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  • Full-spectrum APD measurement of transient interferences in time domain

     Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility
    Vol. 56, num. 6, p. 1352-1360
    DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2014.2352393
    Date of publication: 2014-12-01
    Journal article

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    Radiated transient interferences produce severe errors to digital communication systems. Conventional measurements defined in the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards are not sufficient to predict the impact of this impulsive noise on the quality of a digital system, as measurements were originally defined to protect analogue communication systems. Measurement detectors and methods based on reaching the statistical of the interference have been studied as the best option to evaluate transient interferences. For a properly EMC emissions evaluation, an amplitude probability detector (APD) has been recommended as the best option, since APD results have been correlated with bit error probability. However, carrying out APD measurements using electromagnetic interference (EMI) receivers has strong inconvenience. One of the main limitations is that measurement can only be performed with the preset filters available at the EMI receiver, which sometimes are different from the communication bandwidths causing an incorrect estimation on the degradation produced. Another restriction is the elapsed time needed to acquire the statistical APD measurement at each frequency band. This document presents a methodology to obtain the APD measurement at any frequency band employing two single time-domain oscilloscope captures. The developed measurement method makes it possible to obtain the APD at any frequency band achieving as good results as the ones acquired from EMI receivers. To show the effectiveness of the time-domain method, an exhaustive validation study is presented, in which white Gaussian noise and several impulsive interferences are evaluated at frequencies from 50 MHz up to 1 GHz.

  • Time-domain electromagnetic interference measurement system for intermittent disturbances

     Costa Godo, Gerard; Pous Sola, Marc; Atienza Picola, Andreu; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 833-837
    DOI: 10.1109/EMCEurope.2014.6931019
    Presentation's date: 2014-09-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In Electromagnetic Compatibility emission measurements, a common problem takes place when equipment producing intermittent disturbances are measured according to standard procedures. In many cases, it is impossible to capture the maximum emission using conventional receivers with only one or several sweeps. A significant measurement improvement is possible when time-domain captures and post-processing implementing digital fast Fourier transform (DFT) is used to obtain the frequency spectrum. In addition, the time-domain method offers the possibility to capture all the spectrum frequency range of one single event and evaluate rapidly all the different functional modes of a complex EUT. In this paper, the time-domain method is described and validated for conducted emissions test. For the validation proposes, a multisine signal is measured using the developed method and the results are compared with results acquire from an EMI receiver. Finally, after validation, the time-domain method is applied to complex equipment observing the main advantages that the developed method provides.

  • Use of reference limits in the Feature Selective Validation (FSV) method

     Jauregui Telleria, Ricardo Ignacio; Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 1031-1036
    DOI: 10.1109/EMCEurope.2014.6931054
    Presentation's date: 2014-09-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a method for taking into account reference limits when the Feature Selective method (FSV) is applied. Nowadays, there is a long line of research that underlines the important role played by the FSV to perform an objective validation process. However, until now, there has been no consideration of a reference level in the validation process. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the FSV values when a reference limit is contemplated. We demonstrate the importance of this technique in the validation criteria for the Computational Electromagnetics and, more particularly, in the EMC comparison process. Finally, in order to show the application and the importance of the method, two real cases, considering different reference levels, are analysed.

  • APD radiated transient measurements produced by electric sparks employing time-domain captures

     Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 813-817
    DOI: 10.1109/EMCEurope.2014.6931016
    Presentation's date: 2014-09-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Electric sparks phenomena produce electromagnetic radiated transient noise which is one of the main interference causes that disturb digital communication systems such as DVB-T or GSM-R. Detectors and methodologies defined at the EMC harmonized standards are not sufficient to measure and characterize properly this type of interference noise. Otherwise, amplitude probability distribution (APD) detector is an appropriate measurement to reach the main parameters of impulsive interferences; as in addition to acquire the amplitude of the disturbance, it provides statistical information. Moreover, the APD diagram of an interference has been related to the bit error probability of some digital coherent radio receivers. In this paper, an ESD spark generator according to EN 61000-4-2 has been employed to produce radiated transient interferences to evaluate the impact over the APD results considering several frequency bands. Several APD measurements have been carried out employing an EMI receiver and also an oscilloscope for validation propose. The radiated transient produced by the sparks has been evaluated at GSM-R and TETRA frequency bands. Results shows that GSM-R system can be interfered by ESD electric sparks and emphasize the powerful capabilities of the time-domain procedure.

  • Application of the feature selective validation method to pattern recognition

     Ventosa Llopart, Josep Oriol; Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando; Jauregui Telleria, Ricardo Ignacio
    IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility
    Vol. 56, num. 4, p. 808-816
    DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2013.2291494
    Date of publication: 2014-08-01
    Journal article

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    Pattern recognition is a mature field; however, in recent years it has developed a special interest. Many methods have been developed exclusively focusing on this subject; all of them, however, are centered on certain types of patterns. In this paper, a new method, which aims to be as flexible as possible, is proposed. This technique is based on a validation standard method used in electromagnetic compatibility named feature selective validation. The final objective of developing the algorithm is to make it adaptable to diverse types of patterns. An application on the recognition of transient patterns is exposed as an example. Nevertheless, a wide range of other types of signals is likely to be treated with the same logic.

  • Prediction of the impact of transient disturbances in real-time digital wireless communication systems

     Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine
    Vol. 3, num. 3, p. 76-82
    DOI: 10.1109/MEMC.2014.6924332
    Date of publication: 2014-07-01
    Journal article

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    In this paper the simulation methodology has been useful to establish the effect of a transient interference coupled to a digital communication system. An RFID system according to ISO 14443 type B standard is interfered by transient interference according to EN 61000-4-4 standard producing decision errors. The usage of the software tools employed to analyze the distortion of digital communication systems in convergence of the EM simulation software is a powerful methodology to quantify the degradation of a real digital communication system.

  • Co-simulation methodology to evaluate digital communication systems interfered by transients

     Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 665-670
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper a method combining different types of simulation is used to evaluate transient interferences over a digital communication system at its frequency band. The method combines different simulation stages; the first one is an electromagnetic simulation, with FDTD numerical method, which is carried out to establish the level of the interference coupled to the digital communication system; at the second stage, the simulation of the transmitted data at the communication system is performed introducing the EM interference calculated at the first stage. The result of this co-simulation will be a BER and other useful indicators to quantify the degradation produced by the transient interference. To show the effectiveness of the co-simulation method first of all the method is validated comparing the results with other evaluation techniques, measuring a real interference over an RFID system. The RFID system is according to the ISO 14443 type B standard, and the interference generated is a burst according to 61000-4-4. Once the co-simulation method is validated, the co-simulation system is used to quantify and decide if an EMC redesign technique of the previous scenario is efficient enough to avoid degradation at the RFID system produced by the burst transient interference.

  • IND60 EMC - Improved EMC test methods in industrial environments

     Silva Martinez, Fernando; Pous Sola, Marc; Azpúrua Auyanet, Barón Marco Aurelio; Atienza Picola, Andreu; Aragon Homar, Marc
    Competitive project

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    Using smartphone bases biodevices for analyzing physiological, psychological and behavioral user’s habits  Open access

     Guede Fernandez, Federico; Pous Sola, Marc; Garcia Gonzalez, Miquel Angel; Capdevila Ortis, Lluís; Ramos Castro, Juan Jose; Fernandez Chimeno, Mireya
    International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices
    p. 243-248
    Presentation's date: 2013-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    As a consequence of increasing life expectancy, the promotion of lifestyles that allow aging wellbeing guarantees has acquired great importance in the developed countries. However, the adherence to healthy behaviors in young and adult people remains as a big problem in the community health field. The development of markers of adherence to healthy lifestyles and the evaluation its effectiveness is a goal of many research groups. This paper presents a system for analyzing physiological, psychological and behavioural user’s habits using a smartphone and externals biodevices. We use an Android smartphone with an internal tri-axial accelerometer and GPS to monitor physical activity. The smartphone is connected via Bluetooth to a respiratory sensor for breath monitoring. In addition, Android application contains psychological questionnaires to analyze user’s mood state and at the same, social interaction is analyzed tracking phone usage and user’s social network. Finally, the collected information is sent to a remote server for a long-term processing.

  • Securing an interoperability architecture for home and urban networking: Implementation of the security aspects in the INREDIS interoperability architecture

     Giménez, Rafael; Pous Sola, Marc; Rico Novella, Francisco Jose
    IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications
    p. 714-719
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • EMI radiated characterization of an hybrid bus

     Pous Sola, Marc; Atienza, Andreu; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    European Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 208-213
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the electromagnetic emission measurements of an hybrid bus are presented. The measurements were carried out in different modes, i.e.: pulling away, running and braking. With the tests performed we analyze vehicle radiated emissions, passengers' safety and radiated transient interferences. To characterize this singular vehicle insitu measurements were carried out where non-controlled interferences sources (TV, radio broadcasting, ...) have to be taken into account.

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    RFID system evaluation against radiated transient noise  Open access

     Pous Sola, Marc; Fernandez Chimeno, Mireya; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    European Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 625-628
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper a radiofrequency identification system according to standard ISO/IEC 14443 type-B is evaluated in presence of transient noise. This real time communication system working at 13.56 MHz is interfered in a controlled environment by different transient bursts varying their level, frequency and duration. The transient burst interference is applied in an AC main wire close to the system and the effect over the digital communication system is evaluated using two different methods. The first one is observing directly an RFID equipment in presence of transient signals, and the second one is capturing the interference in time domain an evaluating its effect by means of simulation. The RFID system is affected by these transient noises causing different types of errors. It is shown that it is essential to measure and evaluate in time domain the transient phenomena to ensure that the RFID system do not have susceptibility problems.

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    Transient perturbation analysis in digital radio  Open access

     Jauregui Telleria, Ricardo; Pous Sola, Marc; Fernandez Chimeno, Mireya; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    European Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a new simulation methodology to study the effect of radiated transient disturbances on digital communication systems. The procedure is divided in two stages. In the first one, FDTD numerical simulation is used to determine the transient levels coupled to the antennas. In the second stage, these levels are analyzed by means of a signal processing simulation software to determine the degradation caused in the system. The procedure is applied to a DAB system in car when a radiated interference is generated by a transient in a vehicle cable. The results show that the amplitude of the radiated transient coupled signal is a key parameter, but it is also essential to take into account other parameters such as burst duration and frequency.

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    EMC filter based on complementary split-ring resonators for audio applications  Open access

     Gil Galí, Ignacio; Fernández García, Raúl; Pous Sola, Marc; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    International Workshop on Electromagnetic Compatibility of Integrated Circuits
    Presentation's date: 2009-11
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    Filters based on complementary split-ring resonators present a large notch attenuation at the resonant frequency. An application of these very low cost filters to an audio system interfered by a mobile phone is presented in this paper.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Car windshield behavior transient analysis by FDTD  Open access

     Jauregui Telleria, Ricardo; Pous Sola, Marc; Vives, Yolanda; Fernandez Chimeno, Mireya; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    European Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 142-145
    Presentation's date: 2009-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The present article studies the influence of a car heatable windshield by means of an equivalent material that allows an appropriate meshing of the vehicle. This study has been performed analyzing the propagation of an electromagnetic radiated transient pulse generated by a wire inside a car with and without the windshield. The Finite Differences Time Domain (FDTD) is the method used to obtain the field coupled to antennas located inside and outside the car. We concluded that it is important to take into account the heatable windshield to make a suitable electromagnetic model of the vehicle.

  • Electromagnetic compatibility analysis of unstructured mains networks for high-speed data transmission: Part 1

     Battermann, S; Garbe, H; Silva Martinez, Fernando; Pous Sola, Marc; Beauvois, V; Vantomme, K; Catrysse, J; Newbury, J; Degardin, V; Liénard, M; Degauque, P; Flintoft, I D; Papatsoris, A D Welsh D W; Marvin, A C
    IET science measurement and technology
    Vol. 2, num. 3, p. 146-153
    Date of publication: 2008-05
    Journal article

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  • Electromagnetic compatibility analysis of unstructured mains networks for high-speed data transmission: Part 2

     Battermann, S; Garbe, H; Silva Martinez, Fernando; Pous Sola, Marc; Beauvois, V; Vantomme, K; Catrysse, J; Newbury, J; Degardin, V; Liénard, M; Degauque, P; Flintoft, I D; Papatsoris, A D; Welsh, D W; Marvin, A
    IET science measurement and technology
    Vol. 2, num. 3, p. 154-159
    Date of publication: 2008-05
    Journal article

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  • Validation of low-level, high-frequency transient FDTD simulation with radiated field measurements

     Jauregui Telleria, Ricardo; Pous Sola, Marc; Fernandez Chimeno, Mireya; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    European Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 543-546
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The influence of the nsa on the uncertainty in radiated emission tests

     Pous Sola, Marc; Quilez Figuerola, Marcos; Fernandez Chimeno, Mireya; Gorchs, J; Silva Martinez, Fernando
    European Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    p. 735-738
    Presentation of work at congresses

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