We discuss bi-harmonic fields which approximate signed distance fields. We conclude that the bi-harmonic field approximation can be a powerful tool for mesh completion in general and complex cases. We present an adaptive, multigrid algorithm to extrapolate signed distance fields. By defining a volume mask in a closed region bounding the area that must be repaired, the algorithm computes a signed distance field in well-defined regions and uses it as an over-determined boundary condition constraint for the biharmonic field computation in the remaining regions. The algorithm operates locally, within an expanded bounding box of each hole, and therefore scales well with the number of holes in a single, complex model. We discuss this approximation in practical examples in the case of triangular meshes resulting from laser scan acquisitions which require massive hole repair. We conclude that the proposed algorithm is robust and general, and is able to deal with complex topological cases
In this paper, we present an inexpensive approach to create highly detailed reconstructions of the landscape surrounding a road. Our method is based on a space-efficient semi-procedural representation of the terrain and vegetation supporting high-quality real-time rendering not only for aerial views but also at road level. We can integrate photographs along selected road stretches. We merge the point clouds extracted from these photographs with a low-resolution digital terrain model through a novel algorithm which is robust against noise and missing data. We pre-compute plausible locations for trees through an algorithm which takes into account perceptual cues. At runtime we render the reconstructed terrain along with plants generated procedurally according to pre-computed parameters. Our rendering algorithm ensures visual consistency with aerial imagery and thus it can be integrated seamlessly with current virtual globes.
Chica, A.; Fairen, M.; Pelechano, N. Annual Conference of the European Association for Computer Graphics p. 65-72 DOI: 10.2312/conf/EG2012/education/065-072 Presentation's date: 2012-05-17 Presentation of work at congresses
Callieri, M.; Chica, A.; Dellepiane, M.; Besora, I.; Corsini, M.; Moyés, J.; Ranzuglia, G.; Scopigno, R.; Brunet, P. ACM journal on computing and cultural heritage Vol. 3, num. 4, p. 14:1-14:20 DOI: 10.1145/1957825.1957827 Date of publication: 2011-04 Journal article
The dichotomy between full detail representation and the efficient management of data digitization is still a big issue in the context of the acquisition and visualization of 3D objects, especially in the field of the cultural heritage. Modern scanning devices enable very detailed geometry to be acquired, but it is usually quite hard to apply these technologies to large artifacts. In this article we present a project aimed at virtually reconstructing the impressive (7 × 11 m.) portal of the Ripoll Monastery, Spain.
The monument was acquired using triangulation laser scanning technology, producing a dataset of 2212 range maps for a total of more than 1 billion triangles. All the steps of the entire project are described, from the acquisition planning to the final setup for dissemination to the public. We show how time-of-flight laser scanning data can be used to speed-up the alignment process.
In addition we show how, after creating a model and repairing imperfections, an interactive and immersive setup enables the
public to navigate and display a fully detailed representation of the portal. This article shows that, after careful planning and with the aid of state-of-the-art algorithms, it is now possible to preserve and visualize highly detailed information, even for very large surfaces.
In this paper, we present an efficient approach for the interactive rendering of large-scale urban models, which can be integrated seamlessly with virtual globe applications. Our scheme fills the gap between standard approaches for distant views of digital terrains and the polygonal models required for close-up views. Our work is oriented towards city models with real photographic textures of the building facades. At the heart of our approach is a
multi-resolution tree of the scene defining multi-level relief impostors. Key ingredients of our approach include the
pre-computation of a small set of zenithal and oblique relief maps that capture the geometry and appearance of the buildings inside each node, a rendering algorithm combining relief mapping with projective texture mapping which uses only a small subset of the pre-computed relief maps, and the use of wavelet compression to simulate
two additional levels of the tree. Our scheme runs considerably faster than polygonal-based approaches while producing images with higher quality than competing relief-mapping techniques. We show both analytically and empirically that multi-level relief impostors are suitable for interactive navigation through large urban models.
This paper presents the project of the virtual reconstruction and inspection of the "Portalada", the entrance of the Ripoll Monastery. In a first step, the monument of 7 x 11 meters was acquired using triangulation laser scanning technology, producing a dataset of more than 2000 range maps for a total of more than one billion triangles. After alignment and registration, a nearly complete digital model with 173M triangles and a sampling density of the
order of one millimeter was produced and repaired. The paper describes the model acquisition and construction, the use of specific scalable algorithms for model repair and simplification, and then focuses on the design of a hierarchical data structure for data managing and view-dependent navigation of this huge dataset on a PC. Finally, the paper describes the setup for a usable, user-friendly and immersive system that induces a presence perception in the visitors.
In this paper, we present a new visibility-based feature extraction algorithm
from discrete models as dense point clouds resulting from laser scans. Based on the observation that one can characterize local
properties of the surface by what can be seen by an imaginary creature on the surface, we propose algorithms that extract features using an intermediate representation of the model as a discrete volume for computational efficiency. We describe an efficient algorithm for computing the visibility map among voxels, based on the properties of a discrete erosion. The visibility information obtained
in this first step is then used to extract the model components (faces, edges and vertices) —which may be curved— and to compute the topological connectivity graph in a very efficient and robust way. The results are discussed through several examples.
Besora, I.; Brunet, P.; Callieri, M.; Chica, A.; Corsini , M.; Dellepiane, M.; Morales, D.; Moyés, J.; Ranzuglia, G.; Scopigno, R. International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission p. 89-96 Presentation's date: 2008 Presentation of work at congresses
The dichotomy between detail representation and data management is still a big issue in the context of the acquisition and visualization of 3D objects, especially in the field of Cultural Heritage. New technologies give the possibility to acquire very detailed geometry, but very often
it’s very hard to process the amount of data produced. In this paper we present a project which aimed at virtually reconstructing the impressive (7x11 m.) portal of the Ripoll
Monastery, Spain. The monument was acquired using triangulation laser scanning technology, producing a dataset of more than 2000 range maps for a total of more than 1 billion triangles. All the steps of the entire project are described, from the acquisition planning to the final setup for the dissemination to the public. In particular, we show how timeof-flight laser scanning data can be used to obtain a speed
up in the alignment process, and how, after model creation and imperfections repairing, an interactive and immersive setup gives the public the possibility to navigate and visualize the high detail representation of the portal. This paper shows that, after careful planning and with the aim of new
algorithms, it’s now possible to preserve and visualize the highly detailed information provided by triangulation laser
scanning also for very large surfaces.
We explore the automatic recovery of solids from their volumetric discretizations. In particular, we propose an approach, called Pressing, for smoothing isosurfaces extracted from binary volumes while recovering their large planar regions (flats). Pressing yields a surface that is guaranteed to contain the samples of the volume classified as interior and exclude those classified as exterior. It uses global optimization to identify flats and constrained bilaplacian smoothing to eliminate sharp features and high-frequencies from the rest of the isosurface. It recovers sharp edges between flat regions and between flat and smooth regions. Hence, the resulting isosurface is usually a much more accurate approximation of the original solid than isosurfaces produced by previously proposed approaches. Furthermore, the segmentation of the isosurface into flat and curved faces and the sharp/smooth labelling of their edges may be valuable for shape recognition, simplification, compression, and various reverse engineering and manufacturing applications.
Since the publication of the original Marching Cubes algorithm, numerous variations have been proposed for guaranteeing water-tight constructions of triangulated approximations of isosurfaces. Most approaches divide the 3D space into cubes that each occupy the space between eight neighboring samples of a regular lattice. The portion of the isosurface inside a cube may be computed independently
of what happens in the other cubes, provided that the constructions for each pair of neighboring cubes agree along their common face. The portion of the isosurface associated with a cube may consist of one
or more connected components, which we call sheets. The topology and combinatorial complexity of the isosurface is influenced by three types of decisions made during its construction: (1) how to connect the four intersection points on each ambiguous face, (2) how to form interpolating sheets for cubes with more than one loop, and (3) how to triangulate each sheet. To determine topological properties, it is only relevant whether the samples are inside or outside the object, and not their precise value, if there is one. Previously reported techniques make these decisions based on local —per cube— criteria, often using precomputed look-up tables or simple construction rules. Instead, we propose global strategies for
optimizing several topological and combinatorial measures of the isosurfaces: triangle count, genus, and number of shells. We describe efficient implementations of these optimizations and the auxiliary data
structures developed to support them.
The computation of the largest planar region approximating a 3D object is an important problem with wide applications in modeling and rendering. Given a voxelization of the 3D object, we propose an efficient algorithm to solve a discrete version of this problem. The input of the algorithm is the set of grid edges connecting the interior and the exterior of the object (called sticks). Using a voting-based approach, we compute the plane that slices the largest number of sticks and is orientation-compatible with these sticks. The robustness and efficiency of our approach rests on the use of two different parameterizations of the planes with suitable properties. The first of these is exact and is used to retrieve precomputed local solutions of the problem. The second one is discrete and is used in a hierarchical voting scheme to compute the global maximum. This problem has diverse applications that range from finding object signatures to generating simplified models. Here we demonstrate the merits of the algorithm for efficiently computing an optimized set of textured impostors for a given polygonal model.
Since the publication of the original Marching Cubes algorithm, numerous variations have been proposed for guaranteeing water-tight constructions of triangulated approximations of iso-surfaces.
Most approaches divide the 3D space into cubes that each occupies the space between eight neighboring samples of a regular lattice. The portion of the iso-surface inside a cube may be computed independently of what happens in the other cubes, provided that the constructions for each pair of neighboring cubes agree along their common face. The portion of the iso-surface associated with a cube may consist of one or more connected components, which we call sheets. We distinguish three types of decisions in the construction of the iso-surface connectivity: (1) how to split the X-faces, which have alternating in/out samples, (2) how many sheets to use in a cube, and (3) how to triangulate each sheet. Previously reported techniques make these decisions based on local criteria, often using pre-computed look-up tables or simple construction rules. Instead, we propose global strategies for optimizing several topological and combinatorial measures of the isosurfaces: triangle count, genus, and number of shells. We describe efficient implementations of these optimizations and the auxiliary data structures developed to support them.