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  • Numerical analysis of an instrumented steel reinforced soil wall

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio
    International journal of geomechanics
    Date of publication: 2014-02-20
    Journal article

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    The paper describes the results and lessons learned using a PLAXIS finite element method (FEM) model to simulate quantitative performance features of the Minnow Creek steel strip reinforced soil wall structure located in the USA. The Minnow Creek Wall structure was constructed and instrumented in 1999. It is a unique case study because of the comprehensive measurements that were taken to record a wide range of wall performance features. Two different constitutive models for the soil were used (linear-elastic Mohr-Coulomb and Hardening Soil model with Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion) and numerical outcomes compared with physical measurements. The numerical results were shown to be sensitive to boundary conditions assumed at the toe of the wall. The generally encouraging agreement between physical and numerically predicted results gives confidence that commercial FEM software packages can be useful for the analysis and design of these types of structures provided that care is taken in the selection of input parameters.

    The paper describes the results and lessons learned using a PLAXIS finite element method (FEM) model to simulate quantitative performance features of the Minnow Creek steel strip reinforced soil wall structure located in the USA. The Minnow Creek Wall structure was constructed and instrumented in 1999. It is a unique case study because of the comprehensive measurements that were taken to record a wide range of wall performance features. Two different constitutive models for the soil were used (linear-elastic Mohr-Coulomb and Hardening Soil model with Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion) and numerical outcomes compared with physical measurements. The numerical results were shown to be sensitive to boundary conditions assumed at the toe of the wall. The generally encouraging agreement between physical and numerically predicted results gives confidence that commercial FEM software packages can be useful for the analysis and design of these types of structures provided that care is taken in the selection of input parameters.

  • Numerical study of the influence of foundation compressibility and reinforcement stiffness on the behaviour of reinforced soil walls

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio
    International journal of geotechnical engineering
    Date of publication: 2014-07-01
    Journal article

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    Most geosynthetic and metallic reinforced soil walls are designed assuming that the wall foundation is rigid and/or does not influence the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads under operational conditions. This assumption may not apply to walls constructed over compliant (compressible) foundations. This paper describes the results of a series of numerical simulations that were carried out on idealized 3·6, 6, and 9 m-high modular block walls seated on foundations having four different compressibility values. The walls were constructed with two reinforcement materials having very different stiffness values but the same tensile strength. The results of simulations show that as foundation stiffness decreases, reinforcement loads increase. However, for the two reinforcement materials in this study, the influence of axial stiffness of the reinforcement had a greater effect on wall performance than the foundation stiffness for walls subjected to operational (working stress) conditions at end of construction.

    Most geosynthetic and metallic reinforced soil walls are designed assuming that the wall foundation is rigid and/or does not influence the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads under operational conditions. This assumption may not apply to walls constructed over compliant (compressible) foundations. This paper describes the results of a series of numerical simulations that were carried out on idealized 3·6, 6, and 9 m-high modular block walls seated on foundations having four different compressibility values. The walls were constructed with two reinforcement materials having very different stiffness values but the same tensile strength. The results of simulations show that as foundation stiffness decreases, reinforcement loads increase. However, for the two reinforcement materials in this study, the influence of axial stiffness of the reinforcement had a greater effect on wall performance than the foundation stiffness for walls subjected to operational (working stress) conditions at end of construction.

  • Vertical-facing loads in steel reinforced soil walls

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio; Albuquerque, P.J.R.
    Journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering
    Date of publication: 2013-09
    Journal article

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    The paper investigates the influence of backfill soil, foundation soil, and horizontal joint vertical compressibility on the magnitude of vertical loads developed in steel-reinforced soil concrete panel retaining walls at the end of construction. Measurements of toe loads recorded from instrumented field walls are reviewed and demonstrate that vertical toe loads can be much larger than the self-weight of the facing. In extreme cases, these loads can result in panel-to-panel contact leading to concrete spalling at the front of the wall. Vertical loads in excess of panel self-weight have been ascribed to relative movement between the backfill soil and the panels that can develop panel-soil interface shear and downdrag loads at the connections between the panels and the steel-reinforcement elements. A two-dimensional finite-element model is developed to systematically investigate the influence of backfill soil, foundation soil, bearing pad stiffness, and panel-soil interaction on vertical loads in the panel facing. The results show that an appropriately selected number and type of compressible bearing pads can be effective in reducing vertical compression loads in these structures and at the same time ensure an acceptable vertical gap between concrete panels. The parametric analyses have been restricted to a single wall height (16.7 m) and embedment depth of 1.5 m, matching a well-documented field case. However, the observations reported in the paper are applicable to other similar structures. The general numerical approach can be used by engineers to optimize the design of the bearing pads for similar steel-reinforced soil wall structures using available commercial finite-element model packages together with simple constitutive models.

    The paper investigates the influence of backfill soil, foundation soil, and horizontal joint vertical compressibility on the magnitude of vertical loads developed in steel-reinforced soil concrete panel retaining walls at the end of construction. Measurements of toe loads recorded from instrumented field walls are reviewed and demonstrate that vertical toe loads can be much larger than the self-weight of the facing. In extreme cases, these loads can result in panel-to-panel contact leading to concrete spalling at the front of the wall. Vertical loads in excess of panel self-weight have been ascribed to relative movement between the backfill soil and the panels that can develop panel-soil interface shear and downdrag loads at the connections between the panels and the steel-reinforcement elements. A two-dimensional finite-element model is developed to systematically investigate the influence of backfill soil, foundation soil, bearing pad stiffness, and panel-soil interaction on vertical loads in the panel facing. The results show that an appropriately selected number and type of compressible bearing pads can be effective in reducing vertical compression loads in these structures and at the same time ensure an acceptable vertical gap between concrete panels. The parametric analyses have been restricted to a single wall height (16.7 m) and embedment depth of 1.5 m, matching a well-documented field case. However, the observations reported in the paper are applicable to other similar structures. The general numerical approach can be used by engineers to optimize the design of the bearing pads for similar steel-reinforced soil wall structures using available commercial finiteelement model packages together with simple constitutive models.

  • Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio
    International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelling approach. Numerical modelling was carried out using the commercial finite element program PLAXIS. The numerical model was verified against measurements recorded for an instrumented 6 m-high wall reinforced with steel strips. The influence of the facing stiffness and backfill-foundation stiffness combinations on the vertical load through the facing and on the magnitude and distribution of the reinforcement loads was examined. For walls subjected to operational (working stress) conditions at end of construction, the numerical results confirm that the vertical stiffness of the facing and soil-stiffness combinations can have a great effect on the vertical facing loads and on the magnitude and distribution of the load mobilized in the soil reinforcement layers.

    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelling approach. Numerical modelling was carried out using the commercial finite element program PLAXIS. The numerical model was verified against measurements recorded for an instrumented 6 m-high wall reinforced with steel strips. The influence of the facing stiffness and backfill-foundation stiffness combinations on the vertical load through the facing and on the magnitude and distribution of the reinforcement loads was examined. For walls subjected to operational (working stress) conditions at end of construction, the numerical results confirm that the vertical stiffness of the facing and soil-stiffness combinations can have a great effect on the vertical facing loads and on the magnitude and distribution of the load mobilized in the soil reinforcement layers.

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    Modelling 3D mechanics interfaces with continuum elements  Open access

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Olivella Pastalle, Sebastian; Lloret Morancho, Antonio; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Bathurst, Richard
    Workshop of CODE-BRIGHT Users
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This document presents preliminary results of FEM-numerical analysis of soilreinforcement pullout tests. The numerical model has been developed with CODE_BRIGHT and assuming the interfaces as continuum materials. The results of the preliminary parametric analyses described herein provide useful information on the shear behavior modeling of soil-reinforcement strip interfaces under working stress conditions

    This document presents preliminary results of FEM-numerical analysis of soil-reinforcement pullout tests. The numerical model has been developed with CODE_BRIGHT and assuming the interfaces as continuum materials. The results of the preliminary parametric analyses described herein provide useful information on the shear behavior modeling of soil-reinforcement strip interfaces under working stress conditions.

  • Influence of foundation compressibility on reinforcement loads in geosynthetic reinforced soil walls

     Bathurst, Richard; Puig Damians, Ivan; Ezzein, F.; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio
    European Geosynthetics Congress
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A numerical FLAC model was used to investigate the influence of vertical stiffness of the foundation on the performance of an idealized 6-m high reinforced soil modular block retaining wall. Three different Winkler linear spring values were used to simulate a rigid foundation and two compliant foundation cases. For each foundation condition, the influence of reinforcement material stiffness was also investigated. One material matched the properties of a relatively extensible polymeric geogrid product and the other a relatively inextensible welded wire mesh material with much higher stiffness but the same strength. The results of simulations show that as foundation stiffness decreases, reinforcement loads increase. However, for the two reinforcement materials in this study, the influence of axial stiffness of the reinforcement had a greater effect on wall performance than the foundation stiffness for walls subjected to operational (working stress) conditions at end of construction.

  • A bridge foundation analysis

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Olivella Pastalle, Sebastian; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro
    Date: 2011-06-02
    Report

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    Análisis numérico de los esfuerzos verticales en el paramento de un muro de tierra reforzada en suelo diabásico  Open access

     Puig Damians, Ivan; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Albuquerque, P.J.R.; Lloret Morancho, Antonio; Ledesma Villalba, Alberto; de Santos, C.
    Pan-Am CGS Geotechnical Conference. Pan-American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Canadian Geotechnical Conference. Pan-American Conference on Teaching and Learning of Geotechnical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The paper presents a numerical analysis of the service behaviour of a reinforced soil wall constructed in a diabasic soil. A 2D model developed through the Finite Element Method (FEM) using the commercial computer software PLAXIS has been developed for this purpose. This model has been applied to the case of a 6 meters high wall constructed on a diabasic, lateritic and porous underlying soil, common to the region of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil). The geotechnical properties of this soil have been quantified for different compaction levels. In particular the vertical stresses in the front structure of the wall have been analyzed. The results show that variations in the soil stiffness and of the structure elements geometry cause significant variations of the stress-strain state and the forces that are generated. Mediante el desarrollo de un modelo numérico 2D por el método de los elementos finitos (M.E.F.) con el programa comercial de ordenador PLAXIS se ha modelado el comportamiento en servicio de muros de tierra reforzada. Este modelo se ha aplicado al caso de un muro de 6 metros de altura ejecutado en suelo del diabásico, laterítico y poroso, común en la región de Campinas (São Paulo, Brasil), con propiedades resistentes variables que se han cuantificado según diferentes niveles de compactación. Utilizando este modelo se ha estudiado, en particular, el estado tensional en el paramento del muro. Los resultados más relevantes de dicho análisis, presentados en este documento, muestran que variaciones tanto en la rigidez del terreno como en la geometría de los elementos constructivos provocan cambios significativos en el estado tenso-deformacional y en de los esfuerzos que se generan.

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    Manual para el proyecto, construcción y gestión de pavimentos bicapa de hormigón  Open access

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Carrascón Ortiz, Sergio; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Puig Damians, Ivan; Senés, Corpus
    Date of publication: 2010-12-24
    Book

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