Rubio, J.; Pascual Iserte, A.; Del Olmo, J.; Vidal, J. Eurasip journal on wireless communication and networking Vol. 2017, num. 204, p. 1-20 DOI: 10.1186/s13638-017-0979-z Data de publicació: 2017-12 Article en revista
This paper deals with the development of several strategies for associating users to base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous networks. These strategies are able to balance the rate among users and BSs and increase the overall network utility. Constraints related to the energy availability at BSs are considered explicitly in the design, assuming that the BSs are equipped with batteries that are recharged through energy harvesting. We develop a general association strategy, and then we present several suboptimum but less complex solutions suitable for scenarios with high mobility or deployments of BSs with low computational capabilities. We also present an implementation that is to be executed in a distributed way among users and BSs without the need of having a central entity gathering all the information. The performance of the proposed strategies is evaluated through simulations in terms of rate balancing and the effect of the energy harvesting capabilities on the network throughput is shown. We also compare the proposed strategies with the traditional max-SINR user association approach.
Traditionally, wireless cellular systems have been designed to operate in frequency division duplexing (FDD) paired bands that allocate the same amount of spectrum for both downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) communications. Such design is very convenient under symmetric DL/UL traffic conditions, as it used to be the case when voice transmission was predominant. However, due to the overwhelming advent of data services, which involves large asymmetries between DL and UL, the conventional FDD solution becomes inefficient. In this regard, flexible duplexing concepts aim to derive procedures to improve spectrum utilization by adjusting resources to actual traffic demand. In this work, we review these concepts and propose the introduction of time division duplexing (TDD) small eNBs (SeNB) to operate in the unused resources of an FDD-based system. This proposal alleviates the saturated DL/UL transmission commonly found in FDD-based systems through user offloading towards a TDD system based on SeNBs. In this context, the flexible duplexing concept is analyzed from three points of view: a) regulation, b) long term evolution (LTE) standardization, and c) technical solutions.