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  • Determination of the overlap factor and its enhancement for medium-size tropospheric lidar systems: a ray-tracing approach

     Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Journal of applied remote sensing
    Date of publication: 2013-01-31
    Journal article

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    he problem of overlap factor (OVF) computation and its near-range sensitivity for medium-size aperture (f/10, f/11) bi-axial tropospheric lidar systems using ray-tracing simulation software is presented. The method revisits both detector and fiber optics coupling alternatives at the telescope focal-plane along with the insertion of a field lens. A sensitivity analysis is carried out as a function of laser divergence, field lens, and detector/fiber positions, detector size, and the fiber's core diameter and numerical aperture. The ray-tracing approach presented here is straightforward and a comparatively much simpler solution than analytical-based methods. Parametric simulations are carried out to show that both approaches are coincident. Insertion of a field lens proves to be an elegant and low sensitivity solution for OVF enhancement, particularly, in the near-range of the lidar. (C) 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

    The problem of overlap factor (OVF) computation and its near-range sensitivity for medium-size aperture ( f ∕ 10 , f ∕ 11 ) bi-axial tropospheric lidar systems using ray-tracing sim- ulation software is presented. The method revisits both detector and fiber optics coupling alter- natives at the telescope focal-plane along with the insertion of a field lens. A sensitivity analysis is carried out as a function of laser divergence, field lens, and detector/fiber positions, detector size, and the fiber ’ s core diameter and numerical aperture. The ray-tracing approach presented here is straightforward and a comparatively much simpler solution than analytical-based meth- ods. Parametric simulations are carried out to show that both approaches are coincident. Insertion of a field lens proves to be an elegant and low sensitivity solution for OVF enhancement, par- ticularly, in the near-range of the lidar

  • Study on aerosol properties over Madrid (Spain) by multiple instrumentation during SPALI10 lidar campaign

     Molero, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Fernández, J.A.; Amodeo, Aldo; Tomás Martinez, Sergio; Mattis, I.; Granados, M; Giunta, Aldo; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Lange, Diego; Wagner, F.; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Kumar, Dhiraj; Giner Nos, Joaquin Jose; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    Óptica pura y aplicada
    Date of publication: 2012-11-19
    Journal article

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    Cuatro sistemas lidar Raman multifrecuencia (Madrid, Granada, Barcelona y Evora), tomaron medidas simultáneamente a un sistema de referencia (Potenza) para verificar su funcionamiento durante la campaña de intercomparación: SPALI10, (SPAin Lidar Intercomparison 2010) que tuvo lugar en Madrid entre el 18 de Octubre y el 5 de Noviembre de 2010. Estos sistemas lidar Raman multifrecuencia proporcionan propiedades ópticas de los aerosoles con resolución vertical. Los perfiles suministrados por los sistemas lidar se compararon con información complementaria proporcionada por otra instrumentación, tal como la distribución de tamaños de los aerosoles medida de manera continua a nivel de superficie o la caracterización de la columna de aerosoles

  • Backscatter error bounds for the elastic lidar two-component inversion algorithm

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Frasier, S.; Kumar, Dhiraj; Lange Vega, Diego; Gregorio López, Eduard; Sicard, Michaël
    IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing
    Date of publication: 2012-11
    Journal article

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    Total backscatter-coefficient inversion error bounds for the two-component lidar inversion algorithm (so-called Fernald's or Klett-Fernald-Sasano's method) are derived in analytical form in response to the following three error sources: 1) the measurement noise; 2) the user uncertainty in the backscatter-coefficient calibration; and 3) the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio. The following two different types of error bounds are presented: 1) approximate error bounds using first-order error propagation and 2) exact error bounds using a total-increment method. Both error bounds are formulated in explicit analytical form, which is of advantage for practical physical sensitivity analysis and computational implementation. A Monte Carlo approach is used to validate the error bounds at 355-, 532-, and 1064-nm wavelengths.

    Total backscatter-coefficient inversion error bounds for the two-component lidar inversion algorithm (so-called Fernald's or Klett-Fernald-Sasano's method) are derived in analytical form in response to the following three error sources: 1) the measurement noise; 2) the user uncertainty in the backscatter-coefficient calibration; and 3) the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio. The following two different types of error bounds are presented: 1) approximate error bounds using first-order error propagation and 2) exact error bounds using a total-increment method. Both error bounds are formulated in explicit analytical form, which is of advantage for practical physical sensitivity analysis and computational implementation. A Monte Carlo approach is used to validate the error bounds at 355-, 532-, and 1064-nm wavelengths.

  • Backscattered signal level and SNR validation methodology for tropospheric elastic lidars

     Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2012-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A methodology aimed at validating elastic-channel optical power return and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels estimated at the link-budget design stage of a tropospheric lidar against the measured ones is presented. A Rayleigh fit along with knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol transmittance and emission energy is used to theoretically estimate the net voltage responsivity. As a further refinement, when simultaneous analog and photon-counting acquisition is available, the method formulates a rough estimate of the optical losses in the receiving chain.

    A methodology aimed at validating elastic-channel optical power return and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels estimated at the link-budget design stage of a tropospheric lidar against the measured ones is presented. A Rayleigh fit along with knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol transmittance and emission energy is used to theoretically estimate the net voltage responsivity. As a further refinement, when simultaneous analog and photon-counting acquisition is available, the method formulates a rough estimate of the optical losses in the receiving chain. Preliminary validation of the link-budget-assessed optical power and SNR levels for the 1064-nm channel of the Remote Sensing Lab. (RSLab) lidar is discussed.

  • Utilization of a field lens to improve the overlap function in lidar systems using optical fibers

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Lange Vega, Diego
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Power budget and performance assessment for the RSLAB multispectral elastic/raman lidar system

     Kumar, Dhiraj; Lange, Diego; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Tomas, Sergio; Sicard, Michaël; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The need of a multi-spectral lidar has widely been experienced in last few years with a view to invert the optical and microphysical properties of aerosols and their impact on the climate change. As a part of the EARLINET-GALION objectives, a joint effort has already been made by the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). The EARLINET advanced standard of 3+2-channel configuration for lidar instruments (3+2 standing for 3 elastic channels and 2 respective Raman channels) enables retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties. An overview of the new RSLAB 3+2+1 multispectral lidar system, therefore, is presented in terms of power budget estimation for all the reception channels and overall system performance, that is, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and maximum sounding range achieved.

  • Seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties observed by means of a Raman lidar at an EARLINET site over Northeastern Spain

     Sicard, Michaël; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Batet Torrell, Oscar; Barrios Porras, Ricardo Alfonso; Kumar, Dhiraj; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Date of publication: 2011-01-11
    Journal article

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  • Use of a field lens for improving the overlap function of a lidar system employing an optical fiber in the receiver assembly

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Applied optics
    Date of publication: 2011-10-01
    Journal article

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  • Aerosols, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Rodriguez Gomez, Alejandro Antonio; Lange Vega, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Optimised data-gluing method for mixed analog/photon-counting lidar signals

     Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Workshop on Lidar Measurements in Latin America
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In atmospheric LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) remote sensing, the dynamic range of the return power signals can span up to five orders of magnitude. Modern acquisition systems such as those based on LicelTM transient recorders combine a dual acquisition mode in which the return signal is recorded simultaneously in both analog (analog-to-digital (AD) conversion) and photon-counting (PC) modes. Although both data records can be analyzed separately, their combination obtained through gluing gives the advantage of the high linearity of the AD conversion for high light-level signals (especially in the near range) and the high sensitivity of the PC mode for low light-level signals (in the far range). Recently, eruptions of volcanoes such as Eyjafjalla (Iceland) in 2010, Grímsvötn (Iceland Puyehue (Argentina) Nabro (Eritrea) and Mount Lokon (Indonesia) in 2011 have yielded emergency situations with a strong economical cost due to human evacuation and/or air traffic interruption. Volcanic aerosols are first injected in the troposphere and often reach the stratosphere where they can reside for several years. The mixed analog/photo-counting acquisition approach is particularly suitable for the detection of volcanic aerosols in both the troposphere (near/mid range) and the stratosphere (far range). In this line, a case study showing volcanic aerosols from the Nabro volcano (Eritrea, 2011) in the stratosphere and simultaneously Saharan dust in the troposphere over the multi-spectral Barcelona lidar station during the period 27 June ¿ 1 July 2011 is presented. The benefits of the proposed gluing technique will be shown through the comparison of analog, PC, and glued backscatter-coefficient time series. Existing gluing algorithms solve the fitting coefficients by matching both analog and PC data over a predefined spatial range (or equivalently, over a predefined upper and lower counting rate) depending on which kind of photodetector (usually a photomultiplier) is being used. In this work, an enhanced data-gluing formulation is presented. The method automatically finds the spatial range where both analog and PC signals are more similar based on Euclidian distance minimization over piece-wise range intervals along the whole acquisition spatial range.

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    Six-channel polychromator design and implementation for the UPC elastic/Raman LIDAR  Open access

     Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Lange, Diego; Muñoz, Constantino; Tomás, Sergio; Gregorio, Eduard
    SPIE International Symposium - Remote Sensing Europe
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A 6-channel dichroic-based polychromator is presented as the spectrally selective unit for the U.P.C. elastic/Raman lidar. Light emission is made at 355-nm (ultraviolet, UV), 532-nm (visible, VIS) and 1064-nm (near infrared, NIR) wavelengths. In reception, the polychromator is the spectral separation unit that separates the laser backscattered composite return into 3 elastic (355, 532, 1064-nm wavelengths) and 3 Raman channels (386.7, 607.4 and 407.5-nm (water-vapor) wavelengths). The polychromator houses photo-multiplier tubes (PMT) for all the channels except for the NIR one, which is avalanche photodiode (APD) based. The optomechanical design uses 1-inch optics and Eurorack standards. The APD-based receiver uses a XY-axis translation/elevation micro-positioning stage due to its comparatively small active area and motorised neutral density filters are used in all PMT-based channels to avoid detector saturation. The design has been specially optimized to provide homogeneous spatial light distribution onto the photodetectors and good mechanical repeatability. All channels are acquired in mixed analog and photon-counting mode using Licel® transient recorders, which are controlled by means of a user friendly LabVIEW TM interface. The paper focuses on the main polychromator optical design parameters, that is, light collimation trade-offs, end-to-end transmissivity, net channel responsivity, light distribution and spot size onto the photodetectors. The polychromator along with the rest of the U.P.C. lidar system has successfully been tested during a recent lidar system intercomparison campaign carried out in Madrid (Spain) during Oct. 2010.

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    Seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties observed by means of an elastic-Raman lidar over Northeastern Spain  Open access

     Sicard, Michaël; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Tomás Martinez, Sergio; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Batet Torrell, Oscar; Barrios Porras, Ricardo Alfonso; Kumar, Dhiraj
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics discussions
    Date of publication: 2010-06-01
    Journal article

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    The annual and seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties observed by means of an elastic-Raman lidar over Northeastern Spain has been assessed. The lidar representativeness has first been checked against un-photometer measurements in terms of aerosol optical thickness. Then the annual cycle and the seasonal variability of the planetary boundary layer aerosol optical thickness and its fraction compared to the columnar optical thickness, the lidar ratio, the backscatter-related A° ngstro¨m exponent and the planetary boundary layer height have been analyzed and discussed. Winter and summer mean profiles of extinction, backscatter and lidar ratio retrieved with the Raman algorithm have been presented. The analysis shows the impact of most of the natural events (Saharan dust intrusions, wildfires, etc.) and meteorological situations (summer anticyclonic situation, the formation of the Iberian thermal low, winter longrange transport from North Europe and/or North America, re-circulation flows, etc.) occurring in the Barcelona area. A detail study of a special event including a combined intrusion of Saharan dust and biomass-burning particles has proven the suitability of combining nighttime Raman- and daytime pure elastic-inversions to discriminate spatially different types of aerosols and to follow their spatial and temporal evolution.

  • LIDARES ELASTICO-RAMAN: Integracion,procesado de datos y explotacion

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Sicard, Michaël; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Kumar, Dhiraj; Lange Vega, Diego; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Monitoring of the Eyjafjalla volcanic plume at four lidar stations over the Iberian Peninsula: 6 to 8 May 2010  Open access

     Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; Sicard, Michaël; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Kumar, Dhiraj; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Molero, Francisco; Tomás, S.; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Silva, A. M.; Wagner, F.
    Reunión Española de Ciencia y Tecnología de Aerosoles
    Presentation's date: 2010-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Lidar measurements were performed in the framework of the EARLINET and SPALINET networks during the eruption of Eyjafjalla volcano (Iceland) since 14 April 2010. The profiles of the aerosol optical properties, namely backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratio and Angström exponent, show the presence of volcanic aerosol layers over all SPALINET stations since 5 May. The volcanic particles were monitored both within the planetary boundary layer and in decoupled layers up to 8 km agl over the Iberian Peninsula. This is the first time that the spatial and temporal distributions of volcanic aerosols have been studied with active remote sensing techniques over the Iberian Peninsula.

  • Seguimiento de las cenizas del Eyjafjalla sobre la Península Ibérica por la red de lidares hispano-portuguesa SPALINET

     Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Molero, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Silva, A.M.; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Wagner, F.; Bolarín, Jose Miguel; Requena, Alberto
    Congreso Nacional del Medio Ambiente
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La reciente erupción del volcán Eyjafjallajökull es una muestra – extremada, pero de probabilidad no despreciable – de la influencia que los aerosoles atmosféricos pueden tener en la vida diaria de miles de personas y en la economía mundial. Este acontecimiento ha sido seguido desde tierra por – entre otros instrumentos – radares láser (lidares) que han permitido determinar la evolución en el espacio y el tiempo de las nubes de ceniza proyectadas por el volcán y han proporcionado información de valor a las agencias meteorológicas y a las administraciones responsables de la seguridad de la navegación aérea.

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    Lidar ratio estimation using a two-point calibration in an turbid layer aloft  Open access

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Sicard, Michaël; Tomas, Sergio; Kumar, Dhiraj
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    On the lidar ratio estimation from the synergy between aeronet sun-photometer data and elastic lidar inversion  Open access

     Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Tomas, Sergio
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Long-term aerosol and cloud database from correlative EARLINET-CALIPSO observations  Open access

     Hiebsch, Anja; Wandinger, Ulla; Ansmann, Albert; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Madonna, Fabio; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Mona, Lucia; Apituley, Arnoud; Giunta, Aldo; Linné, Holger; Mattis, I.; Serikov, I.; Wilson, K.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Balis, Dimitris; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Giannakaki, E.; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, M.; Schnell, Franziska; Stoyanov, Dimitar Vassilev; Grigorov, I. Ivan; Rizi, Vicenzo; Iarlori, M.; Molero, Francisco; Mamouri, R.E.; Papayannis, Alexander; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Perrone, Maria-Rita; Tomás Martinez, Sergio; Kumar, Dhiraj; Spinelli, N.; Wang, Xuan
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, performs correlative observations during CALIPSO overpasses based on a sophisticated measurement strategy since June 2006. Within a dedicated activity supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), sixteen EARLINET stations contributed about 1500 measurements during an intensive observational period from May 2008 to October 2009. From these measurements, we establish a long-term aerosol and cloud database of correlative EARLINET-CALIPSO observations. This database shall provide a basis for homogenizing long-term space-borne observations conducted with different lidar instruments operating at different wavelengths on various platforms over the next decade(s). The database is also used to study the quality and representativeness of satellite lidar cross sections along an orbit against long-term lidar network observations on a continental scale.

  • Near-Real time analysis of seismic data volcanoes: software implementatioins of time sequence data analysis

     Vila, J; Tarrega, R Ortiz M; Macia Jove, Ramon; Garcia, Alfredo; Kumar, Dhiraj; Correig, A M
    Natural hazards and earth system sciences
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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  • Pseudo-emulsion based hollow fibber strip dispersion (PEHFSD) techniques: Novel methodology for gold recovery from base metals in cyanide media

     Sonawane, Jagannath V.; Kumar, Dhiraj; Sastre Requena, Ana Maria
    AICHE journal
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Intercomparison of spanish advanced lidars in the framework of EARLINET

     Sicard, Michaël; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Gregorio Lopez, Eduard; Kumar, Dhiraj; Tomás, S; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Molero, Francisco; Pujadas, M; Guerrero, JL; Alados, L; Pedrós, R; Martínez, JA
    IEEE international Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Towards an Analytical Solution for Axial Piston Pump Leakage and Output Flow Ripple

     Bergadà Granyó, Josep Maria; Watton, J; Kumar, Dhiraj
    Ninth International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and visualization.
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Engineering of a water-vapour, Raman, elastic-backscatter Lidar at the Technical University of Catalonia (Spain)

     Kumar, Dhiraj; Sicard, Michaël; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing II
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Analysis of the unrest of active volcanoes using variations of the base level noise seismic spectrum

     Vila, J; Macia Jove, Ramon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Ortiz, R; Correig, H Moreno & A M
    Journal of volcanology and geothermal research
    Date of publication: 2006-01
    Journal article

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  • On the use of microseismic noise to report the unrest of active volcanoes

     Vila, J; Macia Jove, Ramon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Ortiz, R; Correig, Moreno H & A M
    European Seismological Comission. General Assembly
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Multi-disciplinary monitoring of active volcanoes: time sequence data analysis in near-real time

     Vila, J; Macia Jove, Ramon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Correig, Ortiz R & A M
    European Seismological Comission. General Assembly
    Presentation of work at congresses

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