Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are a trendy alternative to enhance the renewable energy deployment worldwide. They effectively take advantage of scalability and flexibility of these energy sources, since combining two or more allows counteracting the weaknesses of a stochastic renewable energy source with the strengths of another or with the predictability of a non-renewable energy source. This work presents an optimization methodology for minimum life cycle cost of a HRES based on solar photovoltaic, wind and biomass power. Biomass power seeks to take advantage of locally
available forest wood biomass in the form of wood chips to provide energy in periods when the PV and wind power generated are not enough to match the existing demand. The results show that a HRES combining the selected three sources of renewable energy could
be installed in a rural township of about 1300 dwellings with an up-front investment of US $7.4 million, with a total life cycle cost of slightly more than US $30 million. Such a system would have benefits in terms of energy autonomy and environment quality
improvement, as well as in term of job opportunity creation
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) have been widely identified as an efficient mechanism to generate electrical power based on renewable energy sources (RES). This kind of energy generation systems are based on the combination of one or more RES allowing to complement the weaknesses of one with strengths of another and, therefore, reducing installation costs with an optimized installation. To do so, optimization methodologies are a trendy mechanism because they allow attaining optimal solutions given a certain set of input parameters and variables. This work is focused on the optimal sizing of hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic-wind power systems from real hourly wind and solar irradiation data and electricity demand from a certain location. The proposed methodology is capable of finding the sizing that leads to a minimum life cycle cost of the system while matching the electricity supply with the local demand. In the present article, the methodology is tested by means of a case study in which the actual hourly electricity retail and market prices have been implemented to obtain realistic estimations of life cycle costs and benefits. A sensitivity analysis that allows detecting to which variables the system is more sensitive has also been performed. Results presented show that the model responds well to changes in the input parameters and variables while providing trustworthy sizing solutions. According to these results, a grid-connected HRES consisting of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power technologies would be economically profitable in the studied rural township in the Mediterranean climate region of central Catalonia (Spain), being the system paid off after 18 years of operation out of 25 years of system lifetime. Although the annual costs of the system are notably lower compared with the cost of electricity purchase, which is the current alternative, a significant upfront investment of over $10 M - roughly two thirds of total system lifetime cost - would be required to install such system. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The present international context of fossil fuel depletion and global concern about climate change derived from greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is putting more emphasys on alternative sources of energy. Renewable energies, thanks to their carbon neutrality and universal availability of resources on which they rely on, are a trendy alternative. However, they have some important drawbacks such as their inherent intermittency resulting from their close link to weather-dependent variables like solar or wind power have.
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) are electricity generation systems that combine two or more energy sources, being one or more of them renewable. These systems not only exploit renewable energy sources (RESs) that are locally available, but also are easily scalable so they can be designed according to local needs and restrcitions in terms of energy demanded or actual amount of renewable resources available on-site. With this kind of energy generation systems, the electricity demanded in a certain location could be produced close to consumption points reducing reducing and even eliminating energy transportation losses as well as fuel transportation costs in case of biomass.
To appropriately design a HRES, it is necessary to assess the RESs available on-site as well as the electricity demanded. Optimization algorithms, and in particular evolutionary algorithms, can help to do so as they use heuristic techniques to find the most appropriate values of a certain objective function variables. In a HRES system case, that means to select the appropriate technologies and the optimum scale of installation of them.
The present article describes a work that is being performed in central Catalonia, at northeast of Spain, consisting on the study of the electricity demand of a rural township and the sizing of a HRES using wind and solar power to supply such demand with the minimum cost possible. The optimization procedure is performed using a genetic algorithm (GA) implemented and compiled using MATLAB R2013b. The objective function and the main constraints of the study are presented along with preliminary results such as the system sizing and net present value (NPV) of the system.
This work performs a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of two fuels for heating boilers, namely wood chips and oil. The LCA methodology allows comparing the environmental impacts of the two analyzed fuels, thus assessing which is environmentally more advantageous. The study is focused on Mediterranean forests located in the Argençola region (Catalonia, northeastern Spain) by applying forest management practices focused to ensure a sustainable exploitation. The direct use of wood chips as a fuel for boilers simplifies notably the number of processes involved in producing such a fuel. The results presented clearly show the environmental benefits of using small-scale produced wood chips instead of fossil oil by analyzing representative impact categories defined by the CML and EDIP methods, even when considering the changes in the carbon stock in the forests under analysis due to the management approach adopted. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted to assess the impact of the data with higher uncertainty on the final LCA results.
Conventional methods for chromium removal from industrial effluents may be limited by technological or economical constraints, especially when they are applied to dilute metal solutions. Thus, biotechnological processes, which are efficient at low metal concentrations and require the use of fewer chemicals, may play an important role. The chromium recovery proposed here is based on the specific uptake of this metal by acidophilic fungi. Fifty acidophilic fungal isolates from the Río Tinto basin, an extreme acidic environment, were tested. Most of them were resistant to Cr(III) and Cr(VI) solutions at concentrations up to 10 mmol/L. The influence of different experimental conditions was evaluated (medium concentration, kinetics, requirement of induction etc.). Fungal isolate 143 was able to remove 63% of Cr(III) at 0.1 mmol/L, 74% at 1 mmol/L and 21% at 10 mmol/L. These are the best Cr(III)-fungal-uptake results at acidic pH described in the literature so far. It should be possible to use these acidophilic fungi, for example in tannery wastewater, as they can resist chromium concentrations and pH values found in these effluents (between 6.5-7.5 mmol/L Cr III and pH as low as 3-4)
Biofuels are nowadays considered a questionable environmental alternative to fossil fuels. In that context, this work analyses the environmental impacts when introducing rapeseed on the traditional and
current wheat and barley agricultural rotation by means of a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA). The introduction of rapeseed, the correctness of its conversion to obtain straight vegetable oil and its use as self-consumption biofuel in tractors are evaluated. Life cycle assessment is used in this work to evaluate the impacts of different considered scenarios. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted. The results presented show a modest environmental improvement (diminishment of 6 out of the 10 analyzed
environmental impacts) when introducing rapeseed to local crop rotations and its partial conversion to oil to be used as fuel in existing diesel engines. Additionally, the ratio between the energy obtained and
the total energy input shows moderate positive results when comparing the latter case with the current one. Results from this study can be used to support research and decision making to assess the convenience
of introducing alternative fuels in agricultural exploitations
Straight vegetable oils may be used as fuel in existing diesel engines. However, some precautions should
be taken into account because some of their physicochemical properties must be adjusted through tem-
perature control to ensure enhanced combustion, thus avoiding premature aging of the engine. Although
it is well known that surface tension plays a prevalent role in the fuel atomization process which affects
the combustion quality, there is lack of published information about its variation with temperature when
dealing with straight vegetable oils to be used as fuel in unmodified diesel engines. In this work, the surface tension of several vegetable oils is studied in a wide temperature interval. The optimal range of temperatures at which each vegetable oil should operate to adjust its properties to those of automotive diesel and biodiesel is found. Moreover, an empirical relationship between the dependence between surface tension and density is presented
The straight use of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines entails adjusting several physical properties such as density and viscosity. By adequately heating the vegetable oil before entering the injection system, its physical parameters can reach values very close to that of diesel fuel. Consequently, by properly adjusting the temperature of vegetable oils used as
fuel, it is possible to improve their combustion performance, thus avoiding premature engine aging due to incomplete burning. In this study the density and viscosity of several vegetable oils are studied within a wide variety of temperatures. The optimal range of
temperatures at which each vegetable oil should operate in order to adjust its properties to those of automotive diesel and biodiesel is then found. Additionally an empirical relationship between the dependence of viscosity with density is presented. Thus, by means of the above-described relationship, through measuring the density of a given oil, its viscosity
can be directly deduced
We report preliminary results of an aircraft experiment aimed to proof the PARIS Interferometric Technique. The experiment was performed in the Gulf of Finland during a two hours flight. We installed a PARIS Interferometric Receiver together with a GOLD-RTR instrument to collect reflected C/A, P(Y) and M-code GPS signals. The collected data has been analyzed to produce altimetric observables with both techniques.
We report preliminary results of an aircraft experiment aimed
to proof the PARIS Interferometric Technique. The experiment
was performed in the Gulf of Finland during a two hours
flight.We installed a PARIS Interferometric Receiver together
with a GOLD-RTR instrument to collect reflected C/A, P(Y)
and M-code GPS signals. The collected data has been analyzed
to produce altimetric observables with both techniques.
Esteban, B.; Baquero, G.; Rius, A.; Puig, R.; Riba, J. European Biomass Conference and Exhibition p. 1792-1794 DOI: DOI: 10.5071/20thEUBCE2012-3DV.4.43 Presentation's date: 2012-06-21 Presentation of work at congresses
Baquero, G.; Esteban, B.; Rius, A.; Puig, R.; Riba, J. European Biomass Conference and Exhibition p. 2226-2228 DOI: 10.5071/20thEUBCE2012-5AV.1.19 Presentation's date: 2012-06-18 Presentation of work at congresses
Esteban, B.; Baquero, G.; Riba, J.; Puig, R.; Rius, A. European Biomass Conference and Exhibition p. 2344-2346 DOI: 10.5071/20thEUBCE2012-5AV.2.17 Presentation's date: 2012-06-18 Presentation of work at congresses
Notarnicola, B.; Puig, R.; Raggi, A.; Fullana, P.; Tassielli, G.; de Camillis, C.; Rius, A. Afinidad: revista de química teórica y aplicada Vol. 68, num. 553, p. 167-180 Date of publication: 2011-09-02 Journal article
The objectives of the research here described were to put in evidence the eco-profiles of two product-systems concerning bovine leather manufactured in Italy and Spain, to identify their hot spots and to find out if the different technologies and cooperative management solutions adopted led to significant
environmental differences in the two systems analysed. The environmental impacts of two systems were analysed by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. At the macro-phase level, tanning resulted to be the most burdensome phase for almost all impact categories in both systems. At the level of the specific tannery phases, the
main hot spots were tanning, dyeing-retaining and soaking in the Italian system, soaking-liming, tanning and retanning
in the Spanish one. The main differences between the two systems and a few options for improvement were identified at three levels: energy mix, industrial processes and solid waste management.
Despite the technological and waste management dissimilarity of the two systems, their total environmental burdens appeared quite similar. However, relevant differences
in the most burdening phases, operations and substances are highlighted in this paper. Improvements in both systems should be aimed at by means of an optimisation of tanning processes and reduction of chemicals use. Further studies dealing with inventories of recovery processes and landfill disposal of
wastes are recommended.
This chapter presents a method to produce rapeseed and process it to obtain rapeseed oil and rapeseed cake meal from a small-scale point of view. It also shows how rapeseed oil can be used as fuel in diesel engines for agriculture self-consumption. A production, processing and use-as-fuel model for rapeseed oil is also presented, analysing environmentally and economically the use of rapeseed oil as fuel compared to other agricultural production alternatives. The results are evaluated for dry Mediterranean area conditions
The use of straight vegetable oil (SVO) as biofuel has been recognized as a valid substitute of diesel fuel in the agricultural sector under specific circumstances. Its direct use reduces
most of the chemical processes involved when converting it into biodiesel, thus lowering
harmful emissions. This study presents the economic analysis of a self-supply farming
model that uses rapeseed as its fuel base. This model addresses agricultural environmental concerns and can even minimize dependence on the fluctuating costs of diesel fuel. The use of SVO in agriculture can help reduce farmers’ vulnerability to fossil fuel prices. The economic evaluation of the model proposed in this study shows clear economic benefits of introducing rapeseed to the traditional crop rotation of wheat and barley. The key factors
analyzed in this model are diesel fuel price, diesel fuel grants and crop aids. The current situation in Spain favors the use of diesel fuel in agriculture rather than rapeseed SVO due to an 8% profit difference. However, results show that changes in key factors slightly affect the profit margin, calculating a difference of only 3.7% for particular factor combinations.
Combined environmental-friendly agriculture supporting policies are necessary to cover
this slight profit difference to promote this biofuel
La dependència actual dels combustibles fòssils en la majoria de sectors industrials i domèstics no és sostenible ni a curt ni a llarg termini. Això està obligant a plantejar alternatives a la majoria de sectors industrials especialment encaminades a l’estalvi energètic i la utilització d’energies renovables. A més a més en el cas dels combustibles, la Unió Europea està incentivant l’ús de biocarburants degut als compromisos assumits en el protocol de Kyoto.
Els biocarburants més comuns pel cas del transport són el biodièsel i el bioetanol, que en la majoria dels casos, es produeixen a gran escala i presenten seriosos problemes ambientals i socials tal i com citen els treballs de diversos autors. En aquest escenari és interessant proposar i avaluar ambientalment altres biocarburants no presents actualment en el mercat.
En aquesta tesi es proposen i s’avaluen ambientalment (mitjançant l’anàlisi del cicle de vida, ACV) dos biocombustibles, l’oli de colza pel cas del transport, comparat amb la seva conversió a biodièsel i l’estella forestal per a calefacció comparada amb el gasoil.
En l’últim apartat d’aquesta tesi es realitza una caracterització de sis olis vegetals, per tal de determinar la temperatura òptima de preescalfament per ser utilitzats com a biocombustibles en motors dièsel actuals. Conjuntament amb aquesta caracterització es parametritza la densitat, viscositat i tensió superficial d’aquests olis en funció de la temperatura.
La dependencia actual de los combustibles fósiles en la mayoría de sectores industriales y domésticos no es sostenible ni a corto ni a largo plazo. Esto está obligando a plantear alternativas a la mayoría de sectores industriales especialmente encaminados al ahorro energético y la utilización de energías renovables. Además en el caso de los combustibles, la Unión Europea está incentivando el uso de biocarburantes debido a los compromisos asumidos en el protocolo de Kioto.
Los biocarburantes más comunes en el caso del transporte son el biodiesel y el bioetanol, que en la mayoría de los casos, se producen a gran escala y presentan serios problemas ambientales y sociales tal y como citan los trabajos de varios autores. En este escenario es interesante proponer y evaluar ambientalmente otros biocarburantes no presentes actualmente en el mercado.
En esta tesis se proponen y se evalúan ambientalmente (mediante el análisis del ciclo de vida, ACV) dos biocombustibles, el aceite de colza por el caso del transporte, comparado con su conversión a biodiesel i l' forestal para calefacción comparada con el gasóleo.
En el último apartado de esta tesis se realiza una caracterización de seis aceites vegetales, para determinar la temperatura óptima de precalentamiento para ser utilizados como biocombustibles en motores diesel actuales. Conjuntamente con esta caracterización se parametriza la densidad, viscosidad y tensión superficial de estos aceites en función de la temperatura
The current dependence on fossil fuels in most industrial and domestic sectors is not sustainable in neither short nor long term. This is promoting alternatives to most industries, especially focused on saving energy and using renewable energy. Moreover, the European Union is encouraging the use of biofuels trough the commitments in the Kyoto Protocol.
The most common biofuels for transport are biodiesel and bioethanol, which in most cases, are large scale produced and involve serious environmental and social problems according to several authors. In this scenario it is interesting to evaluate other alternative fuels, being environmentally friendly and not currently present in the market.
This thesis presents and environmentally analyses two biofuels using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. One is straight vegetable rapeseed oil used for truck transport compared to rapeseed biodiesel. The other is wood chips for heating compared to diesel as heating fuel.
In the last section of this PjD a characterization of six vegetable oils is performed in order to determine the optimal preheating temperature to use it as biofuel in current diesel engines. Together with this characterization, the density, the viscosity and the surface tension of different vegetable oils are parameterized for a wide range of temperature.
This work proposes and analyses a model for an agricultural fuel self-supply exploitation. The model is based on the current extended crop rotation of wheat and barley in Anoia region (Catalonia, Spain). The introduction of rapeseed to the current crop rotation and its conversion into oil to be used as agricultural fuel is presented. Life cycle assessment methodology is used to carry out an environmental and an economic assessment. Environmental results show a preference for the vegetable oil based scenario in terms of CO2 equivalent emissions and energy consumption as well as no major difference in land used for the considered scenarios. Economic assessment shows a preference for the rapeseed introduction in the current crop rotation agricultural system without converting the seed into oil and using it as biofuel. The basis to develop the life cycle social assessment is also presented, calculating a
social impact category as an example.
ABSTRACT: Obtaining energy from forest chips is a technology widely used in many regions. There are currently many studies and applications on the use of forest biomass [1,2], mainly promoted by policies aimed to reduce greenhouse gases. The forests of the Mediterranean area are characterized by a mountain relief. This orography makes difficult the selective biomass extraction from the forest. Thus, the biomass is accumulated in the forest and becomes a serious danger for wildfires. Forest fires are considered the most important natural impact in the Mediterranean region due to its effect to ecosystems, as some authors state [3,4]. This study aims to compare by
means of LCA methodology the use of forest chips and diesel fuels in a boiler, focusing on the difficulty of extracting the wood from a Mediterranean forest area. In the Mediterranean area there are no environmental studies centred on the extraction of timber from forest areas without affecting the life in the forest. This work presents an LCA, where
the difficulties of extracting the biomass from the forest and its use in heating boilers are presented.
The oil price instability and the measures taken to reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions are the main factors promoting the development and use of environmentally friendly energies. From an energy efficiency point of view, biofuels constitute a renewable energy source and its use helps to reduce energy dependency on fossil fuels. The most used biofuels for transport worldwide are biodiesel (BD) and bioethanol. However, there are other options such as straight vegetable oil (SVO).
SVO can be small-scale produced in local cooperatives through pressing, filtering and conditioning processes which are much simpler than the ones required for BD production. In this study a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of two biofuels obtained from Spanish rapeseed, namely small-scale SVO and large-scale BD, is performed. The LCA methodology allows the two biofuels’ production and their rate of consumption in a vehicle (a truck) to be compared. In this manner, it is possible to assess which is environmentally advantageous: to use SVO directly as biofuel or to convert it to BD. Moreover, LCA is used in the study to calculate the energy return on investment index (EROI) and an energy conversion ratio to evaluate which biofuel is more energy efficient.
The obtained results show the environmental benefits of using SVO instead of BD by analyzing representative impact categories defined by the CML and EDIP methods. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted. EROI indexes for SVO and BD production show a clear preference for SVO as compared to BD.
Lalueza, J.; Rius, A.; Puig, R.; Marti, M.; Martí, J.F.; Rodriguez, N.; Amils, R. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association Vol. 105, num. 7, p. 214-221 Date of publication: 2010-07 Journal article
Heavy metals in waste waters and sludge may cause significant environmental problems, and it is known that conventional recovery technologies cannot always achieve satisfactory treatment. For example, they are inappropiate to completely recover the chromium in the case of waste waters from the tanning process. Chromium can be recovered (by precipitation)from effluents that contain high concentrations of this metal. However, effluents from the later stages in present day tanning process often have a low concentration of chromium that cannot be recovered and is found in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The aim of our research is to recover and reuse the chromiun (III) from post-tanning effluents by means of a biotechnological sequestering method using acidophilic fungi. In this study, we tested acidophilic fungi capable to grow in the presence of chromiun in waste waters from various stages of a real post-tanning process. When the post-tanning process was carried out on a pilot plant scale in which conventional rechroming and neutralisation stages were undertaken and the use of additional chemicals was avoided, chromium (III) sequestration values of above 95% were obtained. As these results are so promising, further studies will focus on searching for more resistant fungal strains and determining which of the chemicals used in the post-tanning process can be avoided or replaced by alternatives.
La utilització de l’oli de colza com a carburant és una tecnologia que ja s’utilitza a altres països europeus com
Alemanya i Dinamarca, degut principalment a dos factors: el gasoil agrícola està menys subvencionat i el grau de conscienciació mediambiental és major en aquest països.
L’oli de colza és un biocarburant que s’obté del premsat de llavors de plantes oleaginoses i que, realitzant una
petita modificació al sistema d’alimentació dels motors dièsel, pot ser utilitzat com a combustible. La fabricació de l’oli vegetal en front a la del biodièsel és més senzilla, ja que inclou menys processos i menys consum energètic.  En aquesta fitxa es pretén fer una breu explicació de la producció i consum de l’oli de colza, destinat a ser utilitzat directament com a biocarburant en maquinària agrícola. Ens centrarem en l’oli fabricat a partir de la llavor de
colza, ja que possiblement és la planta oleaginosa que millor s’adapta al clima mediterrani.
Actualment els biocarburants ocupen una important àrea d’estudi, essent el biodièsel i el bioetanol els més utilitzats en el nostre territori. La major part d’aquests biocarburants són de primera generació i la seva fabricació a gran escala presenta seriosos problemes ambientals i socials a causa de la gran demanda de terres agrícoles [1-2]. Tot i això, la necessitat de reduir l’emissió de gasos d’efecte hivernacle n’incrementa la seva demanda.
Actualment, és interessant pensar en implementar altres biocarburants no presents al mercat espanyol, com és el cas de l’oli vegetal fabricat a petita escala.
La producció d’oli vegetal és més senzilla que la de biodièsel, doncs inclou menys processos i menys consum energètic. L’oli vegetal obtingut del premsat de llavors de plantes oleaginoses es pot usar com a biocarburant realitzant una petita modificació al sistema d’alimentació dels motors dièsel convencionals. En alguns països
europeus, com Alemanya i Dinamarca, ja s’utilitza l’oli vegetal com a biocarburant, principalment en maquinària agrícola, mentre que a Espanya no es troba a les gasolineres i només el fan servir alguns particulars .
Aquesta fitxa mostra els resultats econòmics de la introducció de la colza en la rotació de conreus clàssica a la zona de l’Anoia i l’autoconsum de l’oli de colza com a biocarburant en maquinària agrícola. Els resultats s’han obtingut mitjançant un model desenvolupat per a calcular el benefici obtingut en una explotació a partir de paràmetres com els rendiments de les collites de la zona de l’Anoia. Es considera l’oli fabricat a partir de la llavor de colza, ja que és possiblement la planta oleaginosa que millor s’adapta al clima mediterrani.
Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that
large scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on
tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines
with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative
analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a firstrun economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.
Rius, A.; Marsal , A.; Bautista, E.; Cuadros, S.; Reyes, M.; Font Vallès, Joaquim Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists Vol. 93, num. 5, p. 176-182 Date of publication: 2009 Journal article
In the leather industry, in addition to the extrinsic contamination attributable to chemical products not absorbed by the hides, there is intrinsic contamination produced by the hides themselves. From each 100kg of raw material, 15kg of solubilised protein will end up in wastewater in the early stages of the process of transforming hides into
leather. These proteins contain nearly 18% of nitrogen. In this study it is proposed to recover organic nitrogen from the proteins present in the effluents of the beamhouse operations of hides and the subsequent revalorization of the protein fraction obtained. This work seeks to characterize (the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, total
soluble nitrogen, particulate nitrogen, organic nitrogen and protein) the wastewaters, individually or in groups, of
the various beamhouse operations (soaking, unhairing-liming, washing, conditioning, deliming, bating, washing and pickling) with hair recovery. The studies are presented of the determination of the pH value (adjusted by means of buffers of acetic acid/sodium acetate) at which the greatest precipitate of the protein fraction is produced. In addition, the following tests were performed to characterize these precipitates: determination of the quantitative composition
of the main components of the protein fraction (humidity, proteins, free amino acids, fats and other matter soluble
in dichloromethane and ash); heavy metals content, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium and the composition in total amino acids with prior acid hydrolysis of the protein fraction with 6N hydrochloric acid.
L'objectiu del projecte presentat aquí (que forma part del projecte CICLE), és conèixer la situació actual d'aprofitament i reciclatge de residues del sector adober català i fer propostes de millora seguint els principis de l'ecologia industrial. Per això s'ha fet una diagnosi identificant i quantificant els diferents residus produïts per aquesta indústria a Catalunya i el seu destí. Els principals resultats obtinguts van ser que el sector adober català és molt proactiu en buscar aprofitaments pels seus residues i que els residus d'adobament de pell ovina s'aprofiten menys que els de pell vacuna. Les principals millores proposades són: promoure la figura d'un dinamitzador/gestor, l'activitat econòmica del qual sigui buscar la millor alternativa de reciclatge de residus, i millorar l'intercanvi d'informació entre recicladors i adobers per fer més eficient el procés de reciclatge. Finalment es proposa la planificació d'un polígon industrial sostenible que aculli les empreses d'aquest sector i permeti aprofitar al màxim les sinèrgies entre elles.
L'objectiu del projecte presentat aquí (que forma part del projecte CICLE), és conèixer la situació actual d'aprofitament i reciclatge de residus del sector paperer català i fer propostes de millora seguint els principis de l'ecologia industrial. Per això s'ha fet una diagnosi identifcant i quantificant els diferents residus produïts per aquesta indústria a Catalunya i el seu destí. Els residues de depuració grollera van actualment a abocador i els fangs de depuració, en una proporció elevada, tampoc no s'aprofiten. Les principals millores proposades són, per tant: la utilització de la tecnologia Rofire per a l'aprofitament energètic del residu de depuració grollera, que reduiria en un 85,8% les emissions de CO2 i que seria econòmicament viable quan el cost de l'abocador sigui d'uns 50,88€/t de residu i la cogeneració utilitzant fangs de depuració com a combustible. Aquesta darrera opció s'hauria d'estudiar a fons per a cada empresa en particular.
Font Vallès, Joaquim; Viera, S.; Cuadros, S.; Rius, A.; Reyes, M.; Verdú, E.; Jorba, M.; Juárez, M.; Marsal , A. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association Vol. 103, num. 3, p. 53-61 Date of publication: 2008 Journal article
The colorimetric determination of formaldehyde in a water extract of a leather sample is a procedure that has been criticized because of possible interferences of other aldehydes and coloured substances that could interfere in the spectrophotometric detection. The measurement by liquid chromatography HPLC is an alternative method that was developed some years ago. This method is more sophisticated but more selective and free of the aforementioned interferences. It is not sensitive to coloured extracts. With the implementation of HPLC equipment in many laboratories, this choice has become feasible in our sector. The process is selective. Formaldehyde is separated and quantified as a derivative from other aldehydes and ketones by liquid chromatography. The free-formaldehyde and formaldehyde which is hydrolysed during extraction to yield free-formaldehyde are detected by this method. The sample is eluted with water at 40ºC. The eluate is mixed with 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine, whereby aldehydes and ketones react to yield the respective hydrazones. These are separated by means of a reversed-phase HPLC method, detected at 350 nm and quantified. The aim of this work is to present a collaborative inter-laboratory study coordinated by the Igualada Leather Technology School and carried out with four other laboratories that had previosly implemented the HPLC method or that were planning to do this. Determination of formaldehyde content in leather was carried out in each laboratory in accordance with prEN ISO 17226:2005 - HPLC Standard, developed by the Committee CEN/TC 289. Part 2 of the ISO 5725 Standard (Basic method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibiliry of a standard measurement method) was applied to examine the results. The study proved successful. The HPLC method achieved very reproducible results between laboratories. This work has also demonstrated that other aldehydes, glutaraldehyde included, do not interfere in the chromatographic method. The use of a PDA detector increases the confidence of the detection of formaldehyde in leather samples
Solé, M.; Riba, J.; Puig, R.; Rius, A.; Borràs, E.; Vidal, R.M. Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas p. 31-35 Presentation's date: 2007 Presentation of work at congresses
Notarnicola, B.; Puig, R.; Raggi, A.; Tarabella, A.; Petti, L.; Rius, A.; Tassielli, G.; De Camilis, C.; Mongelli, I. Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment p. 1 Presentation's date: 2006-11 Presentation of work at congresses
Amils, R.; Rodriguez, N.; Lalueza, J.; Rius, A.; Olle, L.; Puig, R.; Font, J. AQEIC: boletín técnico. Asociación Química Española de la Industria de Cuero Vol. 58, num. 2, p. 57-60 Date of publication: 2006-06 Journal article
Lalueza, J.; Rius, A.; Olle, L.; Puig, R.; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Marti, M.; Amils, R.; Rodríguez, N. II IULTCS Eurocongress (International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists Societies) p. 51 Presentation's date: 2006-05-26 Presentation of work at congresses
Font Vallès, Joaquim; Rius, A.; Marsal , A.; Hauber, C.; Tommaselli, M. Eurocongress of the International Union of Leather Technicians and Chemists Societies (IULTCS) Presentation's date: 2006-05 Presentation of work at congresses
This work has been funded by the European Commission through the Chrom6less
Project (CRAFT -1999-71638).
The objectives of the project were:
- Establishment of the analytical methodology which provided reproducible
results that may be free of interferences.
- Identification of the factors that facilitated or impeded the transformation of
Cr(III) to Cr(VI).
- Establishment of the best conditions that allowed the production of
chromium(VI) free leather, even during the life of the product, in contact with
environmental agents such as light or heat.
The following partners participated in the project: Inpelsa, Dercosa, Proquip, Igualada
Leather Technology School, CID-CSIC and Miguel Hernandez University, from Spain,
Gmelich, Knoll Sitzleder, and Lederinstitut Gerberschule Reutlingen from Germany,
and Conceria Il Cigno, Calzaturificio Accademia and Stazione Experimentale from
Hundreds of samples have been analysed during the project. In order to study the
influence of several factors in chromium (VI) formation, a lot of skins/hides have been produced. Several leather articles (hides for clothing, footwear, upholstery, leather goods and furniture upholstery and skins for suede and double face)) have been
manufactured free from Cr (VI).
The main results obtained were:
- The new analytical method CEN/TS 14495 has been validated.
- Protective measures for the prevention of chromium (VI) formation have been
- New formulations for several hides/skins have been developed.
- A handbook for the production of chromium (VI)-free leather has been
The main conclusions of the project were:
- The Chrom6less Project has shown that most of the skins/leathers did not
contain hexavalent chromium.
- It is now possible to confidently determine the Cr(VI) content in all kinds of
leather regardless of their colour.
- The application of protective measures developed in the Project allows leather to
resist the effect of ageing without the formation of Cr(VI).
Notarnicola, B.; Puig, R.; Raggi, A.; Rius, A.; Tarabella, A.; Petti, L.; Tassielli, G.; De Camilis, C. Congresso Nazionale di Scienze Merceologiche all'indirizzo (22nd National Congress of Commodity Science) Presentation's date: 2006-03-03 Presentation of work at congresses
Marsal , A.; Rius, A.; Cot , J.; Lalueza, J.; Ramón, P.; Font Vallès, Joaquim Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists Vol. 89, num. 6, p. 232-236 Date of publication: 2005 Journal article
Amils, R.; Rodríguez, N.; Lalueza, J.; Rius, A.; Olle, L.; Puig, R.; Font Vallès, Joaquim XVI Congreso latinoamericano de los químicos y técnicos de la industria del cuero p. 63-70 Presentation's date: 2004-10 Presentation of work at congresses
Amils, R.; Rodríguez, N.; Lalueza, J.; Rius, A.; Puig, R.; Olle, L.; Font Vallès, Joaquim 53º Congreso Nacional de la Asociación Química Española de la Industria del Cuero p. 47-54 Presentation's date: 2004-05 Presentation of work at congresses