Rubio, J.; Pascual Iserte, A.; Del Olmo, J.; Vidal, J. Eurasip journal on wireless communication and networking Vol. 2017, num. 204, p. 1-20 DOI: 10.1186/s13638-017-0979-z Data de publicació: 2017-12 Article en revista
This paper deals with the development of several strategies for associating users to base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous networks. These strategies are able to balance the rate among users and BSs and increase the overall network utility. Constraints related to the energy availability at BSs are considered explicitly in the design, assuming that the BSs are equipped with batteries that are recharged through energy harvesting. We develop a general association strategy, and then we present several suboptimum but less complex solutions suitable for scenarios with high mobility or deployments of BSs with low computational capabilities. We also present an implementation that is to be executed in a distributed way among users and BSs without the need of having a central entity gathering all the information. The performance of the proposed strategies is evaluated through simulations in terms of rate balancing and the effect of the energy harvesting capabilities on the network throughput is shown. We also compare the proposed strategies with the traditional max-SINR user association approach.
Rubio, J.; Del Olmo, J.; Pascual Iserte, A.; Vidal, J.; Muñoz, O.; Agustin, A. Eurasip journal on wireless communication and networking Vol. 2017, num. 215, p. 1-25 DOI: 10.1186/s13638-017-0976-2 Data de publicació: 2017-12 Article en revista
This paper provides a methodology for the dimensioning of the access network in remote rural areas, considering the progressive introduction of cellular services in these regions. A 3G small cell (SC) network with one or several carriers deployed at the SC, fed with solar panels and connected to a backhaul with limited capacity is considered for the analysis. Because the backhaul may be inexistent or very expensive (e.g., satellite-based backhaul) the network design pursues the minimization of the required backhaul bandwidth. The required backhaul bandwidth and the required energy units (i.e., the size of the solar panels and the required number of batteries) are then obtained as an output of the dimensioning analysis. Both the backhaul minimization objective and the constraints associated with each of the carriers (low maximum radiated power and low number of users connected simultaneously) require a novel methodology compared to the classical dimensioning techniques. We also develop a procedure for switching on/off carriers in order to minimize the energy consumption without affecting the quality of service (QoS) perceived by the users. This technique allows reducing the required size of the energy units, which directly translates into a cost reduction. In the development of this on/off switching strategy, we first assume perfect knowledge of the traffic profile and later, we develop a robust Bayesian approach to account for possible error modeling in the traffic profile information.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based networks rely on time synchronization to obtain their best performance. Time synchronization with neighboring nodes can be satisfied by increasing the cyclic prefix (CP) length (at the expenses of spectral efficiency reduction) We show that by optimizing the transmit pre-compensation and receive post-compensation we can meet the time synchronization constraints and keep the CP at its minimum value. This concept is applied to paired-bands Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) systems which tend to show inefficient occupancy of the uplink (UL)-band due to the traffic asymmetry. We consider the possibility of deploying multiple Time Division Duplexing (TDD) small eNBs (SeNBs) in the unused UL spectrum. In this scenario, time synchronization with macro eNB (MeNB) and neighboring SeNBs becomes essential. Two algorithms are proposed in order to ensure orthogonality of OFDM transmissions network-wide.
This paper develops and evaluates precoding techniques
for coordinated joint transmission in visible light communications
(VLC). A multi-user multiple-input single-output (MISO) setup is adopted. Transmitters are equipped with light emitting diode (LED) arrays, while receivers incorporate a single photodetector (PD). We design zero forcing (ZF) linear precoders considering, as figure of merit, the weighted sumrate for multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and take into account the optical power constraints. We present
two approaches. First, we formulate the design as a convex
optimization problem and find its exact solution. Second, by considering
certain approximations, we find an alternative precoder
that despite being suboptimal can be computed in an almost
closed-form, achieving a good trade-off between performance
and complexity. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed
approaches largely outperform the conventional pseudo-inverse
precoding and single-user TDMA approaches
Traditionally, wireless cellular systems have been designed to operate in frequency division duplexing (FDD) paired bands that allocate the same amount of spectrum for both downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) communications. Such design is very convenient under symmetric DL/UL traffic conditions, as it used to be the case when voice transmission was predominant. However, due to the overwhelming advent of data services, which involves large asymmetries between DL and UL, the conventional FDD solution becomes inefficient. In this regard, flexible duplexing concepts aim to derive procedures to improve spectrum utilization by adjusting resources to actual traffic demand. In this work, we review these concepts and propose the introduction of time division duplexing (TDD) small eNBs (SeNB) to operate in the unused resources of an FDD-based system. This proposal alleviates the saturated DL/UL transmission commonly found in FDD-based systems through user offloading towards a TDD system based on SeNBs. In this context, the flexible duplexing concept is analyzed from three points of view: a) regulation, b) long term evolution (LTE) standardization, and c) technical solutions.