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  • Trust-aware operation of providers in cloud markets

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Lecture notes in computer science
    Date of publication: 2014-06
    Journal article

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    Online Reputation Systems allow markets to exclude providers providers that are untrustworthy or unreliable. System failures and outages may decrease the reputation of honest providers, which would lose potential clients. For that reason, providers require trust-aware management policies aimed at retaining their reputation when unexpected failures occur. This paper proposes policies to operate cloud resources to minimise the impact of system failures in the reputation. On the one side, we discriminate clients under conflicting situations to favour those that would impact more positively the reputation of the provider. On the other side, we analyse the impact of management actions in the reputation and the revenue of the provider to select those with less impact when an actuation is required. The validity of these policies is demonstrated through experiments for various use cases.

  • A risk-based model for service level agreement differentiation in cloud market providers

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Lecture notes in computer science
    Date of publication: 2014-06
    Journal article

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    Cloud providers may not always fulfil the Service Level Agreements with the clients because of outages in the data centre or inaccurate resource provisioning. Minimizing the Probability of Failure of the tasks that are allocated within a Cloud Infrastructure can be economically infeasible because overprovisioning resources increases the cost and is economically inefficient. This paper intends to increase the fulfilment rate of Service Level Agreements at the infrastructure provider side while maximizing the economic efficiency, by considering risk in the decision process. We introduce a risk model based on graph analysis for risk propagation, and we model it economically to provide three levels of risk to the clients: moderate risk, low risk, and very low risk. The client may decide the risk of the service and proportionally pay: the lower the risk the higher the price.

  • Business-Driven Resource Allocation and Management for Data Centres in Cloud Computing Markets  Open access

     Macias Lloret, Mario
    Defense's date: 2014-05-28
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Los mercados de Cloud Computing (Computación en la Nube) son una manera eficiente de organizar los recursos informáticos para la ejecución de tareas y servicios en un conjunto de proveedores geográficamente dispersos. Las aplicaciones de los clientes y los proveedores de servicios se ponen en contacto mediante un mercado para negociar la venta de recursos y servicios, resultando en la firma de un Acuerdo a Nivel de Servicio, que contiene los términos de Calidad de Servicio que el proveedor debe garantizar.Las implementaciones actuales de mercados "Cloud" carecen de un flujo de información entre los agentes negociadores que venden los recursos y los gestores de recursos que se encargan de la correcta provisión de la Calidad de Servicio. Esta tesis inserta una capa intermedia entre los agentes negociadores y los gestores de recursos; de ese modo, los agentes pueden considerar el estado de los recursos para realizar negociaciones más precisas y los gestores de recursos pueden considerar el impacto del rendimiento en los objetivos de negocio. Esta tesis define un conjunto de políticas para la negociación y gestión de los Acuerdos a Nivel de Servicio. Dichas políticas tratan diferentes objetivos de negocio: maximización del beneficio económico, clasificación de clientes, maximización de la confianza y la reputación, y minimización de riesgos. Esta tesis demuestra la efectividad de dichas políticas a través de simulaciones precisas.Un modelo para establecer precios puede ser influenciado por muchas variables. El peso a asignar a dichas variables no siempre es conocido, o puede cambiar a medida que el mercado evoluciona. Esta tesis modela y evalúa la auto-adaptación de los proveedores a entornos cambiantes mediante algoritmos genéticos. Los proveedores que más rápidamente se adaptan a cambios en el entorno consiguen mayores beneficios económicos que sus competidores.A menudo, las políticas de negocio consideran solo el corto plazo: modelan el comportamiento del sistema considerando el estado actual y el estado esperado inmediatamente después de su aplicación. Esta tesis define y evalúa un sistema de confianza y reputación que incentiva a los proveedores a considerar el impacto de sus decisiones a largo plazo. Un sistema de reputación expulsa a los clientes y proveedores con un comportamiento deshonesto, y los proveedores que consideran el impacto de la reputación en sus acciones mejoran el grado de consecución en sus objetivos de negocio.Finalmente, esta tesis estudia el riesgo como el efecto de la incertidumbre sobre los resultados esperados de los proveedores "Cloud". Esta tesis estudia las particularidades de las aplicaciones Cloud como un conjunto de recursos interconectados y cómo el riesgo se propaga a través de éstos. La incorporación de modelos de riesgo contribuye a diferenciar los Acuerdos de Nivel de Servicio según su riesgo, y planificar acciones preventivas en el foco del riesgo, redundando en el precio del servicio. La gestión del riesgo incrementa la tasa de cumplimiento de los Acuerdos a Nivel de Servicio e incrementa el beneficio del proveedor.

    Cloud Computing markets arise as an efficient way to allocate resources for the execution of tasks and services within a set of geographically dispersed providers from different organisations. Client applications and service providers meet in a market and negotiate for the sales of services by means of the signature of a Service Level Agreement that contains the Quality of Service terms that the Cloud provider has to guarantee by managing properly its resources. Current implementations of Cloud markets suffer from a lack of information flow between the negotiating agents, which sell the resources, and the resource managers that allocate the resources to fulfil the agreed Quality of Service. This thesis establishes an intermediate layer between the market agents and the resource managers. In consequence, agents can perform accurate negotiations by considering the status of the resources in their negotiation models, and providers can manage their resources considering both the performance and the business objectives. This thesis defines a set of policies for the negotiation and enforcement of Service Level Agreements. Such policies deal with different Business-Level Objectives: maximisation of the revenue, classification of clients, trust and reputation maximisation, and risk minimisation. This thesis demonstrates the effectiveness of such policies by means of fine-grained simulations. A pricing model may be influenced by many parameters. The weight of such parameters within the final model is not always known, or it can change as the market environment evolves. This thesis models and evaluates how the providers can self-adapt to changing environments by means of genetic algorithms. Providers that rapidly adapt to changes in the environment achieve higher revenues than providers that do not. Policies are usually conceived for the short term: they model the behaviour of the system by considering the current status and the expected immediate after their application. This thesis defines and evaluates a trust and reputation system that enforces providers to consider the impact of their decisions in the long term. The trust and reputation system expels providers and clients with dishonest behaviour, and providers that consider the impact of their reputation in their actions improve on the achievement of their Business-Level Objectives. Finally, this thesis studies the risk as the effects of the uncertainty over the expected outcomes of cloud providers. The particularities of cloud appliances as a set of interconnected resources are studied, as well as how the risk is propagated through the linked nodes. Incorporating risk models helps providers differentiate Service Level Agreements according to their risk, take preventive actions in the focus of the risk, and pricing accordingly. Applying risk management raises the fulfilment rate of the Service-Level Agreements and increases the profit of the provider

  • Adapting Service lifeCycle towards EfficienT Clouds (ASCETiC)

     Juan Ferrer, Ana; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi; Macias Lloret, Mario
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Advanced concepts and tools for renewable energy supply of IT Data Centres (RenewIT)

     Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Salom, Jaume; Torres Viñals, Jordi; Macias Lloret, Mario
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Risk-driven proactive fault-tolerant operation of IaaS providers  Open access

     Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Macias Lloret, Mario; Djemame, Karim; Kirkham, Thomas; Jiang, Ming; Armstrong, Django
    IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science
    Presentation's date: 2013-12-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In order to improve service execution in Clouds, the management of Cloud Infrastructure has to take measures to adhere to Service Level Agreements and Business Level Objectives, from the application layer through to how services are supported at the lowest hardware levels. In this paper a risk model methodology and holistic management approach is developed specific to the operation of the Cloud Infrastructure Provider and is applied through improvements to SLA fault tolerance in Cloud Infrastructure. Risk assessments are used to analyse execution specific data from the Cloud Infrastructure and linked to a business driven holistic management component that is part of a Cloud Manager. Initial results show improved eco-efficiency, virtual machine availability and reductions in SLA failure across the whole Cloud infrastructure by applying our combined risk-based fault tolerance approach.

    In order to improve service execution in Clouds, the management of Cloud Infrastructure has to take measures to adhere to Service Level Agreements and Business Level Objectives, from the application layer through to how services are supported at the lowest hardware levels. In this paper a risk model methodology and holistic management approach is developed specific to the operation of the Cloud Infrastructure Provider and is applied through improvements to SLA fault tolerance in Cloud Infrastructure. Risk assessments are used to analyse execution specific data from the Cloud Infrastructure and linked to a business driven holistic management component that is part of a Cloud Manager. Initial results show improved eco-efficiency, virtual machine availability and reductions in SLA failure across the whole Cloud infrastructure by applying our combined risk-based fault tolerance approach.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Supporting CPU-based guarantees in cloud SLAs via resource-level QoS metrics

     Goiri Presa, Iñigo; Julià Masso, Ferran; Fitó Comellas, Josep Oriol; Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Future generation computer systems
    Date of publication: 2012-10
    Journal article

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    Success of Cloud computing requires that both customers and providers can be confident that signed Service Level Agreements (SLA) are supporting their respective business activities to their best extent. Currently used SLAs fail in providing such confidence, especially when providers outsource resources to other providers. These resource providers typically support very simple metrics like availability, or metrics that hinder an efficient exploitation of their resources. In this paper, we propose a resource-level metric for specifying fine-grain guarantees on CPU performance. This metric allows resource providers to allocate dynamically their resources among running services depending on their demand. This is accomplished by incorporating the customer’s CPU usage in the metric definition, but avoiding fake SLA violations when the customer’s task does not use all its allocated resources. We have conducted the evaluation in a virtualized provider where we have implemented the needed infrastructure for using our metric. As demonstrated in our evaluation, our solution presents fewer SLA violations than other CPU-related metrics while maintaining the Quality of Service.

  • Client classification policies for SLA negotiation and allocation in shared cloud datacenters

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Lecture notes in computer science
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    In Utility Computing business model, the owners of the computing resources negotiate with their potential clients to sell computing power. The terms of the Quality of Service (QoS) to be provided as well as the economic conditions are established in a Service-Level Agreement (SLA). There are situations in which providers must differentiate the SLAs in function of the type of Client that is willing to access the resources or the agreed QoS e.g. when the hardware resources are shared between users of the company that own the resources and external users. This paper proposes to consider the information of potential users when the SLA is under negotiation to allow providers to prioritize users (e.g. internal users over external users, or preferential users over common users). Two policies for negotiation are introduced: price discrimination and client-aware overselling of resources. The validity of the policies is demonstrated through exhaustive experiments.

  • Cheat-proof trust model for cloud computing markets

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Lecture notes in computer science
    Date of publication: 2012-11
    Journal article

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    Online Reputation Systems would help mitigate the information asymmetry between clients and providers in Cloud Computing Markets. However, those systems raise two main drawbacks: the disagreement for assuming the cost of ownership of such services and their vulnerability to reputation attacks from dishonest parties that want to increase their reputation. This paper faces both problems by describing a decentralized model that would not need from the intervention of a central entity for managing it. This model includes mechanisms for allowing participants to avoid such dishonest behaviour from other peers: each client statistically analyses the external reports about providers and accordingly weights them in the overall trust calculation. The validity of the model is demonstrated through experiments for several use cases.

  • Client classification policies for SLA enforcement in shared cloud datacenters

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Business-driven IT management for cloud computing providers

     Fitó Comellas, Josep Oriol; Macias Lloret, Mario; Julià Massó, Ferran; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Cheat-proof trust model for cloud computing markets

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    International Conference on Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems and Services
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Client classification policies for SLA negotiation and allocation in shared cloud datacenters  Open access

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    International Conference on the Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services
    Presentation's date: 2011-12-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In Utility Computing business model, the owners of the computing resources negotiate with their potential clients to sell computing power. The terms of the Quality of Service (QoS) to be provided as well as the economic conditions are established in a Service-Level Agreement (SLA). There are situations in which providers must differentiate the SLAs in function of the type of Client that is willing to access the resources or the agreed QoS e.g. when the hardware resources are shared between users of the company that own the resources and external users. This paper proposes to consider the information of potential users when the SLA is under negotiation to allow providers to prioritize users (e.g. internal users over external users, or preferential users over common users). Two policies for negotiation are introduced: price discrimination and client-aware overselling of resources. The validity of the policies is demonstrated through exhaustive experiments.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • A genetic model for pricing in cloud computing markets

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    ACM Symposium on Applied Computing
    Presentation's date: 2011-03-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Maximizing revenue in grid markets using an economically enhanced resource manager

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Rana, Omer; Smith, Garry; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi
    Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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    Traditional resource management has had as its main objective the optimization of throughput, based on parameters such as CPU, memory, and network bandwidth. With the appearance of Grid markets, new variables that determine economic expenditure, benefit and opportunity must be taken into account. The Self-organizing ICT Resource Management (SORMA) project aims at allowing resource owners and consumers to exploit market mechanisms to sell and buy resources across the Grid. SORMA's motivation is to achieve efficient resource utilization by maximizing revenue for resource providers and minimizing the cost of resource consumption within a market environment. An overriding factor in Grid markets is the need to ensure that the desired quality of service levels meet the expectations of market participants. This paper explains the proposed use of an economically enhanced resource manager (EERM) for resource provisioning based on economic models. In particular, this paper describes techniques used by the EERM to support revenue maximization across multiple service level agreements and provides an application scenario to demonstrate its usefulness and effectiveness.

    Traditional resource management has had as its main objective the optimization of throughput, based on parameters such as CPU, memory, and network bandwidth. With the appearance of Grid markets, new variables that determine economic expenditure, benefit and opportunity must be taken into account. The Self-organizing ICT Resource Management (SORMA) project aims at allowing resource owners and consumers to exploit market mechanisms to sell and buy resources across the Grid. SORMA’s motivation is to achieve efficient resource utilization by maximizing revenue for resource providers and minimizing the cost of resource consumption within a market environment. An overriding factor in Grid markets is the need to ensure that the desired quality of service levels meet the expectations of market participants. This paper explains the proposed use of an economically enhanced resource manager (EERM) for resource provisioning based on economic models. In particular, this paper describes techniques used by the EERM to support revenue maximization across multiple service level agreements and provides an application scenario to demonstrate its usefulness and effectiveness.

  • Resource-level QoS metric for CPU-based guarantees in cloud providers

     Goiri Presa, Iñigo; Julià Masso, Ferran; Fitó Comellas, Josep Oriol; Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Lecture notes in computer science
    Date of publication: 2010-08
    Journal article

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    Success of Cloud computing requires that both customers and providers can be confident that signed Service Level Agreements (SLA) are supporting their respective business activities to their best extent. Currently used SLAs fail in providing such confidence, especially when providers outsource resources to other providers. These resource providers typically support very simple metrics, or metrics that hinder an efficient exploitation of their resources. In this paper, we propose a resource-level metric for specifying fine-grain guarantees on CPU performance. This metric allows resource providers to allocate dynamically their resources among the running services depending on their demand. This is accomplished by incorporating the customer¿s CPU usage in the metric definition, but avoiding fake SLA violations when the customer¿s task does not use all its allocated resources. As demonstrated in our evaluation, which has been conducted in a virtualized provider where we have implemented the needed infrastructure for using our metric, our solution presents fewer SLA violations than other CPU-related metrics.

  • Enforcing service level agreements using an economically enhanced resource manager

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Smith, Garry; Rana, Omer; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Book chapter

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  • Extended resource management using client classification and economic enhancements

     Püschel, Tim; Borissov, Nikolay; Neumann, Dirk; Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Book chapter

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    Commercialization of computing resources will become more and more important as the transition from Grid computing in academic environments to commercial services based on concepts such as utility or Cloud computing progresses. This results in the necessity to not only base components on technical aspects, but also to include economical aspects in their design. This paper presents a framework that links technical and economical aspects to the management of computational resources. Economic enhancements like dynamic pricing and client classification are introduced based on a technical resource management environment and positioned within this resulting in a proposed architecture for an Economically Enhanced Resource Manager (EERM). The introduced approach is evaluated considering various economic design criteria and example scenarios.

  • Éranse una vez las computadoras

     Macias Lloret, Mario
    Date of publication: 2010-10-14
    Book

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  • Falacias, juegos y universos paralelos

     Macias Lloret, Mario
    Date of publication: 2010-10
    Book

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  • Virtual multidisciplinary EnviroNments USing Cloud infrastructures (VENUS-C)

     Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Manieri, Andrea; Macias Lloret, Mario
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Maximising revenue in cloud computing markets by means of economically enhanced SLA management  Open access

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Date: 2010-09-01
    Report

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    This paper proposes a bidirectional communication between market brokers and resource managers in Cloud Computing Markets. This communication is implemented by means of an Economically Enhanced Resource Manager (EERM), that supports the negotiation process by deciding which tasks can be allocated or not, and under which economic and technical conditions. The EERM also uses the economic information that collects from market layers to manage the resources accordingly to concrete BLOs. This paper shows several Business Policies and Rules for maximizing the revenue of a Cloud Provider that sells its services and resources in a market. Their validity is demonstrated through several experiments that shown how the application of these rules can have a positive influence in the revenue and minimize the violations of Service-Level Agreements.

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    Using resource-level information into nonadditive negotiation models for cloud market environments  Open access

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    IEEE/ IFIP Network Operations and management Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Markets arise as an efficient way of organising resources in Cloud Computing scenarios. In Cloud Computing Markets, Brokers that represent both Clients and Service Providers meet in a Market and negotiate for the sales of resources or services. This paper defends the idea that efficient negotiations require of the usage of resource-level information for increasing the accuracy of negotiated Service Level Agreements and facilitating the achievement of both performance and business goals. A negotiation model based on the maximisation of nonadditive utility functions that considers multiple objectives is defined, and its validity is demonstrated in the experiments.

  • Toward business-driven risk management for cloud computing

     Fitó Comellas, Josep Oriol; Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    International Conference on Network and Service Management
    Presentation's date: 2010-10-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Resource-level QoS metric for CPU-based guarantees in cloud providers

     Goiri Presa, Iñigo; Julià Massó, Ferran; Fitó Comellas, Josep Oriol; Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    International Conference on Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems and Services
    Presentation's date: 2010-08-31
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Success of Cloud computing requires that both customers and providers can be confident that signed Service Level Agreements (SLA) are supporting their respective business activities to their best extent. Currently used SLAs fail in providing such confidence, especially when providers outsource resources to other providers. These resource providers typically support very simple metrics, or metrics that hinder an efficient exploitation of their resources. In this paper, we propose a resource-level metric for specifying finegrain guarantees on CPU performance. This metric allows resource providers to allocate dynamically their resources among the running services depending on their demand. This is accomplished by incorporating the customer’s CPU usage in the metric definition, but avoiding fake SLA violations when the customer’s task does not use all its allocated resources. As demonstrated in our evaluation, which has been conducted in a virtualized provider where we have implemented the needed infrastructure for using our metric, our solution presents fewer SLA violations than other CPU-related metrics.

  • Rule-based SLA management for revenue maximisation in cloud computing markets

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Fitó Comellas, Josep Oriol; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    International Conference on Network and Service Management
    Presentation's date: 2010-10-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    EMOTIVE: the BSC¿s engine for cloud solutions  Open access

     Goiri Presa, Iñigo; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Macias Lloret, Mario; Torres Viñals, Jordi; Ayguade Parra, Eduard; Ejarque, Jorge; Sirvent Pardell, Raül; Lezzi, Daniele; Badia Sala, Rosa Maria
    Zero-In eMagazine: Building Insights, Breaking Boundaries
    Date of publication: 2009-10-01
    Journal article

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    Cloud computing is strongly based on virtualization, allowing applications to be multiplexed onto a physical resource while isolated from other applications sharing that physical resource. This technology simplifies the management of e-Infrastructures, but also requires additional effort if users are to benefit from it. Cloud computing must hide its underlying complexity from users: the key is to provide users with a simple but functional interface for accessing IT resources "as a service", while allowing providers to build costeffective self-managed systems for transparently managing these resources. System developers should be also supported with simple tools that allow them to exploit the facilities of cloud infrastructures.

  • SLA-based resource management and allocation

     Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Macias Lloret, Mario; Rana, Omer; Wieder, Philipp; Yahyapour, Ramin; Ziegler, Wolfgang
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Book chapter

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    The aim of the chapter is to describe how service-level agreements (SLAs) could be utilized to provide the basis for resource trading based on economic models. SLAs enable a service user to identify their requirements, and a provider to identify their capabilities. Subsequently, the terms in an SLA are necessary to ensure that mutually agreeable quality is being delivered by the provider according to the agreement. The use of service-level agreements (SLAs) in a resource management system to support Grid computing applications is described. To this end, we provide an architecture that supports the creation and management of SLAs. The architecture of the system, in terms of the components and their interactions, is first presented, followed by a description of the specific requirements for a marketoriented Grid economy. We use SLAs as a means to support reliable quality of service for Grid jobs. The creation of such an SLA requires planning and orchestration mechanisms. We will discuss these functionalities and also consider the economic aspects such as dynamic pricing and negotiation mechanisms. These mechanisms are necessary to enable SLA formation and use, and to ensure that an SLA is being adhered to during service provision.

  • A non-additive negotiation model for utility computing markets

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Jornadas de Paralelismo
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Influence of reputation in revenue of grid service providers

     Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    High Performance Grid Middleware Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • FP6-2005-IST-5 SORMA

     Torres Viñals, Jordi; Macias Lloret, Mario; Guitart Fernández, Jordi
    Participation in a competitive project

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