjects weighing 50–60 daN (50–60 kg mass) and flow depths between 9 and 16 cm, velocities of 1.5–2 m/s can generate loss of stability due to phenomena of dragging or overturning. Empirical expressions were proposed to relate human subject characteristics (weight and height) and limiting flow conditions at which loss of stability occurs.

  • Estudio de la peligrosidad por inundaciones en el Raval (Barcelona) mediante modelo 1D-2D

     Russo, Beniamino; Suñer, D.; Velasco, M
    Jornadas de Ingeniería del Agua
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Influence of climate change on IDF curves for the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain)  Open access

     Rodriguez Sola, Raul; Navarro Bosque, Javier; Casas Castillo, M. Del Carmen; Ribalaygua, Jaime; Russo, Beniamino; Pouget, Laurent; Redaño Xipell, Angel
    International journal of climatology
    Date of publication: 2013-05-06
    Journal article

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    The evaluation of the possible climate change influence on extreme precipitation is very interesting in the Mediterranean area due to the usual and characteristic high intensities of its rainfall pattern. This analysis is also very important in urban zones, especially those densely populated with complex sewer systems, generally vulnerable to torrential rainfall. In this work, a total of 114 simulated daily rainfall series, 84 for the period 2000¿2099 and 30 for the control period 1951¿1999, have been analysed. These series were obtained for six thermo-pluviometric stations located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona using the information provided by five general circulation models under four future climate scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and applying statistical downscaling methods. The potential changes in the intensity¿duration¿frequency relationships due to climate change have been investigated. For the last third of the 21st century, under A1B, A2 and B2 climate scenarios, an increase of at least 4% has been found on the expected daily rainfall with return period longer than 20 years. Using a temporal downscaling based on scaling properties of rainfall, future hourly extreme rainfall has been estimated. For almost all the scenarios and periods considered, the increase on the expected hourly rainfall has resulted slightly higher than the corresponding daily rainfall. The greatest differences between the future hourly and daily rainfall estimated have been found in the second third of the century under scenarios A1B (8%) and A2 (9%).

    The evaluation of the possible climate change influence on extreme precipitation is very interesting in the Mediterranean area due to the usual and characteristic high intensities of its rainfall pattern. This analysis is also very important in urban zones, especially those densely populated with complex sewer systems, generally vulnerable to torrential rainfall. In this work, a total of 114 simulated daily rainfall series, 84 for the period 2000–2099 and 30 for the control period 1951–1999, have been analysed. These series were obtained for six thermo-pluviometric stations located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona using the information provided by five general circulation models under four future climate scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and applying statistical downscaling methods. The potential changes in the intensity–duration–frequency relationships due to climate change have been investigated. For the last third of the 21st century, under A1B, A2 and B2 climate scenarios, an increase of at least 4% has been found on the expected daily rainfall with return period longer than 20 years. Using a temporal downscaling based on scaling properties of rainfall, future hourly extreme rainfall has been estimated. For almost all the scenarios and periods considered, the increase on the expected hourly rainfall has resulted slightly higher than the corresponding daily rainfall. The greatest differences between the future hourly and daily rainfall estimated have been found in the second third of the century under scenarios A1B (8%) and A2 (9%)

  • Experimental campaign to determine grated inlet clogging factors in an urban catchment of Barcelona

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Hidalgo Rabaseda, Guillem; Russo, Beniamino
    Urban Water Journal
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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  • Methodology to estimate the hydraulic efficiency of nontested continuous transverse grates

     Russo, Beniamino; Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David
    Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    The aim of this paper is to improve and complete the results presented in a previous work published on this journal about an experimental campaign focused on the hydraulic efficiency of continuous transverse grates for draining paved areas. This type of surface drainage structure is commonly used in urban or impervious areas (public squares, airport pavements, parks, and pedestrian areas), where conventional inlets are not recommended because they are rendered ineffective by the lack of a well-defined channelized flow path and gradients capable of directing flows toward the collecting hydraulic structures. In this paper, a methodology is presented to estimate the hydraulic efficiency of nontested continuous transverse grates. Empirical expressions are proposed to relate grate hydraulic performance to flow parameters and grate geometry without the need for laboratory tests. Moreover, the spectrum of the grates was extended in terms of dimensions and hydraulic design with respect to the first study, to enlarge the range of validity of the proposed empirical expressions.

    The aim of this paper is to improve and complete the results presented in a previous work published on this journal about an experimental campaign focused on the hydraulic efficiency of continuous transverse grates for draining paved areas. This type of surface drainage structure is commonly used in urban or impervious areas (public squares, airport pavements, parks, and pedestrian areas), where conventional inlets are not recommended because they are rendered ineffective by the lack of a well-defined channelized flow path and gradients capable of directing flows toward the collecting hydraulic structures. In this paper, a methodology is presented to estimate the hydraulic efficiency of nontested continuous transverse grates. Empirical expressions are proposed to relate grate hydraulic performance to flow parameters and grate geometry without the need for laboratory tests. Moreover, the spectrum of the grates was extended in terms of dimensions and hydraulic design with respect to the first study, to enlarge the range of validity of the proposed empirical expressions.

  • Methodology to estimate hydraulic efficiency of drain inlets

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino
    Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Water management
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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  • Design of surface drainage systems according to hazard criteria related to flooding of urban areas

     Russo, Beniamino
    Defense's date: 2010-01-15
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Modelo físico para el estudio de los criterios de riesgo en zonas urbanas  Open access

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Macchione, Francesco; Russo, Beniamino
    Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Las inundaciones en medio urbano son fenómenos que generalmente se caracterizan para su corta duración y para los efectos devastadores debido a la alta concentración de personas, viviendas y bienes localizados en estas áreas. En casos de inundaciones producidas por eventos de lluvias extremos, los caudales de escorrentía pueden circular por las calles de nuestras ciudades de forma incontrolada si el sistema de drenaje superficial o subterráneo es insuficiente generando condiciones de inseguridad para la circulación vehicular y peatonal. Con el fin de estudiar las condiciones de estabilidad de peatones en calles urbanas durante eventos de lluvia, se ha diseñado y realizado un modelo físico que reproduce una calle urbana en escala real. De acuerdo con las capacidades de laboratorio, el protocolo de ensayo establecido ha previsto caudales circulantes hasta 500 l/s y pendientes longitudinales de la calle hasta el 10%. Finalmente se han desarrollado 834 ensayos con 23 sujetos de riesgo en diferentes condiciones de visibilidad y se han recopilados todas las situaciones de riesgo registradas en tres grupos relacionados al nivel de riesgo ocurrido durante los ensayos: bajo, medio y alto riesgo. Los resultados obtenido han evidenciado que para sujetos humanos entre 50 y 60 Kg, y calados entre 9 y 16 cm, velocidades de 1.5-2 m/s pueden suponer una pérdida de estabilidad por efecto de fenómenos como vuelco y deslizamiento. Urban floods are sudden phenomena normally characterized by short flooding durations and devastating effects due to the high concentration of subjects, goods and properties located in urban areas. In these cases of flooding heavy and medium storms events (some times because of inadequate surface drainage systems) generate high uncontrolled amounts of surface runoff that circulate on the urban streets determining a significant hazard for the pedestrians and vehicles. With the aim of studying the stability of the pedestrians in urban areas during storm events, a model representing an urban street in a 1:1 scale, was designed and built. According to the laboratory capabilities a specific testing protocol was established. Specifically tests were carried out for different circulating flows (from 100 l/s to 500 l/s) and different longitudinal slopes (up to 10%). Finally 834 tests regarding 23 human subjects were carried out considering different light conditions too. Hazard conditions were classified into three groups: low, medium and high and parameters at which these conditions occurred were recorded. The obtained results showed that for a human subject with a weight between 50 and 60 Kg, and flow depths between 9 and 16 cm, velocities of 1.5-2 m/s can generate a loss of stability due to phenomena of dragging or overturning.

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    Estudio de los patrones de colmatación en los sumideros de una cuenca urbana de Barcelona (España)  Open access

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Hidalgo Rabaseda, Guillem; Russo, Beniamino
    Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Dentro del sistema de drenaje de una ciudad, el sistema de sumideros es el encargado de introducir en la red de alcantarillado las aguas de escorrentía producidas por las tormentas caídas. El diseño de dicho sistema de sumideros, la elección de los modelos adecuados y su ubicación es uno de los puntos fundamentales del sistema de drenaje. La hidráulica de estos sumideros ha recibido atención en los últimos años y cada vez más los fabricantes proporcionan la capacidad hidráulica de captación de cada sumidero. Pero estos datos suelen ser considerando agua limpia, mientras que en la realidad de la cuenca, numerosos sumideros pueden estar total o parcialmente colmatados, hecho que debería ser tenido en cuenta en los diseños. En este trabajo, se presenta una metodología para considerar los efectos hidráulicos sobre el sumidero derivados de la colmatación. A partir de una inspección de los sumideros de una cuenca, se buscan patrones de colmatación, formas repetitivas observadas en la colmatación de los sumideros, y la frecuencia de ocurrencia de los mismos. Se somete a ensayo hidráulico el sumidero colmatado, obteniéndose la cantidad de agua que puede ser captada por cada uno de ellos, y obteniéndose así el factor de reducción en la capacidad de captación a aplicar a cada uno de los patrones de colmatación y que puede ser utilizado en los estudios hidráulicos de escorrentía en la ciudad.

  • Methodologies to study the surface hydraulic behaviour of urban catchments during storm events

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Macchione, Francesco; Russo, Beniamino
    Water science and technology
    Date of publication: 2010-06
    Journal article

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    Une bonne connaissance du comportement hydraulique d'un bassin versant urbain et de ses écoulements en surface (avaloirs) représente une exigence essentielle pour garantir la sécurité du trafic et des piétons, ainsi qu’une gestion correcte du système d’assainissement. Dans de nombreux cas, la disposition des avaloirs se fait selon des critères de densité spatiale. En effet, un emplacement plus rationnel des avaloirs des bassins versants urbains doit être défini sur la base d’une analyse hydraulique précise de la relation entre les écoulements de rues et l’efficience hydraulique des avaloirs. Pour ce faire, on doit utiliser des données expérimentales et autres procédures qualifiées. De plus, nous manquons de critères de danger spécifiques en termes de hauteur d'eau et de vitesse d’écoulement maximum acceptables dans les rues sans risque pour les piétons. Cet article présente les résultats de deux campagnes expérimentales différentes. La première a été effectuée pour évaluer l’efficience hydraulique des avaloirs ; la seconde pour étudier la stabilité des piétons dans des conditions d’inondation urbaine. L’objectif était de proposer de nouveaux critères de danger. Sur la base des résultats expérimentaux, une méthodologie a été développée pour évaluer le risque d’inondation dans des zones urbaines au cours d’évènements pluvieux. Si l’on dispose d’une représentation topographique précise des zones urbaines, il est possible d’effectuer une simulation numérique 2D d’inondation urbaine au moyen d’équations complètes sur les eaux peu profondes. Grâce à cette approche, il est possible de calculer avec précision les rejets absorbés par les avaloirs au moyen de formules de rendement hydraulique. De cette manière, on peut élaborer des cartes de danger détaillées. Cet article présente une application numérique réalisée dans une rue de Barcelone. // A good knowledge of the hydraulic behaviour of an urban catchment and its surface drainage system is an essential requirement to guarantee traffic and pedestrian safety. In many cases, inlets have been situated according to spatial density criteria. Indeed a more rational location of inlets on urban catchments must be defined according to an accurate analysis of the relationship between street flow and inlet hydraulic efficiency. Moreover we lack specific hazard criteria in terms of the maximum acceptable flow depths and velocities on the streets that do not cause problems to pedestrians. In this paper the results of two different experimental campaigns are presented. The first was carried out to evaluate inlet hydraulic efficiency; the second was carried out to address the pedestrian stability in urban flood conditions, whose aim was to propose new hazard criteria. On the basis of the experimental results, a methodology was developed to assess flood hazard in urban areas during storm events. If a refined topographic representation of urban areas is available, a two-dimensional numerical simulation of urban flooding can be performed using complete shallow water equations. According to this approach a numerical application for flood hazard assessment in a street of Barcelona is shown.

  • Criterios de riesgo asociados a escorrentía urbana

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino
    Jornadas de Ingeniería del Agua
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Eficiencia hidráulica de rejillas transversales continuas

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino
    Jornadas de Ingeniería del Agua
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • GRUP DE RECERCA FLUMEN

     Horväth, Klaudia; Seco, Raquel Irene; Gutierrez Muñoyerro, Carlos; Ibáñez Paredes, Úrsula Ivette; Marti Cardona, Belen; Concha Jopia, Rodrigo Francisco; Ramos Fuertes, Anaïs; Arbat Bofill, Marina; Corestein Poupeau, Georgina Teresa; Aragón Hernández, José Luis; Russo, Beniamino; Niñerola Chifoni, Daniel; Prats Rodriguez, Jordi; Estrella Toral, Soledad; Buil Sanz, Juan Manuel; Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Pomares Abad, Juan; Sanchez Juny, Marti; Blade i Castellet, Ernest; Sanchez Tueros, Hans Paul; Felez Gutierrez, Luis Eduardo; Dolz Ripolles, Jose
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  • Hydraulic behavior of urban streets during storm events Comportamiento hidraulico de las calles durante lluvias extremas en zonas urbanas

     Gomez-Valentin, M; Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Macchione, F; Russo, Beniamino
    Ingeniería hidraúlica en México
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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  • Mobesca, anew software to desing inlet systems according to risk criteria related to surface runoff

     Russo, Beniamino; Martínez, P; Villanueva, P
    NOVATECH 2007
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Hydraulic efficiency of macro-inlets

     Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino
    NOVATECH 2007
    Presentation of work at congresses

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