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  • Automated-flow systems for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes

     Florido Pérez, Antonio; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; del Valle, M.; de la Torre Yugueros, Florencio; Fiol Santalo, Núria; Villaescusa Gil, Isabel
    Jornadas de Análisis Instrumental
    p. 194
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Our research groups have been working in the developing of sustainable and cheap technology based on vegetable wastes as sorbents for the removal of metal ions from industrial wastewater. Specifically, grape stalk wastes, generated in the wine production, resulted to be an efficient sorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium and divalent heavy metal ions. Conventionally, analytical methods as FAAS, ICP-OES and FIA with potentiometric detection (FIP) have been used in the monitoring of metal biosorption processes. However, the limitations of these methods when working with real samples, specifically on multiparametric or speciation analysis, have led us to consider the use of electronic tongues (ET) based on arrays of multiple sensors showing cross-selectivity, and simultaneous analysis based on bivariate analysis and spectrophotometric detection. Thus, two different approaches have been developed. First, a new methodology for the simultaneous and automated monitoring of biosorption processes based on flow-injection potentiometry (FIP) and electronic tongue detection (ET) is presented. A fixed-bed column filled with grape stalks is used as the biosorption setup to remove the metal mixtures from the influent solution. The monitoring system consists in a computer controlled-FIP prototype with the ET based on an array of up to 9 flow-through ion-selective and generic response electrodes, plus an artificial neural network (ANN) response model. Electrodes with cross-response to Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and Ca2+ are used, and a dynamic treatment of the kinetic components of the FIP transient peak signals is incorporated, in which selected coefficients obtained from the Fourier transform are used to feed the ANN model. Real-time monitoring of single, binary and ternary mixtures is achieved satisfactorily using the reported system, obtaining the corresponding breakthrough curves. Analytical performance is verified against conventional spectroscopic techniques, with good concordance of the obtained breakthrough curves with relative error values below 7%. The second approach is based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) and spectrophotometric detection for the monitoring of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Thus, the analysis is performed in two steps: first, Cr(VI) is directly measured and, in a second step, Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) and total chromium is then determined. For quantification, a calibration technique by bivariate analysis based on Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) has been used, with reproducibilities higher than 95%.

  • Acid and base production in the desalination process by bipolar membrane electrodialysis: preliminary results

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Martínez, Montse; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 266-267
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aim of this work is to study the valorization of reverse osmosis desalination brines as acid and base by using bipolar membrane electrodialysis process. An experimental lab-scale pilot plant was used where the membranes stack used was PCCell ED 64-004 (PCCell GmbH, Germany). The dimension of the cell is 0.11x0.11m. It is a 4 chamber system with an active membrane area of 0.0064 m2 per membrane. The stack configuration is composed of three cell triplets; each cell triplet has one cationic exchange membrane (PC-SK), one anionic exchange membrane (PC Acid 60) and one bipolar membrane. Each cell triplet has three compartments: for diluted, acid, base. Moreover, there are two electrodes rinse compartments that form a single circuit located at the cell ends. Thus, the pilot plant was working by means of 4 circuits: the electrode rinse, acid, basic and diluted. Each of them has a pump, pressure, temperature, flow and conductivity sensors. Furthermore, pH of the dilution solution during the experiment was monitored by a pHmeter in the diluted circuit. A power supply device was used to establish an electrical current density in the stack. Preliminary experiments with NaCl as feed solution were carried out in recirculation configuration in order to test the stack and to find the optimal operation conditions. Some experiments were carried out at different conditions of current density and voltage (9V, 0.4kA/m2 and 6V, 0.1kA/m2) to evaluate the effect of these parameters. In turn, different initial acid and base concentration (0.05M and 0.1M) were used to determine their influence on the final concentration of HCl and NaOH obtained. Finally, the NaCl initial concentration was varied from 50 to 200 g/L. Results corroborated that the electrodialysis with bipolar membrane is a suitable method for desalinating NaCl while producing NaOH and HCl [1]. Furthermore, with regard to the effect of current density and voltage, it was found that the higher they were, the higher NaOH and HCl concentration were obtained [2] (Figure 1). Moreover, initial acid and base concentrations had no a substantial effect on the overall of the performance (Figure 2). Finally, concerning the effect of feed salt solution concentration, it was found that an increase of NaCl let to an increase of acid and base concentration (Figure 3).

  • Ammonium removal by liquid - liquid membrane contactors in water purification process for hydrogen production

     Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Reig i Amat, Monica; Villanova, Pilar; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 246-247
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Hydrogen is considered a clean energy source since only water vapor is obtained during its combustion. However, production of H2 from water by electrolysis is limited by water quality requirements in terms of ionic conductivity [1]. The use of membrane distillation has been postulated as an attractive solution to achieve this objective, nonetheless the presence of aqueous ionic species with the potential of change to a gaseous phase are limiting its performance [2, 3]. In this work a liquid-liquid membrane contactor (LLMC) was evaluated to remove ammonia traces from water for electrolysis hydrogen production. Three operational parameters were evaluated: the feed flow rate, the initial ammonia concentration in the water stream and the pH of solution. Synthetic aqueous solutions with ammonium concentration of 5 to 25 ppm and a sulfuric acid as stripping solution (pH=2) were feeded to the LLMC (Liquicel X30) in countercurrent and open loop configuration with flow rates between 0.16 and 1.3 L/min and the pH of the feeding solution was set between 8 and 11. The ammonia concentration of the permeate was determined during the experiments with a selective ammonia electrode (HACH 51927). The ammonium removal efficiencies were calculated from the experimental data and the results were used to validate a 2D numerical model solved by COMSOL Multiphysics, which was developed considering advection-diffusion equation inside a single fibber of the lumen with laminar flow conditions and liquid gas equilibrium in the membrane-solution interface. According to both, experimental data and numerical predictions, the hollow fiber membrane contactor technology is a suitable alternative to remove ammonium from water and to feed the membrane distillation unit in order to fullfil water quality requirements for electrolysis-based hydrogen production. There was not found any clear dependance in the initial amonium concentration for the range evaluated. As can be seen in Figure 2, the amonium removal was clearly affected by the solution pH. It can explained with the pH dependance of the equilibrium between the ammonia gas and ammonium ions, making it the driving force responsible for the separation process inside the membrane. The other important parameter to be taken into account is the flow rate which affects the residence time of the solution inside the LLMC.

  • Evaluation of electrolyte mixtures rejection behavior using nanofiltration membranes using spiral wound and flat sheet configurations

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 391-392
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nanofiltration (NF) is a growing separation technology for water treatment processes at different industrials lands. It can be used in different membrane configurations, such as flat sheet (FS) or spiral wound (SW). Usually, FS configuration is used at lab-scale test membrane. On the other hand, SW membrane configuration is used at industrial scale, due to the need for more active membrane area and the space optimization. For this reason, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability of the data obtained in a FS lab-scale set up when they are implemented at industrial scale level using SW configuration. Two different pilot plants were used to evaluate the ion rejection of mixed feed salt solutions, based on a dominant and a trace salt. The membrane used in both pilot plants was the NF270 membrane, supplied by Dow Chemical, with an active membrane area of 0.014m2 and 2.6m2 for the FS and SW configuration, respectively. The membrane used has a negative superficial charge. Experimental conditions in both membrane configurations were the same: different synthetic salt mixture feed solutions were used working at constant temperature while the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) varied from the osmotic pressure to 20 bars with increments of approximately 2 bars. For each sample taken at different pressures, a trans-membrane flux was obtained. The concentrate and the permeate streams were recirculated in both cases to maintain constant the feed solution concentration during the experiment. Different parameters such as, pH, conductivity, temperature, TMP and flow rate were measured and monitored along the experiment. Synthetic solutions were prepared representing brackish waters of Catalonian rivers, such as Llobregat and Ebre. For this reason, NaCl, MgSO4 and MgCl2 were used as dominant salts, and Br-, NH4 +, K+ and I- were used as ion traces. This experimental design was used to study the effect of different electrolyte mixtures to a trace ion rejection. Trace salt concentration was set from 0.5 to 2% of the dominant one. The results of each experiment were modelled using the Solution-diffusion-film model (SDFM) [1] and compared taking into account the membrane configuration. By means of the SDFM the ion permeability of each ion can be calculated. This value depends on the capacity of the ion to cross the membrane. Figure 1 shows the measured and predicted ion rejection data as a function of transmembrane flux for each feed salt solution using both membrane configurations. Results showed that the most rejected ions were divalent ones in both configurations, in which SO4 2- was the most rejected one followed by Mg2+. NaCl is rejected moderately and K+ has shown a negative rejection. This phenomena was previously explained by Pages et al. [2] Comparing both membranes configurations, it is observed that fairly similar results are been obtained. However, for the same operation conditions, more trans-membrane flux was obtained working with FS configuration. Besides, the ion permeability order for each experiment was the same in both membrane configurations.

  • Phosphate recovery from tertiary treatment effluents using nanofiltration membranes

     Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Reig i Amat, Monica; Marín, Miguel; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 382-383
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Phosphate recovery will become more important within the next decades due to depletion ofmineral phosphorus resources [1]. Waste water has been identified as a secondary resource of this substance and nanofiltration (NF) is an attractive membrane process for selective phosphate recovery, since high rejections of NaCl are not required. This technique has similar performance as reverse osmosis (RO). However, NF membranes allow higher salt passage than RO membranes, which decreases osmotic pressure. Furthermore, the high permeability of NF membranes also reduces the pressure needed for phosphate recovery making NF a more cost effective process. Experimental studies evaluated the recovery of phosphate, however scare data on the description of the rejections could be found. Although those studies have obtained interesting results under several conditions, they do not explain the rejections of the phosphate under the extent of a rigorous transport model [2,3]. In this work the Solution-Diffusion-Film Model (SDFM) was used, to describe the phosphate transport through a planar NF membrane in the separation process of tertiary treatment effluents (TTEs) [4]. Experimental data was obtained with synthetic aqueous solutions of different major salts, present in TTEs, with phosphate as ion trace. The experiments were carried out with a polyamide thin-film composite NF membrane NF270 (Dow Chemical Company, Midland (USA)). A cross-flow set-up equipped with a test cell (GE SEPA¿ CF II) with a spacer-filled feed channel and the possibility of independent variation of transmembrane pressure and cross-flow velocity was used. A flat sheet membrane with an effective filtration surface of 0.014 m2 was used (See Figure 1). The SDFM performed a good prediction of the behavior of species in solution, and rejection streams, with small deviations between mesured and predicted values. Then, it can be considered as a suitable model for design and calculations. According to Figure 2, high performance in the separation of phosphate in solution was observed (above 90%), demonstraiting that NF is an appropriate membrane process for phosphate recovery. In turn, the phosphate rejection is not considerably affected by the different major salt used in the solution.

  • Evaluation of the anodic stripping voltammetry to study heavy metals removal by grape stalk waste in fixed-bed column

     You Chen, Xialei; Florido Pérez, Antonio; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    European Meeting on Enviromental Chemistry
    p. 59
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Evaluation and distribution of arsenic trioxide in seawater pollution scenario

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Erdmann, Rocío; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Pablo Ribas, Joan de
    European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry
    p. 79
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-06
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  • Ammonia removal from water by liquid-liquid membrane contactor under closed loop regime

     Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Casas Garriga, Sandra; Alcaraz, Aurora; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    COMSOL Conference
    p. 13819 (1)-13819 (7)
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-10
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    Ammonia separation from water by a membrane contactor was simulated on transient state and compared with experimental data. Aqueous low concentrated solution of ammonium with high pH has been pumped inside a hydrophobic hollow fiber (lumen), sulfuric acid solution in the outside part and the feeding solutions are in closed loop configuration. In order to simulate the separation process, the equations were developed considering radial and axial diffusion and convection in the lumen with a well-developed parabolic velocity profile. The model proposed shows minimal deviations when is compared against experimental data. This study shows that the most important parameters to control during the operation are the flow rate and the pH, mainly the last one, due to high dependence in chemical equilibrium of ammonium reaction to ammonia.

  • Prompt feedback by an assessment instrument (EvalCOMIX) in an engineering degree

     Amante García, Beatriz; Garcia Almiñana, Daniel; Martínez Martínez, María R.; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Assessment and Evaluation
    p. 59-60
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-31
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    The adapting process to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) gives a different value to the evaluation process, since it has not only be a certification of that students have learned, but the overall process in which the students can be aware of how and what is learned. This implies that the assessment should be formative as well as summative, for instance, it must be focused to promote or facilitate learning in addition to a normal scoring process. A fast and detailed feedback of learning process is required and allows students to continuous improvement. The teacher feedback is not always required; but it is recommended that the students themselves or their partners also can offer this feedback. Thus, feedback can be very useful both to motivate and involve students in their own learning process and to accounting for non-lecture time of the students; on the other hand, this may reduce the teaching load especially for large groups. In order to assure that students participation in feedback helps and influences the improving learning process is essential to define with clarity the criteria and the objectives of assessment tasks; furthermore they should be used easily and automatically in order to ensure the immediacy of the feedback. One of the main objectives of The GRAPA innovation group at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya is provide to the teachers of strategies and assessment tools to facilitate the adaptation to the EHEA. EvalCOMIX is one of these useful tools which have been developed to facilitate feedback in assessment process under compatible structure to the virtual campus (Moodle). In this work is reported the assessment tools created and used through the EvalCOMIX in the subject of Engineering Projects of Engineering in Industrial Organisation degree (part-time attendance course) during the course of 2011-2012.

  • Estudio de la viabilidad técnico-económica y ambiental de la gestión de fangos EDAR por adición de CaO para su valorización en la industria cementera  Open access

     Granados Granados, Ricardo Jose
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Urban wastewater treatment plants produce a variety of residuals during their operation, the typology of which are in function of the design of the treatment process. The problem aborded in the present thesis refers to the sludge produced as a result of the treatment. After the banning of disposal to continental and/or marine waters, established at the EU through Directive 91/271 CEE and then in Spain trough Royal Decree [RD 11/95] those sludges should be object, essentially after treatment, of controlled using or disposition. Previously to the using or disposition a previous treatment can be required, that could be organic (essentially composting with other amendments), drying or other physic-chemical treatment, between those last alkaline stabilization. Alkaline stabilization can accomplish on a single step reduction or elimination of pathogen vectors, smell elimination and a reduction in the putrefaction potential. Its base is the alteration of the physic-chemical characteristics of the environment of the sludge by addition of alkaline material. One of the processes of inertization, object of the analysis proposed in the present thesis, is the treatment realized trough addition of calcium oxide. Essentially it is a physic-chemical treatment trough which it is possible to obtain a dry product with the addition of calcium oxide (quicklime) to the urban wastewater sludge. The result of the chemical reactions and water evaporation is oriented to obtain a dry product (10% humidity) as powder and with a reduction of mass in relation to the original wastewater sludge of about 40%. The realized work have been developed over the basis of the analysis of the technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposed alternative, using though normalized methodology on each of the different concrete aspects that are developed. A very important part of the experimental work which validates the technology under study has been developed at pilot plant level. Additionally, the proposed management alternative of the sludge includes using the inertized sludge as a secondary raw material in Portland cement clínker production, having been developed a industrial pilot test to validate the theoretical hypothesis been established. The thesis has been developed in the core of task 6b of Project Sostaqua in program CENIT, promoted by the Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial (CDTI). This had as an objective the creation of new knowledge to contribute to the development of a sustainable water life cycle. Being the sludge part of that cycle, task 6b has intended demonstrate the feasibility of the treatment with addition of alkaline agents, in this case with addition of calcium oxide. Over the basis of the obtained results it has been considered that the proposed process constitutes a feasible alternative to the management of the urban wastewater sludge. Considering that this management it is a difficult task to abroad, due to the technical difficulties implied, it should be convenient to diversify the alternatives in order to have backup treatment capacity in order to avoid the final disposition to landfill.

  • FP7-281047-LBLBRANE - REGENERABLE ACTIVE POLYELECTROLYTR NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR WATER REUSE AND METAL ACID RECOVERY

     Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Florido Pérez, Antonio; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Competitive project

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  • Atenuación natural e inducida de la contaminacion de origen agrícola e industrial en aguas subterráneas

     Martínez Martínez, María R.; Oliva Moncunill, Josep; Soler Gil, Albert; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Mas Pla, Josep; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç
    Competitive project

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  • Integración de procesos de membranas, intercambio iónico y precipitación química en la valorización de concentrados de tratamientos

     Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Oliva Moncunill, Josep; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Competitive project

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  • 2012 Solvay Group Technology-research-procurement Innovations Awards

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Award or recognition

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  • Electronic tongue-FIA system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes

     Wilson, Deivy; Florido Pérez, Antonio; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Fernández de Labastida, Marc; Alegret, Salvador; del Valle, Manel
    International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose
    p. 98-99
    DOI: 10.1063/1.3626320
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-04
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  • Distribution and fate of aromatic organic pollutants in seawater

     Farran Marsa, Adriana; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry
    p. 119
    Presentation's date: 2010-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Continuous and flow-injection electronic tongues for the monitoring of metal biosorption processes

     Florido Pérez, Antonio; Vernet, Jordi; Fernández de Labastida, Marc; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Wilson, Deivy; del Valle, Manel
    Ibero-American Congress on Sensors
    p. 671-675
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-09
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  • Use of a fixed-bed column of grape stalk wastes for heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Casas Pons, Ignasi; Martínez Martínez, María R.; Miralles Esteban, Nuria; Florido Pérez, Antonio
    European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry
    p. 34
    Presentation's date: 2009-12-04
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  • Evaluation and prediction of the behaviour of harmful substances on the coastal area of Barcelona¿s port.

     Farran Marsa, Adriana; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Pablo Ribas, Joan de
    European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry
    p. 57
    Presentation's date: 2009-12
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  • Virtual instrumentation and flow-injection potentiometry: a new tool for the monitoring of metal biosorption processes

     Florido Pérez, Antonio; Nualart, Silvia; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Velazco, Lya; Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia; del Valle, Manel
    Flow Analysis
    p. 152-153
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-14
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  • INTEGRACIÓN DE PROCESOS DE EXTRACCION REACTIVA Y PROCESOS DE MEMBRANAS EN LA ELIMINACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS INDESADOS EN ETAPAS DE POTABI

     Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Micro-pollutants remediation from soil and groundwater by in-situ treatment technologies  awarded activity

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Grup de recerca d'eliminació de microcontaminants orgànics i inorgànics d'aigües mitjançant carbons immadurs

     de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Gorchs Altarriba, Roser; Lao Luque, Concepcion; Sole Sardans, M. Montserrat; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Zeledón, Z
    Jornada de Recerca EPSEM 2006
    p. 85-86
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  • Sorption behaviour of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by low rank coals: performace comparison to activated carbon

     Lao Luque, Concepcion; Zeledon, Z; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Sole Sardans, M. Montserrat; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier
    International workshop on frontiers and interfaces of ion exchange
    p. 103
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  • Laboratory Evaluation of PAH oxidation by magnesium peroxides and iron oxides mixtures as reactive material for groundwater remediation

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Lao Luque, Concepcion
    9th International FZK/TNO Conference on Soil-Water Systems (Consoil 2005)
    p. 1806-1813
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  • Evaluation of macronet polymeric adsorbents for removal of PAH's from contaminated soil and groundwater

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Lao Luque, Concepcion; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    9th International FZK/TNO Conference on Soil-Water Systems (Consoil 2005)
    p. 1535-1542
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  • Laboratory evaluation of hyper-reticulated polymeric adsorbents (Macronet) on dye removal processes

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Cortina, J L; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Pablo, De J; Rovira, M
    International conference IEX2004. Ionic exchange technology for today and tomorrow
    p. 3-10
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  • Laboratory evaluation of hyper-reticulated polymeric adsorbents (macronet) on dye removal processes

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç
    ION EXCHANGE- SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
    p. 5-6
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  • Enhencement of BTEX degradation on polluted groundwaters by using mixtures of iron oxides and oxygen release compounds as reactive permeable material

     Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Pablo, J De; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Herrada, A; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Grifoll Colls, Manuel
    Contaminated Soils 2003
    p. 911-918
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  • BTEX degradation on polluted groundwaters by using magnesium peroxide as reactive permeable material

     Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Pablo, J De; Herrada, A; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Grifoll Colls, Manel
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    p. 5-6
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  • Evaluation of hyper-reticulated polymeric adsorbents (macronet) on dye removal processes

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Pablo, J De; Rovira, M
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    p. 7-8
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  • Kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal using hyper-cross-linked polymeric sorbents Macronet Hypersol MN200

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana
    Reactive and functional polymers
    Vol. 67, num. 12, p. 1515-1529
    Date of publication: 2007-12
    Journal article

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  • Kinetic study of acid red "dye" removal by activated carbon and hyper-cross-linked polymeric sorbents Macronet Hypersol MN200 and MN300

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier
    Reactive and functional polymers
    Vol. 68, num. 3, p. 718-731
    DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2007.11.013
    Date of publication: 2008-03
    Journal article

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    The search for suitable sorbents for persistent organic pollutants (like dyes) removal from aqueous solutions has prompted the evaluation of polymeric resins incorporating new properties that solve many of the existing problems when using granular activated carbon (GAC). A new type of non-functionalized macroporous hyper-cross-linked polymers Hypersol Macronet (MN200 and MN300) has been evaluated and kinetics measurements on the extraction of azo dye (Acid red 14) were made. Analyses of the respective batch rate data with two kinetic models, the homogenous particle diffusion model (HPDM)and the shell progressive model (SPM) were carried out. Sorbent phase was confirmed as the rate-determining step of the dye sorption process. Effective particle diffusion coefficients (Deff) were determined from the rate data proposed by both models. The Deff values from both HPMD and SPM equations varied from 5 10 13 to 4 10 16 m2 s 1. Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion model showed a double contribution of the surface and pore diffusivities to the sorption process. Pore and surface diffusivities were calculated using a heterogeneous model. Hyper-cross-linked polymers reported a double contribution (pore and surface) to the overall diffusion process meanwhile GAC coefficients indicate a surface diffusion as the controlling mechanism.

  • Evaluation of hyper-cross-linked polymeric sorbents (Macronet MN200 and MN300) on dye (Acid red 14) removal process

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier
    Reactive and functional polymers
    Vol. 68, num. 3, p. 679-691
    DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2007.11.005
    Date of publication: 2008-03
    Journal article

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    Polymeric supports are presented as an alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) for organic contaminants removal from waste waters from industrial processes. The present work describes the sorption of an azo dye (Acid red 14) from aqueous solution onto Macronet polymeric sorbent MN200 and MN300. Batch experiments were performed to determine loading isotherms and loading rates at different pH. The behaviour of a non-functionalized Macronet support MN200 was compared with Macronet MN300 containing tertiary amine groups. The loadings achieved were 65 g kg 1 for MN200 and 108 g kg 1 for MN300. The influence of the acidity on dye removal was notable; the decrease of pH provides an increase on the loading around 100% of the value reported at neutral pH. Equilibrium data were modelled with Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherms. The hyper-cross-linked polymers extract Acid red 14, via a complex sorption process depending on the aqueous feed composition and depending on the nature of the sorbent evaluated. The Redlich–Peterson isotherm provides a better description of sorption data for both resins. Kinetic experiments were carried out for both sorbents at different pH and azo dye concentrations. Three theoretical models (pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order reaction and the Elovich model) were used to describe the Acid red 14 sorption kinetics, and to determine the sorption rate constants by graphical and numerical analysis of the experimental data by using the proposed models. The study showed that sorption systems followed a pseudo-first-order reaction model although the pseudo-second-order reaction model provides a good description of the sorption process.

  • Characterization of azo dye (Acid Red 14) removal with granular activated carbon: Equilibrium and kinetic data

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier
    Solvent extraction and ion exchange
    Vol. 26, num. 3, p. 271-288
    Date of publication: 2008-06
    Journal article

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  • Sorption kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons removal using granular activated carbon: intraparticle difussion coefficients

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Vol. 157, num. 2-3, p. 386-396
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.12.119
    Date of publication: 2008-09
    Journal article

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    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was evaluated as a suitable sorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, kinetic measurements on the extraction of a family of six PAHs were taken. A morphology study was performed by means of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of GAC samples. Analyses of the batch rate data for each PAH were carried out using two kinetic models: the homogenous particle diffusion model (HPDM) and the shell progressive model (SPM). The process was controlled by diffusion rate the solutes (PAHs) that penetrated the reacted layer at PAH concentrations in the range of 0.2–10 mg L−1. The effective particle diffusion coefficients (Deff) derived from the two models were determined from the batch rate data. The Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model made a double contribution to the surface and pore diffusivities in the sorption process. The Deff values derived from both the HPMD and SPM equations varied from 1.1×10−13 to 6.0×10−14 m2 s−1. The simplest model, the pore diffusion model, was applied first for data analysis. The model of the next level of complexity, the surface diffusion model, was applied in order to gain a deeper understanding of the diffusion process. This model is able to explain the data, and the apparent surface diffusivities are in the same order of magnitude as the values for the sorption of functionalized aromatic hydrocarbons (phenols and sulphonates)that are described in the literature.

  • Kinetics of sorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons onto granular activated carbon and Macronet hyper-cross-linked polymers (MN200)

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Lao Luque, Concepcion
    Journal of colloid and interface science
    Vol. 310, num. 1, p. 35-46
    Date of publication: 2007-06
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  • Evaluation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon removal from aqueous solutions using activated carbon and hyper-crosslinked polymer (Macronet MN200)

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Farran Marsa, Adriana; de las Heras Cisa, F. Xavier
    Journal of chemical technology & biotechnology
    Vol. 84, num. 2, p. 236-245
    Date of publication: 2009-02
    Journal article

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  • Oxidation by Fenton's reagent combined with biological treatment applied to a creosote-comtaminated soil

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Alessandri, R; Aunola, T; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Tuhkanen, T
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Vol. 166, num. 2-3, p. 594-602
    Date of publication: 2009-07
    Journal article

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  • Phenol removal from aqueous solution by adsorption and ion exchange mechanisms onto polymeric resins

     Caetano, M; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Journal of colloid and interface science
    Vol. 338, num. 2, p. 402-409
    Date of publication: 2009-10
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  • Concentration of NaCl from seawater reverse osmosis brines for the chlor-alkali industry by electrodialysis

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valero Cervera, Fernando; Miguel Centeno, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Desalination
    Vol. 342, p. 107-117
    DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2013.12.021
    Date of publication: 2014-06-02
    Journal article

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    Currently, numerous studies are focused on the valorisation of seawater desalination reverse osmosis brines. Electrodialysis can be used to concentrate one of the primary components (NaCI) and obtain a suitable raw material for industrial applications, such as the chlor-alkali industry. An electrodialysis pilot plant was used to evaluate the efficiency of concentrating a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine under representative full-scale operational conditions covering the temperature range of a semiarid climate. The results indicate that electrodialysis is a technology that can concentrate SVVRO brines from approximately 70 to 245 g/L NaCl, achieving an additional intrinsic purification of major multivalent ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-) due to the selectivity patterns of ion exchange membranes and the ion-complexation reactions in the concentrated brines. However, minor components, such as Ni and Cu, are concentrated due to the formation of Cu and Ni complexes with chloride ions to form monocharged species (e.g., NiCl+ and CuCl+). Energy consumption values of 0.12 kWh/kg NaCl for 185 g NaCl/l at 27 degrees C and 0.35 kA/m(2) or 0.19 kWh/kg NaCl for 203 g NaCl/l at 27 degrees C and 0.50 kA/m(2) were reached. These results were compared with the data obtained from the literature for salt production by electrodialysers. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products from mining and seawater desalination brines for water treatment applications

     Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
    Vol. 89, num. 6, p. 872-883
    DOI: 10.1002/jctb.4326
    Date of publication: 2014-06-01
    Journal article

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    BACKGROUNDBrines from the drainage of potash mine tailings and from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination were previously evaluated as sources of NaCl for the chlor-alkali industry. Valorisation of NaCl as raw material is required to meet the membrane electrolysis specifications of NaCl saturation and control of interferences (Ca, Mg and sulphate). Brines concentration in NaCl was previously achieved for SWRO brines using electrodialysis (ED). In this work, valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products via selective recovery was evaluated.; RESULTSRecovery of Ca(II) and Mg(II) using chemical precipitation with Na2CO3 and NaOH was evaluated at 25 degrees C and 65 degrees C using one single reagent and mixtures of reagents. The excess of reactants needed to achieve the maximum removal efficiency ranged from 0.35 to 14 g L-1 Na2CO3 and 0.85 g L-1 NaOH. Selective concentration of SWRO brines by ED benefited the purification, as it slightly diluted the antiscalants. The increase of temperatures also benefited their removal process.; CONCLUSIONSTotal chemical analysis of Ca and Mg by-products showed the presence of mixed salts of Ca and Mg when Na2CO3 was used and more pure precipitates of Mg when NaOH was used. In both cases, small amounts of minor traces initially present in the brines were found. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • Impacts on effluent contaminants from mine sites : risk assessment, fate, and distribution of pollution at basin scale

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Environmental science and pollution research
    Vol. 21, num. 9, p. 5960-5971
    DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2559-7
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    The environmental implications of mining activities are of worldwide concern. An environmental evaluation at the basin level was conducted because of widespread mining in Cajamarca in Northern Peru. A sediment monitoring program was developed at the Jequetepeque basin, located in Cajamarca. A total of 16 sites were monitored at three different times between June 2009 and July 2010, and a total of 42 samples were collected. All samples were analyzed by microwave digestion and by a sequential extraction scheme following the three-stage European Community Bureau of Reference (three-stage BCR) protocol. Trace element mobilization from the sediments to the water column was assessed by the risk assessment code (RAC). Spatial and temporal distribution of trace elements was evaluated by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd, Zn, As, and Pb showed the highest concentrations independent of season. Notably, Cu concentration and mobility increased during the wet season for all samples. Additionally, Hg concentration and mobility increased during the wet season near the mine sites. According to the enrichment factor, the highest enrichments of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As were related to mine runoff. The effect of trace elements near the mine sites at the Jequetepeque basin was considered a significant threat to the environment due to Cd, Zn, Pb, and As, and the concentrations of Cu and Hg were also considered a concern. This work establishes a baseline for the environmental quality status of the Jequetepeque basin that may support water quality management in Peru.

    Electronic supplementary material The online Electronic supplementary material: the on-line version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-014-2559-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Wastewater treatment by MBR pilot plant: flat sheet and hollow fibre case studies

     Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Desalination and water treatment
    Vol. 51, num. 10-12, p. 2423-2430
    DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2012.747476
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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    The design and implementation of membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was performed in order to treat municipal wastewater derived from the Suria municipality (Catalonia, Spain) wastewater treatment plant. Two submerged membrane configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre) in MBR pilot plant were used for this purpose. The influent and effluents were monitored and controlled in order to ensure the achievements of the highest quality determined by Spanish legislation for water reuse. The Remosa company interest was focused in pilot plants applications for the small urban areas. Taking into account that the level of control and maintenance of this small plant can be lower than recommended, the start-up was performed under less favourable conditions without any sludge seed. After 8-months of continuous operation, the physico-chemical and microbial parameters of both MBR configurations achieved the water quality specifications defined for urban service, agricultural and recreational uses...

  • Stabilisation of dewatered domestic sewage sludge by lime addition as raw material for the cement industry: understanding process and reactor performance

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Granados, Ricard; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Chemical engineering journal
    Vol. 232, p. 458-467
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2013.07.104
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    This paper describes the performance and feasibility of the domestic dewatered sewage sludge (DDSS) stabilised with lime as raw material for the cement industry. The stabilisation process uses a screw-based plug reactor to provide mixing conditions suitable to reduce the water content of the sludge to level of 10%a w/w by taking advantage of the exothermic reaction of the hydration of lime to form portlandite, which favours the evaporation of water. The high alkalinity provided by the added lime promotes the reduction of the organic matter content through a transformation of the complex organic structures of the biomass present in the DDSS to simple organic structures and partly to inorganic carbon in a form of the (CaCO3(s)) via a series of exothermic (neutralisation and saponification) and endothermic chemical processes (hydrolysis). The sludge stabilisation with lime process was studied at a pre-industrial scale using a pilot plant with a 6 t DDSS/h treatment capacity. The dewatered sludge and the stabilised product streams were properly characterised to quantify the mass and energy balances. Both balances were used to improve the performance of the process and to quantify the reaction enthalpy (-7914.7 ± 172 kJ/kg DDSS) associated with the mineralisation of the organic matter, using a numerical algorithm. The influence of any biological process was discarded by taking into account the microbiological monitoring data. The low residence time in the reactor (less than 40 min) and the high alkalinity of the reaction mixture provided by the produced Ca(OH)2(s) did not favour substantial biological activity which also requires hydroxyl ions and water, however, CaO(s) will generate hydroxyl ions only after being hydrated.

  • Comparative LCA of sewage sludge valorisation as both fuel and raw material substitute in clinker production

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Granados, Ricard; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Martínez Gasol, Carles; Guillem, Manel; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro
    Journal of cleaner production
    Vol. 51, p. 205-213
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.01.026
    Date of publication: 2013-07-15
    Journal article

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    A life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of urban sewage sludge use as alternative fuel or raw material in clinker production was carried out. In order to quantify in detail the overall environmental impact of both scenarios, the sewage sludge treatment process and the transport to cement facilities for both alternatives were considered. The substitution ratio of fuel (petcoke) and raw material (limestone) was fixed between 5 and 15% according to the cement production plant limitations. Both scenarios show CO2 savings when compared to the clinker production without substitution. The mid-point and end-point analysis were favourable to the fuel substitution with savings ranging from 3 to 7% compared to the raw material substitution and also to base case without substitution. The influence of the amount of sewage sludge used for both scenarios indicates that fuel substitution reduced the CO2 emissions when the amount of substitution is increased, while other mid-point and end-point categories were proportionally favourable to the fuel substitution scenario. Additionally, the influence of the substituted material characteristics showed that low heating value (fuel substitution) and CaO addition in lime stabilized sludge (raw material substitution) are critical parameters in terms of environmental impact in clinker production. The fuel substitution represents a significant environmental improvement compared to the raw material substitution scenario and clinker production without substitution.

  • Characterization of chromium (III) removal from aqueous solutions by an immature coal (leonardite). Toward a better understanding of the phenomena involved

     Lao Luque, Concepcion; Sole Sardans, M. Montserrat; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Dorado Castaño, Antonio David
    Clean technologies and environmental policyB
    p. 1-10
    DOI: 10.1007/s10098-013-0610-x
    Date of publication: 2013-03-30
    Journal article

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    Removal of chromium (III) from aqueous solutions by leonardite (a low-cost adsorbent) was studied in a series of batch experiments. Stabilization of the adsorbent material with alginate beads was also investigated. The extent of adsorption was evaluated as a function of the solution pH, contact time, and the adsorbate concentration. Cr(III) removal was pH dependent, reaching a maximum at a pH range of 4¿5. Kinetic studies allowed gives relevant information regarding mass transfer processes involved during the sorption process. Equilibrium data fitted well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the maximum adsorption capacity turned out to be 75.2 mg Cr(III) g-1. Encapsulation of leonardite in alginate beads resulted in a slightly lower adsorption capacity.

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    Cr(III) removal from aqueous solutions: A straaightforward model approaching of the adsorption in a fixed-bed column  Open access

     Dorado Castaño, Antonio David; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Sole Sardans, M. Montserrat; Lao Luque, Concepcion
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
    Vol. 49, num. 2, p. 179-186
    DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2013.838855
    Date of publication: 2014-02-07
    Journal article

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    Prediction of breakthrough curves for continuous sorption characterization is generally performed by means of simple and simplified equations. These expressions hardly have any physical meaning and, also do not allow extrapolation. A novel and simple approach, based on unsteady state mass balances, is presented herein for the simulation of the adsorption of Cr(III) ions from aqueous onto a low-cost adsorbent (leonardite). The proposed model overcomes the limitations of the commonly used analytical solution-based models without the need for complex mathematical methods. A set of experimental breakthrough curves obtained from lab-scale, fixed-bed columns was used to calibrate and validate the proposed model with a minimum number of parameters to be adjusted.

  • Salinity gradient solar pond: Validation and simulation model

     Bernad, Francesc; Casas Garriga, Sandra; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Solar energy
    Vol. 98, p. 366-374
    DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.10.004
    Date of publication: 2013-12
    Journal article

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    This paper describes the development, validation and use of a design and simulation tool for modeling the performance of a salinity gradient solar pond. An experimental solar pond pilot plant was constructed in central Catalonia (NE part of the Iberian Peninsula). The body of the pond is a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank, with 3m height, 8m diameter and total area of 50m2. The lateral tank wall has been insulated with 60mm of rock wool. The gradient in the solar pond was settled and maintained since 30 September 2009 to date. The developed tool was validated by comparing simulation results to experimental data collected from the experimental solar pond from November 2009 until August 2011. The resulting first-order differential equations describing the overall energy balance in the pond were solved numerically using a finite-difference method. The temperature profiles of the pond were properly described, especially at lower subzones of the non-convective zone (NCZ) and the lower convective zone (LCZ). The higher errors between experimental and predicted values were found in the upper convective zone (UCZ). Once validated, successfully, the model was used to predict the thermal performance of pre-industrial solar pond to be constructed and operated in Granada, SW of Spain. The thermal profiles predicted temperature differences between surface and bottom of around 40°C during summer time, with a maximum temperature of 75°C. The energy efficiency of the LCZ was anticipated to range between 12% and 25% along one year operation, resulting in 16% of incoming radiation to be extractable for site application.

    This paper describes the development, validation and use of a design and simulation tool for modeling the performance of a salinity gradient solar pond. An experimental solar pond pilot plant was constructed in central Catalonia (NE part of the Iberian Peninsula). The body of the pond is a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank, with 3 m height, 8 m diameter and total area of 50 m2. The lateral tank wall has been insulated with 60 mm of rock wool. The gradient in the solar pond was settled and maintained since 30 September 2009 to date. The developed tool was validated by comparing simulation results to experimental data collected from the experimental solar pond from November 2009 until August 2011. The resulting first-order differential equations describing the overall energy balance in the pond were solved numerically using a finite-difference method. The temperature profiles of the pond were properly described, especially at lower subzones of the non-convective zone (NCZ) and the lower convective zone (LCZ). The higher errors between experimental and predicted values were found in the upper convective zone (UCZ). Once validated, successfully, the model was used to predict the thermal performance of pre-industrial solar pond to be constructed and operated in Granada, SW of Spain. The thermal profiles predicted temperature differences between surface and bottom of around 40 °C during summer time, with a maximum temperature of 75 °C. The energy efficiency of the LCZ was anticipated to range between 12% and 25% along one year operation, resulting in 16% of incoming radiation to be extractable for site application.

  • Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

     Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Resources, conservation and recycling
    Vol. 72, p. 102-107
    DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.01.004
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation, filtration and a final disinfection by chlorination. The influent and effluent were monitored in order to determine the treatment efficiency and assessment of the quality potential of treated grey water. The results obtained indicate that recycling of grey water allows an effluent of excellent quality with organic, surfactants and microbial parameters under the limits defined by Spanish legislation for urban water reuse. The disinfection of treated grey water is required to ensure compliance with microbial standards and to avoid the health risk in storage and application of recycled water.