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  • The wise cursor: assisted selection in 3D serious games

     Moya Santos, Sergio; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    The visual computer
    Date of publication: 2013-06
    Journal article

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    In recent years, the evolution of 3D graphics hardware and software has lead to a growing interest for serious games in three-dimensional virtual environments for learning, training, and rehabilitation. Many of these games are based on a first-person-shooter paradigm in which users navigate through the environment, select, and manipulate virtual objects. The target users of these applications are not necessarily usual gamers, and they often have difficulties in navigating and interacting in the 3D environment. This paper proposes the wise cursor, a new method for selection that improves the usability and accessibility of mouse-driven serious games in 3D environments. At each user click, the proposed method computes a list of objects candidates to be selected and their probability of being the desired one. Depending on the uncertainty of the probability distribution, either one object is selected or a mechanism to clarify the selection is proposed. In the former case, if the selected object is within the user avatar¿s scope, the action associated to it is realized, otherwise the application automatically navigates toward it. In this way, selection and navigation are eased. The empirical results of the usability tests show that this technique is fast, practical, and that it requires little user¿s skills. Thus, it can make serious games usable for a wider range of users who can concentrate on the training objectives without technological barriers.

    In recent years, the evolution of 3D graphics hardware and software has lead to a growing interest for serious games in three-dimensional virtual environments for learning, training, and rehabilitation. Many of these games are based on a first-person-shooter paradigm in which users navigate through the environment, select, and manipulate virtual objects. The target users of these applications are not necessarily usual gamers, and they often have difficulties in navigating and interacting in the 3D environment. This paper proposes the wise cursor, a new method for selection that improves the usability and accessibility of mouse-driven serious games in 3D environments. At each user click, the proposed method computes a list of objects candidates to be selected and their probability of being the desired one. Depending on the uncertainty of the probability distribution, either one object is selected or a mechanism to clarify the selection is proposed. In the former case, if the selected object is within the user avatar’s scope, the action associated to it is realized, otherwise the application automatically navigates toward it. In this way, selection and navigation are eased. The empirical results of the usability tests show that this technique is fast, practical, and that it requires little user’s skills. Thus, it can make serious games usable for a wider range of users who can concentrate on the training objectives without technological barriers.

  • Region-based illustrative visualization of multimodal datasets

     Abellán Moreno, Pascual; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Puig Puig, Ana
    Computerized medical imaging and graphics
    Date of publication: 2013-06-01
    Journal article

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    We present a rendering system for multiple overlapping volumes. The system is aimed at providing flexibility to merge data in different ways in different regions. For each region, users select one modality to be rendered alone or a pair of modalities to be merged. In fusion, the relative weights of each modality are defined with a 2D transfer function depending on the voxel's pair of property values. When one of the modalities has been pre-classified, a graph representation of the dataset is shown, and users select regions from it. Alternatively, users can define the regions interactively by painting on the volume. In both cases, they are allowed to assign a different fusion and shading functions to each region. In this way, illustrative images of the dataset can be easily generated applying effects of cutting away, ghosting and modality enhancement.

    We present as novel method for the exploration of multiple overlapping volumes that provides flexibility to merge data in different ways in different regions. In each region, either one of the modalities is rendered alone or the fusion of two modalities is shown. In the regions where data is fused, the relative weights of each modality are defined with a 2D transfer function depending on the voxel’s pair of property values. The regions can be defined interactively by painting on the volume. Alternatively, when one of the modalities has been pre-classified, a graph representation of the dataset is constructed, and regions can be defined as sets of voxels fulfilling a specific combination of classification criteria. In both cases, a different fusion and shading function can be defined for each region. In this way, illustrative images of the dataset can be easily generated applying effects of cutting away, ghosting and modality enhancement.

  • Assisted navigation for 3D serious games training

     Moya Santos, Sergio; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Congreso Internacional de Interacción Persona-Ordenador
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Serious games in 3D virtual environments are becoming a popular tool for professional training activities as well as for rehabilitation. Navigation in 3D is recognized as one of the activity which is more dificult to master in this environments. In particular, elder users, less familiar with 3D games often do not know how to walk through these environments. They get puzzled without having been able to address the real purpose of the game. In this paper, we propose diferent enhancement methods to make navigation in 3D easier, and we describe the design and implementation of an automatic navigation mode, usable when navigation is needed to reach objects in the 3D world but is not a goal of the game by itself. We compare the results of an evaluation test of these dierent methods. We conclude that, for non-usual gamers, automatic navigation is the faster and preferred mode, whereas gamers prefer to control navigation themselves. For non-automatic navigation, the performance is better when the cursor is xed in the view center point during locomotion. On the contrary, for still positions, a free cursor is preferable. Finally, restriction of the pitch angle in a solid angle that encompasses the objects related to the task is better than a free pitch angle rotation for still positions. During locomotion, fixing the pitch angle at the horizontal level enhances the navigation.

    Serious games in 3D virtual environments are becoming a popular tool for professional training activities as well as for rehabilitation. Navigation in 3D is recognized as one of the activity which is more dificult to master in this environments. In particular, elder users, less familiar with 3D games often do not know how to walk through these environments. They get puzzled without having been able to address the real purpose of the game. In this paper, we propose diferent enhancement methods to make navigation in 3D easier, and we describe the design and implementation of an automatic navigation mode, usable when navigation is needed to reach objects in the 3D world but is not a goal of the game by itself. We compare the results of an evaluation test of these di erent methods. We conclude that, for non-usual gamers, automatic navigation is the faster and preferred mode, whereas gamers prefer to control navigation themselves. For non-automatic navigation, the performance is better when the cursor is xed in the view center point during locomotion. On the contrary, for still positions, a free cursor is preferable. Finally, restriction of the pitch angle in a solid angle that encompasses the objects related to the task is better than a free pitch angle rotation for still positions. During locomotion, fixing the pitch angle at the horizontal level enhances the navigation.

  • Intelligent interactive volume classification

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Puig Puig, Anna; Escalera, Sergio; Salamó, Maria
    Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper defines an intelligent and interactive framework to classify multiple regions of interest from the original data on demand, without requiring any preprocessing or previous segmentation. The proposed intelligent and interactive approach is divided in three stages: visualize, training and testing. First, users visualize and label some samples directly on slices of the volume. Training and testing are based on a framework of Error Correcting Output Codes and Adaboost classifiers that learn to classify each region the user has painted. Later, at the testing stage, each classifier is directly applied on the rest of samples and combined to perform multi-class labeling, being used in the final rendering. We also parallelized the training stage using a GPU-based implementation for obtaining a rapid interaction and classification.

    This paper defines an intelligent and interactive framework to classify multiple regions of interest from the original data on demand, without requiring any preprocessing or previous segmentation. The proposed intelligent and interactive approach is divided in three stages: visualize, training and testing. First, users visualize and label some samples directly on slices of the volume. Training and testing are based on a framework of Error Correcting Output Codes and Adaboost classifiers that learn to classify each region the user has painted. Later, at the testing stage, each classifier is directly applied on the rest of samples and combined to perform multi-class labeling, being used in the final rendering. We also parallelized the training stage using a GPU-based implementation for obtaining a rapid interaction and classification.

  • Access to the full text
    Efficient complementary viewpoint selection in volume rendering  Open access

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Puig Puig, Anna; Escalera, Sergio; Salamó, Maria; Amoros, Oscar
    International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A major goal of visualization is to appropriately express knowledge of scientific data. Generally, gathering visual information contained in the volume data often requires a lot of expertise from the final user to setup the parameters of the visualization. One way of alleviating this problem is to provide the position of inner structures with different viewpoint locations to enhance the perception and construction of the mental image. To this end, traditional illustrations use two or three different views of the regions of interest. Similarly, with the aim of assisting the users to easily place a good viewpoint location, this paper proposes an automatic and interactive method that locates different complementary viewpoints from a reference camera in volume datasets. Specifically, the proposed method combines the quantity of information each camera provides for each structure and the shape similarity of the projections of the remaining viewpoints based on Dynamic Time Warping. The selected complementary viewpoints allow a better understanding of the focused structure in several applications. Thus, the user interactively receives feedback based on several viewpoints that helps him to understand the visual information. A live-user evaluation on different data sets show a good convergence to useful complementary viewpoints.

    A major goal of visualization is to appropriately express knowledge of scientific data. Generally, gathering visual information contained in the volume data often requires a lot of expertise from the final user to setup the parameters of the visualization. One way of alleviating this problem is to provide the position of inner structures with different viewpoint locations to enhance the perception and construction of the mental image. To this end, traditional illustrations use two or three different views of the regions of interest. Similarly, with the aim of assisting the users to easily place a good viewpoint location, this paper proposes an automatic and interactive method that locates different complementary viewpoints from a reference camera in volume datasets. Specifically, the proposed method combines the quantity of information each camera provides for each structure and the shape similarity of the projections of the remaining viewpoints based on Dynamic Time Warping. The selected complementary viewpoints allow a better understanding of the focused structure in several applications. Thus, the user interactively receives feedback based on several viewpoints that helps him to understand the visual information. A live-user evaluation on different data sets show a good convergence to useful complementary viewpoints.

  • Personalization of virtual environments navigation and tasks for neurorehabilitation

     Tost Pardell, Daniela; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Moya Santos, Sergio
    Date of publication: 2012-04-02
    Book chapter

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  • Interactive graphical design of 3D serious neurorehabilitation games

     Moya, Sergio; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Presence - Teleoperators and virtual environments
    Date of publication: 2012-12
    Journal article

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  • Juegos serios para el entretenimiento de cirugía cardiaca

     Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Pla Garcia, Nuria; Vigo Anglada, Marc; Solano Albajes, Luis; Eguia Gomez, Jose Luis; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Martinez Bayona, Jonas; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Animation of 3D Avatars for Rehabilitation of the Upper Limbs

     Moya, Sergio; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Campeny, Ricard; Ruiz, Marcel
    Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2011 Third International Conference on
    Date of publication: 2011-07-29
    Journal article

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    The paper presents a 3D Virtual Environment (VE) for neurorehabilitation of the upper limb. Patients move one of their arms trying to simulate concrete daily actions, such as grasping a bottle, opening a door or putting a book on a shelve. They wear a special garment that integrates four inertial sensors providing in real time information on the orientation of the patient’s shoulder, elbow and wrist. The VE is a complete scenario integrating all the objects needed to perform virtually the actions simulated by the patients. In the VE, patients are represented by 3D avatars that, using the data provided by the inertial sensors, reproduce in real time their arm movements. Since only the arm movement is monitorized, but neither the hand nor the trunk and the neck, the system must combine real movements with baked animations in order to show a realistic behavior of the 3D avatar. Moreover, it must take into account collisions between the 3D avatar and the virtual objects. Finally, it must detect when the patient is about to simulate an interaction with an object in order to realize it virtually. We describe the strategies that we have designed to provide these functionalities.

  • 3D pore analysis of sedimentary rocks

     Verges Garcia, Eduard; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Ramos, E.; Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Sedimentary geology
    Date of publication: 2011-03-01
    Journal article

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  • Exploration of porous structures with illustrative visualizations

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Verges Garcia, Eduard; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors
    Computers & graphics
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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  • Temporal run-length encoding: temporal coherence in rendering time-varying volume data

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date of publication: 2010-05-18
    Book

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  • Design of 3D Virtual Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Activities

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Campeny, Ricard; Moya, Sergio; Ruiz, Marcel
    International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications
    Presentation's date: 2010-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An Adaptive Cutaway with Volume Context Preservation

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Puig Puig, Ana
    Date of publication: 2009-11-26
    Book chapter

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    Knowledge expressiveness of scientific data is one of the most important visualization goals. However, current volume visualization systems require a lot of expertise from the final user. In this paper, we present a GPU-based ray casting interactive framework that computes two initial complementary camera locations and allows to select the focus interactively, on interesting structures keeping the volume’s context information with an adaptive cutaway technique. The adaptive cutaway surrounds the focused structure while preserving a depth immersive impression in the data set. Finally, we present a new brush widget to edit interactively the opening of the cutaway and to graduate the context in the final image.

  • Illustrative visualization of porous structures

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Verges Garcia, Eduard; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors
    SIMPOSIUM IBEROAMERICANO DE COMPUTACIÓN GRÁFICA
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • TEMPORAL COHERENCE IN RENDERING TIME-VARYING VOLUME DATA.

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Defense's date: 2009-03-06
    Department of Computer Science, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • PREVIRNEC: a cognitive telerehabilitation system based on Virtual Environments

     Tost Pardell, Daniela; Ferré, M; García, P; Tormos, J M; García, Alfredo; Grau Carrión, Sergi
    VIRTUAL REHABILITATION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Illustrative visualization of porous structures

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    SIMPOSIUM IBEROAMERICANO DE COMPUTACIÓN GRÁFICA
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Modelado, análisis y visualización de características de datos volumétricos en ingeniería biomédica

     Martinez Bayona, Jonas; Tost Pardell, Daniela; Pla Garcia, Nuria; Puig Puig, Ana; Vigo Anglada, Marc; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Verges Garcia, Eduard; Cruz Matias, Irving Alberto; Ferré Bergadà, Maria; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Time-varying multimodal volume rendering with 3d textures

     Abellán Moreno, Pascual; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Virtual Porosimeter

     Verges Garcia, Eduard; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Computer-aided design and applications
    Date of publication: 2008
    Journal article

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    Recently, the term Bio-CAD has appeared to refer to the modeling of biological processes. This work focuses on the analysis of structural properties such as porosity of bioimplants for bone reconstruction. Specifically, we present a method that, using 3D microCT images, simulates the behavior of a porosimeter, i.e. an instrument to measure the porous structure of samples. After segmentation, we apply a process, based on connected component labeling and skeleton computation, which produces a result comparable to the real porosimeter experiment.

  • 3D reconstruction and quantification of porous structures

     Verges Garcia, Eduard; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Computers & graphics
    Date of publication: 2008
    Journal article

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    In this paper, we describe the methodology that we have designed to quantify the pores distribution in bone implants and the empirical results that we have obtained with BioCAD designed scaffolds, microCT and confocal microscopy data. Our method is based on 3D digital topology properties of the porous structure. We segment the 3D images into three regions: exterior, bone and pore space. Next, we divide the pore space into pores and connection paths. We compute a graph of the pore space such that each node of the graph represents a pore, and an arc between two nodes indicates that the two pores are path-connected. On the basis of the graph and the segmented model, we are able to compute several properties of the material such as global porosity, effective porosity and radial pore distribution.

  • Bio-CAD analysis of porosity bioimplants

     Verges Garcia, Eduard; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    European Symposium on Biomedical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2008-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work we present two methods to compute the porosity from a μCT image. One is the virtual simulation of a porosimeter and the other is a sphere-based heuristic approach. Both methods obtain a graph representing the pore space.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Frame-to-frame coherent GPU splatting

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    IADIS International conference on computer graphics and visualization
    Presentation's date: 2008-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • 3d reconstrucction of bone implants porous space

     Vergès, E; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Española de Ingeniería Biomédica
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Frame-to-frame coherent GPU ray-casting for time-varying volume data

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Volume Modelling and Visualization 2007
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Frame-to-frame coherent GPU ray-casting for time-varying volume data

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Volume Modelling and Visualization 2007
    Presentation's date: 2007-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Frame-to-frame coherent GPU ray-casting for time-varying volume data

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Volume Modelling and Visualization 2007
    Presentation's date: 2007-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Image-space Sheet-Buffered Splatting on the GPU

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2007-03
    Report

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  • Virtual Porosimeter

     Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2007-12
    Report

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  • 3d reconstruction and quantification of porous structures

     Vergès, E; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    II Congreso Español de Informática
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • 3D RECONSTRUCTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF POROUS STRUCTURES

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    II Congreso Español de Informática
    Presentation's date: 2007-09-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Image-space Sheet-Buffered Splatting on the GPU

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2007
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • LASTER incorpora la solución SolidWorks en sus procesos de desarrollo

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Solano Albajes, Luis
    Autocad magazine
    Date of publication: 2007-02-01
    Journal article

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  • SolidWorks World 2007: diseña con visión

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Autocad magazine
    Date of publication: 2007-02-01
    Journal article

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  • Image-space shee-buffered splatting on the gpu

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    IADIs international journal on computer science and information systems
    Date of publication: 2007-10
    Journal article

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  • Image-space Sheet-Buffered Splatting on the GPU

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    IADIs international journal on computer science and information systems
    Date of publication: 2007-10
    Journal article

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  • Image-space Sheet-Buffered Splatting on the GPU

     Grau Carrión, Sergi
    IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2007
    Presentation's date: 2007-07-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Boolean operation in open-source blender project

     Freixas, M; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Silva, D
    IBERO AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM IN COMPUTER GRAPHICS. XVI CONGRESO ESPAÑOL DE INFORMÁTICA GRÁFICA (CEIG)
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • 3d reconstruction of bone implant poreous space

     Verges Garcia, Eduard; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Española de Ingeniería Biomédica
    Presentation's date: 2006-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Hardware and software improvements of volume splatting

     Vergès, E; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    IBERO-AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTER GRAPHICS
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Frame-to-frame coherence in image-aligned sheet-buffered splatting

     Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2006-06
    Report

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  • Access to the full text
    Hardware and software improvements of volume splatting  Open access

     Verges Garcia, Eduard; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2006-05
    Report

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    This paper proposes different hardware-based acceleration of the three classical splatting strategies: emph{composite-every-sample}, emph{object-space sheet-buffer} and emph{image-space sheet-buffer}.

  • Ray-casting time-varying volume data sets with frame-to-frame coherence

     Tost Pardell, Daniela; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Ferré, Maria; Puig Puig, Ana
    Visualization and Data Analysis
    Presentation's date: 2006
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Time-varying volume visualization  Open access

     Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Campos Miralles, Jordi; Ferré, Maria; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Puig Puig, Ana; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2005-07-22
    Report

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    Volume rendering is a very active research field in Computer Graphics because of its wide range of applications in various sciences, from medicine to flow mechanics. In this report, we survey a state-of-the-art on time-varying volume rendering. We state several basic concepts and then we establish several criteria to classify the studied works: IVR versus DVR, 4D versus 3D+time, compression techniques, involved architectures, use of parallelism and image-space versus object-space coherence. We also address other related problems as transfer functions and 2D cross-sections computation of time-varying volume data. All the papers reviewed are classified into several tables based on the mentioned classification and, finally, several conclusions are presented.

  • 3D reconstruction of a temporal sequence of a rabbit femur with a biomaterial implant

     Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2005-02
    Report

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  • VolumeEVM: A new approach for surface/volume integration

     Rodriguez Rojas, Jorge Ernesto; Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi
    Computers & graphics
    Date of publication: 2005-04
    Journal article

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  • 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF A TEMPORAL SEQUENCE OF A RABBIT FEMUR WITH A BIOMATERIAL IMPLANT

     Ayala Vallespi, M. Dolors; Grau Carrión, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela
    Date: 2004-05
    Report

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