Torrens Martin, David
Total activity: 10
Research group
LiTA - Architectural Innovation and Technology Laboratory
Department
Department of Construction Engineering
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david.torrensestudiant.upc.edu
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  • Laboratori d'innovació i tecnologia a l'arquitectura

     Avellaneda Diaz-grande, Jaime; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Maristany Carreras, Jordi; Sastre Sastre, Ramon; Albareda Valls, Albert; Franco Gonzalez, Fidel; Pons Valladares, Oriol; Puigdomenech Franquesa, Joan; Torrens Martin, David; Alentorn Puigcerver, Jaume; Muntane Raich, Oriol; Soriano Botella, Enrique; Tornabell Teixidor, Josep; Avellaneda López, Omar Fabrissio; Torres Londoño, Natalia Paola; Zamora i Mestre, Joan Lluís
    Competitive project

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  • Mezclas Ternarias de Cemento Portland Cemento de Aluminato de Calcio y Sulfato Cálcico: Mecanismos de Expansión  Open access

     Torrens Martin, David
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El cemento Portland es el material constructivo más usado. Está compuesto principalmente por silicatos, también tiene en menor proporción aluminatos y sulfato cálcico. Su naturaleza hidráulica, genera que en su hidratación se formen nuevas fases que proporcionan propiedades (endurecimiento, resistencia...) muy útiles en el campo de la construcción.El cemento de aluminato de calcio está compuesto principalmente por aluminatos. Presenta un fraguado más rápido y un desarrollo de resistencias mayores que un cemento Portland. Su hidratación proporciona diferentes fases dependiendo de la temperatura a la que ocurra. Este hecho produce ciertas reacciones de conversión con una disminución del volumen provocando una disminución de las resistencias.Con el fin de generar nuevas propiedades o mejorar alguna de ellas, existe un gran número de materiales compuestos formados por uno o varios cementos con diversas adiciones. Las diferentes combinaciones de materiales, producen una variación en la producción de las fases hidratadas que conllevan cambios en las propiedades mecánicas de los materiales compuestos.Los sistemas ternarios formados por CP/CAC/CS ¯, se han venido usando para producir mezclas con propiedades de fraguado y endurecimiento diferentes a los que presentan los cementos constituyentes por separado. La demanda de este tipo de productos se ha visto incrementada, debido a la necesidad de una rápida puesta en servicio de ciertos sistemas constructivos. No obstante, dentro de los materiales de construcción sus aplicaciones, se han limitado a interiores debido a ciertos problemas de durabilidad.En este trabajo se estudia la zona rica en cemento Portland dentro de los sistemas ternarios CP/CAC/CS ¯. Observando la formación de fases hidratadas, en especial la etringita y relacionándolas con las variaciones dimensionales que se producen.De forma general se observa que un incremento en la formación de etringita produce una mayor variación dimensional. La formación de etringita es función de las relaciones CP/CAC y CAC/CS ¯. El contenido de aluminatos y sulfatos rige la formación de esta fase, si los sulfatos presentes no consumen todos los aluminatos, estos reaccionan con la etringita para formar monosulfoaluminato disminuyendo la expansión. Pero si el contenido en sulfato es alto la formación de etringita aumenta provocando grandes variaciones dimensionales, que para porcentajes superiores al 5% provocan fisuras llegando a la destrucción de probetas si se sube en exceso. Así se comprobó que el medio de curado también influye en la variación dimensional que se produce. Muestras con las mismas proporciones de cementos y sulfato cálcico sufren variaciones diferentes. Cuando se curan al aire se produce retracción, pero cuando se curan bajo agua se produce expansión. Esto se puede deber a diferencias en la intercapa del gel C-S-H desarrollado, siendo más voluminoso en las muestras sumergidas por la inclusión de moléculas de agua.

    Portland cement is the most widely used building material. Is mainly composed of silicates, also has lesser proportion of aluminates and calcium sulfate. Its hydraulic nature generates in its hydration, the formation of new phases which provide properties (hardness, resistance...) very useful in the field of construction. Calcium aluminate cement is mainly composed of aluminate. Present a faster setting and resistance development higher than Portland cement. Its hydration provides different phases depending of the temperature. This fact provides conversion reactions with a volume decrease causing a resistance decrease. For generate a new properties or improve some of them, exist a wide range binders materials formed for one o few cements with diverse additions. The different combinations provide a variation in the hydrated phases produced which generate changes in the mechanical properties of binders materials. Ternary systems formed by CP/CAC/CS, have been used to produce mixtures with different setting and hardened properties than separately cements. However, within of building materials, the applications of these systems are limited at insides due to durability problems. This work studies the Portland cement rich zone within of ternary systems. Noting the hydrated phases formation, in special ettringite and relationship with dimensional variations which be produced. Generally is observed which an increase in the ettringite formation provides a higher dimensional variation. Ettringite formation is function of CP/CAC and CAC/CS ratios. The amount of aluminates and sulfates control the formation of this phase, if the sulfate present do not consumed all aluminates, these reacts with the ettringite to form monosulfoaluminate decreasing the expansion. In the contrary the amount of sulfate is high the ettringite formation higher and provides higher dimensional variation, that percentages up to 5% generates fissures. Also was verified that environmental of cured have influence in the dimensional variation. Samples with the same cement proportion and calcium sulfate have a different variation. When are cured at air be produced retraction, but when is cured under water be produced expansion. This fact may due at differences in the interlayer of the C‐S‐H, being more voluminous in the samples submerged per the inclusion of water molecules.

    El cemento Portland es el material constructivo más usado. Está compuesto principalmente por silicatos, también tiene en menor proporción aluminatos y sulfato cálcico. Su naturaleza hidráulica, genera que en su hidratación se formen nuevas fases que proporcionan propiedades (endurecimiento, resistencia...) muy útiles en el campo de la construcción. El cemento de aluminato de calcio está compuesto principalmente por aluminatos. Presenta un fraguado más rápido y un desarrollo de resistencias mayores que un cemento Portland. Su hidratación proporciona diferentes fases dependiendo de la temperatura a la que ocurra. Este hecho produce ciertas reacciones de conversión con una disminución del volumen provocando una disminución de las resistencias. Con el fin de generar nuevas propiedades o mejorar alguna de ellas, existe un gran número de materiales compuestos formados por uno o varios cementos con diversas adiciones. Las diferentes combinaciones de materiales, producen una variación en la producción de las fases hidratadas que conllevan cambios en las propiedades mecánicas de los materiales compuestos. Los sistemas ternarios formados por CP/CAC/CS, se han venido usando para producir mezclas con propiedades de fraguado y endurecimiento diferentes a los que presentan los cementos constituyentes por separado. La demanda de este tipo de productos se ha visto incrementada, debido a la necesidad de una rápida puesta en servicio de ciertos sistemas constructivos. No obstante, dentro de los materiales de construcción sus aplicaciones, se han limitado a interiores debido a ciertos problemas de durabilidad. En este trabajo se estudia la zona rica en cemento Portland dentro de los sistemas ternarios. Observando la formación de fases hidratadas, en especial la etringita y relacionándolas con las variaciones dimensionales que se producen. De forma general se observa que un incremento en la formación de etringita produce una mayor variación dimensional. La formación de etringita es función de las relaciones CP/CAC y CAC/CS. El contenido de aluminatos y sulfatos rige la formación de esta fase, si los sulfatos presentes no consumen todos los aluminatos, estos reaccionan con la etringita para formar monosulfoaluminato disminuyendo la expansión. Pero si el contenido en sulfato es alto la formación de etringita aumenta provocando grandes variaciones dimensionales, que para porcentajes superiores al 5% provocan fisuras llegando a la destrucción de probetas si se sube en exceso. Así se comprobó que el medio de curado también influye en la variación dimensional que se produce. Muestras con las mismas proporciones de cementos y sulfato cálcico sufren variaciones diferentes. Cuando se curan al aire se produce retracción, pero cuando se curan bajo agua se produce expansión. Esto se puede deber a diferencias en la intercapa del gel C‐S‐H desarrollado, siendo más voluminoso en las muestras sumergidas por la inclusión de moléculas de agua.

    El ciment Portland és el material constructiu més usat. Està compost principalment per silicats, també té en menor proporció aluminats i sulfat càlcic. La seva naturalesa hidràulica genera que a la seva hidratació es formin noves fases que proporcionen propietats (enduriment, resistència...) molt útils en el camp de la construcció. El ciment d’aluminat de calci es composa principalment per aluminats. Presenta un fraguat mes ràpid i un desenvolupament de resistències majors que el ciment Portland. La seva hidratació proporciona diferents fases depenent de la temperatura a la que es produeixi. Aquest fet produeix certes reaccions de conversió amb una disminució del volum provocant una disminució de les resistències. Amb la finalitat de generar noves propietats o millorar alguna d’elles, existeix un gran nombre de materials compostos formats per un o més ciments amb diversos afegits. Les diferents combinacions de materials produeixen una variació a la producció de fases hidratades que porten canvis a les propietats mecàniques dels materials compostos. Els sistemes ternaris formats per CP/CAC/CS , s’han utilitzat per a produir mescles amb propietats de fraguat i enduriment diferents als que presenten els ciments constituents per separat. La demanda d’aquest tipus de productes s’ha vist incrementada degut a la necessitat d’una ràpida posada en servei de certs sistemes constructius. No obstant, dins dels materials de construcció les seves aplicacions s’han limitat a interiors degut a certs problemes de durabilitat. En aquest treball s’estudia la zona rica en ciment Portland dins dels sistemes ternaris, observant la formació de fases hidratades, en especial la etringita i relacionant‐les amb les variacions dimensionals que es produeixen. De forma general s’observa que un increment en la formació d’etringita produeix una major variació dimensional. La formació d’etringita es funció de les relacions CP/CAC y CAC/CS. El contingut d’aluminats i sulfats regeix la formació d’aquesta fase: si els sulfats presents no consumeixen tots els aluminats, aquests reaccionen amb l’etringita per a formar monosulfoaluminat disminuint l’expansió. Però si el contingut de sulfat és alt la formació d’etringita augmenta provocant grans variacions dimensionals, que per a percentatges superiors al 5% provoquen fissures arribant a la destrucció de provetes si puja en excés. Així es va comprovar que el mitjà de crat també influeix en la variació dimensional que es produeix. Mostres amb les mateixes proporcions de ciments i sulfat càlcic pateixen variacions diferents. Quan es curen a l’aire es produeix retracció, però quan es curen sota l’aigua es produeix expansió. Això pot ser degut a diferències en l’intercapa del gel C‐S‐H desenvolupat, essent mes voluminosos a les mostres submergides per la inclusió de molècules d’aigua.

  • Raman spectroscopy of anhydrous and hydrated calcium aluminates and sulfoaluminates

     Torrens Martin, David; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Martínez Ramírez, Sagrario; Ibáñez, Jordi; Artús, Lluís; Matschei, Thomas
    Journal of the American Ceramic Society
    Vol. 96, num. 11, p. 3589-3595
    DOI: 10.1111/jace.12535
    Date of publication: 2013-10-04
    Journal article

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    Recent investigations have revealed the great potential of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of clinker minerals and commercial Portland cements. The usefulness of this technique for the identification of anhydrous, hydrated, and carbonated phases in cement-based materials has been demonstrated. In the present work, the application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of the main clinker phases of calcium aluminate cements and calcium sulfoaluminate cement is explored. The main stable hydrated phases as well as several important carbonated phases are investigated. Raman measurements on the following phases are reported: (i) pure, unhydrated phases: CA, C12A7, CA2, C2AS, cubic-C3A, C4AF, and C4A3inline image; (ii) hydrated phases: ettringite, monosulfoaluminate, and hydrogarnet (C3AH6); (iii) carboaluminate phases: hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. The present results, which are discussed in terms of the internal vibrational modes of the aluminate, carbonate, and sulfate molecular groups as well as stretching O¿H vibrations, show the ability of Raman spectroscopy to identify the main hydrated and unhydrated phases in the aluminate and sulfoaluminate cements. The Raman spectra obtained in this work provide an extended database to the existing data published in the literature.

    Recent investigations have revealed the great potential of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of clinker minerals and commercial Portland cements. The usefulness of this technique for the identification of anhydrous, hydrated, and carbonated phases in cement-based materials has been demonstrated. In the present work, the application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of the main clinker phases of calcium aluminate cements and calcium sulfoaluminate cement is explored. The main stable hydrated phases as well as several important carbonated phases are investigated. Raman measurements on the following phases are reported: (i) pure, unhydrated phases: CA, C12A7, CA2, C2AS, cubic-C3A, C4AF, and C4A3inline image; (ii) hydrated phases: ettringite, monosulfoaluminate, and hydrogarnet (C3AH6); (iii) carboaluminate phases: hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. The present results, which are discussed in terms of the internal vibrational modes of the aluminate, carbonate, and sulfate molecular groups as well as stretching O–H vibrations, show the ability of Raman spectroscopy to identify the main hydrated and unhydrated phases in the aluminate and sulfoaluminate cements. The Raman spectra obtained in this work provide an extended database to the existing data published in the literature.

  • Effect of sulfate content on cement mixtures

     Torrens Martin, David; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía
    Construction & building materials
    Vol. 48, p. 144-150
    DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.05.106
    Date of publication: 2013-07-13
    Journal article

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    Portland cement, calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulfate mixtures were investigated to determine the influence of sulfates and the effect of curing conditions on durability. This study focused on the richest mix of Portland cement. The PC/CAC ratio was kept constant at 5.67, and different proportions of calcium sulfate were added (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Samples were kept at 20 C and 97% relative humidity or immersed in water. The dimensional change and mineralogical composition of samples were evaluated. The results showed that the dimensional change of samples in the PC/CAC and PC=CAC=CS systems depended on the amount of sulfate added and on the curing conditions. The dimensional change was associated not only with amorphous ettringite formation, but also with the subsequent formation of a C-S-H gel.

    Portland cement, calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulfate mixtures were investigated to determine the influence of sulfates and the effect of curing conditions on durability. This study focused on the richest mix of Portland cement. The PC/CAC ratio was kept constant at 5.67, and different proportions of calcium sulfate were added (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Samples were kept at 20 °C and 97% relative humidity or immersed in water. The dimensional change and mineralogical composition of samples were evaluated. The results showed that the dimensional change of samples in the PC/CAC and View the MathML source systems depended on the amount of sulfate added and on the curing conditions. The dimensional change was associated not only with amorphous ettringite formation, but also with the subsequent formation of a C-S-H gel.

  • Hydration of calcium aluminates and calcium sulfoaluminate studied by Raman spectroscopy

     Torrens Martin, David; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Martinez Ramirez, Sagrario
    Cement and concrete research
    Vol. 47, p. 43-50
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.01.015
    Date of publication: 2013-05-01
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    The main hydration reaction product in the ternary system fly ash, calcium sulphate and calcium aluminate cement (40/20/40) at 20°C is a hydrated calcium sulfoaluminate compound, an AFt phase slightly different from ¿traditional ettringite¿. The carbonation of ettringite develops gypsum but in this case rapidcreekite is formed. For the first time it has been observed that carbonation of the mentioned calcium sulfoaluminate compound (AFt), an hydrated calcium sulphate carbonated phase (Ca2(SO4)(CO3)·4H2O) is formed with the replacement of an SO4 row in a (0 4 0) layer of the gypsum by CO3 groups. The developed carbonated phase has been studied and analyzed through XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

    The main hydration reaction product in the ternary system fly ash, calcium sulphate and calcium aluminate cement (40/20/40) at 20°C is a hydrated calcium sulfoaluminate compound, an AFt phase slightly different from “traditional ettringite”. The carbonation of ettringite develops gypsum but in this case rapidcreekite is formed. For the first time it has been observed that carbonation of the mentioned calcium sulfoaluminate compound (AFt), an hydrated calcium sulphate carbonated phase (Ca2(SO4)(CO3)·4H2O) is formed with the replacement of an SO4 row in a (0 4 0) layer of the gypsum by CO3 groups. The developed carbonated phase has been studied and analyzed through XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  • Conduction calorimetric studies of ternary binders based on Portland cement, calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulphate

     Torrens Martin, David; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Blanco Varela, Maria Teresa
    Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry
    Vol. 114, num. 2, p. 799-807
    DOI: 10.1007/s10973-013-3003-9
    Date of publication: 2013-01-21
    Journal article

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    Different binders of Portland cement, calcium aluminate cement and calcium sulphate (PC/CAC/CS) have been investigated to determinate the in¿uence the CAC and CS amount in the reactions mechanism. Several mixtures were studied, ratios of 100, 85/15 and 75/25 of PC/CAC with 0, 3 and 5 % of CS. Conduction calorimetric technique was used to follow the hydration during 100 h. The XRD and FTIR techniques were used as support in the analysis of the hydration products. The results have shown that the studied ternary systems form an extra amount of ettringite, and changes in the reactions mechanism with respect to a PC. The reactions mechanism depends on the CAC and CS amount present in the different binders.

  • Carbonation of ternary building cementing materials

     Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Torrens Martin, David; Martinez Ramirez, Sagrario
    Cement & concrete composites
    Vol. 34, num. 10, p. 1180-1186
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.06.016
    Date of publication: 2012-11
    Journal article

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    The carbonation processes of ettringite and calcium aluminate hydrates phases developed by hydration of calcium aluminate cement, fly ash and calcium sulphate ternary mixtures have been studied. The hydrated samples were submitted to 4% of CO2 in a carbonation chamber, and were analysed, previous carbonation and after 14 and 90 days of carbonation time, by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; the developed morphology was performed with the 14 days carbonated samples. The results evidenced that ettringite reacts with CO2 after 14 days of exposition time and evolves totally at 90 days; the developed hydrated phases C3AH6 in samples with major CAC content, also reacts with CO2. Due to carbonation, calcium carbonate ¿ mainly vaterite but also aragonite-, depending on the initial formulation, aluminium hydroxide and gypsum were detected.

    The carbonation processes of ettringite and calcium aluminate hydrates phases developed by hydration of calcium aluminate cement, fly ash and calcium sulphate ternary mixtures have been studied. The hydrated samples were submitted to 4% of CO2 in a carbonation chamber, and were analysed, previous carbonation and after 14 and 90 days of carbonation time, by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; the developed morphology was performed with the 14 days carbonated samples. The results evidenced that ettringite reacts with CO2 after 14 days of exposition time and evolves totally at 90 days; the developed hydrated phases C3AH6 in samples with major CAC content, also reacts with CO2. Due to carbonation, calcium carbonate – mainly vaterite but also aragonite-, depending on the initial formulation, aluminium hydroxide and gypsum were detected.

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    Infrared spectroscopy in the analysis of building and construction materials  Open access

     Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Torrens Martin, David; Morales Martinez, Laura Maria; Martinez Ramirez, Sagrario
    Date of publication: 2012-03-30
    Book chapter

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    Evolution to carbonated compounds of phases developed on ternary systems materials  Open access

     Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Torrens Martin, David; Morales Martinez, Laura Maria; Martinez Ramirez, Sagrario; Fernández, Pedro
    International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement
    p. 345-352
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The incorporation of supplementary cementitious materials to the cement industry is an alternative to reduce consume of large amounts of raw materials and gives up a huge spectrum of blended cements that have been noted not only for its properties of reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission but also for its well known durability properties. In this research work we evaluate ternary systems from CAC/FA/C$ mixtures, focusing on their durability. Selected formulations in the ternary system CAC/FA/C$ hydrated and carbonated have been studied at 14 and 90 days of carbonation time. The carbonation process of ettringite phases and calcium aluminate hydrates proceeded from different formulations, i.e. calcium aluminate cement, fly ash predominance, and calcium sulphate is analysed and discussed by means of infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction but also mechanical properties of samples. The analysis of the results have shown that developed hydrated compounds depend on formulation; after carbonation process, the ettringite decomposition can promote metastable calcium carbonate polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) due to inorganic compounds (aluminium hydroxide, gypsum, etc) presence. Long term carbonation of the blended samples analysis by Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of a new hydrated phase with carbonate, sulphate and calcium ions in its structure.

    Originality This paper describes for the first time a study of the durability of different selected formulations in the ternary system CAC/FA/C$ which substitutes the Portland cement by by-products. On the hydrates characterization, the Infrared and Raman spectroscopies allow the identification of differentiate ettringite structures.

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  • DURABILIDAD DE MEZCLAS TERNARIAS BASADAS EN CEMENTO PORTLAND, ALUMINATOS DE CALCIO Y SULFATOS DE CALCIO: MECANISMOS DE EXPANSION

     Torrens Martin, David; Morales Martinez, Laura Maria; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía
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