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    Sistemas de información e instrumentos técnicos para la gestión del agua  Open access

     Ampuero, Raúl; Bustamante Zenteno, Rocio; Cossio, Vladimir; Delgadillo, Oscar; Durán, Alfredo; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Iriarte, Jorge; Mecerreyes, Cristina; Ortiz, Jhylmar; Pascual-Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Pérez, Luis Fernando; Rocha, Rígel; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina
    Date of publication: 2014-08
    Book

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    Metodologías para medir el acceso al agua potable y al saneamiento  Open access

     Cossio, Vladimir; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    Date of publication: 2014-08
    Book chapter

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  • Engineering and Global Development (EGD)

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Van Wunnik, Lucas Philippe; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
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    Metas e indicadores post 2015 en agua y saneamiento: una revisión desde un enfoque de derechos humanos  Open access

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Date: 2013-11
    Report

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    Post-2015 WASH targets and indicators: a review from a Human Rights Perspective  Open access

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Jiménez Fdez de Palencia, Alejandro
    Date: 2013-11
    Report

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  • Water–sanitation–hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 463-464, p. 700-711
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.06.005
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District –Kenya–; Kibondo District –Tanzania–; and Municipality of Manhiça –Mozambique–) are presented.

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District –Kenya–; Kibondo District –Tanzania–; and Municipality of Manhiça –Mozambique–) are presented.

  • The issue of the design effect in water, sanitation and hygiene studies  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Delivering water, sanitation and hygiene services in an uncertain environment Cluster sampling is commonly used in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) surveys, as in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey developed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for the assessment of development-related goals. In cluster survey techniques, despite a good approximation of the design effect is essential for efficient sample size determination and for obtaining accurate precision of survey estimates; the assessment of this parameter has often been overlooked. This study computes the design effects for three core WASH outcomes at two different administrative scales. We use the database of a Kenyan case study for this purpose. We show that design effects differ greatly, and large differences have been found for different variables, different regional setting, and different scale of analysis. We recommend that survey planners should keep in mind such differences when defining the objectives of the survey and the required precision of survey estimates.

  • Introducing hygiene elements into sanitation monitoring

     Craven, Joanne; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    With the 2015 Millenium Development Goal deadline approaching, discussion has turned to how to improve monitoring strategies post-2015. Key aims are to find ways to include hygiene behaviour in sanitation monitoring, evaluate the sustainability of improvements and encourage the formulation of pro-poor policy. However, at present, no robust indicator of hygiene (particularly hand-washing) has been found, and it is unclear whether current methods encourage sustainable, pro-poor interventions. This study compared various potential indicators using a dataset collected through household surveys in Kenya, with a view to testing the current approach’s predictive ability in hygiene and recommend indicators which could be used to monitor hygiene directly. The results suggested that the current approach does not reliably predict a good standard of hygiene, but that the presence of a hand-washing facility with soap could be used as a practical, global hand-washing indicator.

  • Piloting new indicators and methodologies to measure the human right to water in rural Nicaragua

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fdez de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Water and Sanitation Centre Symposium
    p. 1-19
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    There is a growing interest internationally to recalibrate the monitoring framework used to measure access to basic water services. There are drives to move on from the current technological and binary approach (improved - vs. - unimproved water supply technologies). Several initiatives have been applied to support the processes of resource allocation, targeting and prioriti s ation in development policies. These approaches consider the level of service delivered by taking into account aspects such as water quality, quantity, and continuity. The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation is a milestone that should contribute to the evolution of this work in progress. It brings in other issues such as affordability, physical accessibility and acceptability. To incorporate all these human rights criteria in monitoring initiatives is undoubtedly a complex task. It involves the definition of new indicators, design of field data collection methodol ogies, statistical analysis of collected data, and use of information generated in policy formation and decision - making. The research presented in this paper has tried to tackle this emerging challenge. It has developed and piloted indicators that measure access to water from a human rights perspective. The proposed indicators have been applied to two different groups within communities in northern Nicaragua: people using a water system managed by a rural water committee against those vulnerable groups char acteri s ed by self - provision. The research concludes that data needs to be well analysed , information needs to be adequately post - processed, aggregated and disseminated to promote its use in decision - making.

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    An improved evaluation framework to support local level planning  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Water and Sanitation Centre Symposium
    p. 1-19
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

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    El derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: desafios y oportunidades para mejorar el seguimiento del acceso a los servicios básicos  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Los expertos han reconocido la necesidad de rediseñar el marco conceptual utilizado para la medición del acceso a los servicios básicos de agua y saneamiento tanto a nivel local como nacional e internacional. Así mismo, se reconoce la necesidad de avanzar en la definición de los indicadores utilizados de forma que se pueda superar el enfoque estándar, basado en la intervención tecnológica: Acceso mejorado frente al no mejorado. Existen diversas iniciativas sectoriales que han sido utilizadas de forma eficiente para apoyar los procesos de asignación de recursos y priorización en las políticas de desarrollo. Estos trabajos definen un determinado nivel de servicio tomando en consideración distintos aspectos como es el caso de la cantidad, calidad ó continuidad. El reconocimiento del derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento es un hito que contribuye en la evolución de los indicadores de acceso, incluyendo nuevas dimensiones como es el caso de la asequibilidad, la accesibilidad física o la aceptabilidad. Incorporar estos “nuevos” elementos en el seguimiento es sin duda una tarea compleja que exige la definición de nuevos indicadores, el diseño de metodologías para la recolección de datos en el terreno, el análisis estadístico de los mismos y el desarrollo de herramientas de fácil manejo para los tomadores de decisiones. La investigación tiene como objetivo aportar elementos para este reto y desarrolla un marco para el seguimiento del acceso a estos servicios básicos desde un enfoque de derechos. Se proponen indicadores apropiados para el abastecimiento de agua y se aplica el marco conceptual a la caracterización de los grupos vulnerables (no servidos) a nivel comunitario, ejemplificando en un caso de la zona norte de Nicaragua. Finalmente y debido a que es necesario el manejo de abundantes datos y de distintos tipos de indicadores, se concluye que la información debe ser procesada, agregada y difundida de forma apropiada para asegurar su correcta utilización en los procesos de toma de decisiones.

  • Cross-cutting development education into technology studies

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris
    Competitive project

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  • Water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: issues of sector monitoring and the role of aggregated indicators

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water policy: official journal of the World Water Council
    Vol. 15, num. 6, p. 1018-1045
    DOI: 10.2166/wp.2013.037
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developing world. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study produces misleading results, which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMP indicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery.

    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developingworld. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study producesmisleading results,which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMPindicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery

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    Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: The WASH poverty index  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water resources management
    Vol. 27, num. 5, p. 1501-1515
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0251-6
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Many studies have reported the effect of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in improving health and ultimately alleviating poverty. Current coverage estimates show however that a large proportion of people in the world still do not have access to a simple pit latrine or a source of safe drinking water, and this situation worsens in rural areas. To help end these appalling figures, much effort has gone into the development of policy instruments which support decision-making, i.e. planning, targeting and prioritization. Indices and indicators are increasingly recognised as powerful tools for such purposes. This paper details the theoretical framework and development of a multidimensional, WASH-focused, thematic indicator: the WASH Poverty Index (WASH PI). It describes the methodology in index construction and disseminates achieved results in a variety of forms to promote the utility of the tool for the integrated analysis of WASH and poverty linkages. The article uses Kenya as initial case study to illustrate the application of the index. Overall, WASH PI helps identify priority areas and guide appropriate action and policy-making towards improved service delivery.

  • Parcería de apoio técnico á consolidación da Administração Rexional de Áugas do norte (ARA-Norte)

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Flores Baquero, Oscar
    Competitive project

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    Local government decision-making : from data to action  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWA Development Congress & Exhibition
    p. 1-18
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Decentralisation is built on the assumption that decentralized governments are more knowledgeable about and responsive to the needs of the poor. This article examines the role of local governments in Kenya and the ways in which they make their decisions about the allocation of resources to deliver water and sanitation services. Two major challenges are identified: i) lack of data that accurately reveal which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for planning, monitoring and evaluation. In tackling previous shortcomings, this study i) adopts a new specific approach for data collection at community level, and ii) exploits these data through simple composite indicators as policy tools that assist local government with decision-making. It concludes that accurate and comprehensive data are the basis of effective targeting and prioritization, which are fundamental to sector planning.

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    Sostenibilidad de los servicios de agua y saneamiento  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard
    Date of publication: 2011-11-01
    Book chapter

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    Sistemas de información para la toma de decisiones  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Date of publication: 2011-11-01
    Book chapter

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    Analyzing water poverty in basins  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    Water resources management
    Vol. 25, num. 14, p. 3595-3612
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-011-9872-4
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Journal article

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    Inadequate provision of water-related services in developing countries continues to undermine strategies for poverty alleviation. The root lies in the inability of policy makers to tackle resource development in a holistic and integrated manner. This requires a multi-faceted approach to combine physical estimates of water availability with the socio-economic drivers of poverty. It is with this in mind that the Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created. However, water resources are dynamic, and the linkages between water scarcity and poverty incorporate complex cause-effect relationships. Water poverty should thus be addressed in a more systemic way. This would allow a comprehensive understanding of the crosscutting nature of water issues and impacts. In this paper, a system approach has been adopted to develop a structured framework for a multi-dimensional evaluation of water poverty in basins. It is an attempt to assess the diverse, interacting components of catchment processes, societal pressures, and policy actions. An enhanced Water Poverty Index (eWPI) has been developed and is proposed in this study. To exemplify the utilisation of the index, and to test its applicability and validity, eWPI has been piloted in a Peruvian watershed as initial case study. Results highlight the likely utility of the tool to identify areas for improvement, and ultimately guide appropriate action towards better service delivery and sustainable management of water resources.

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    A closer look at the sanitation ladder: issues of monitoring the sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Enhancing the water point mapping: a WASH approach  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    National Young Water Professionals Conference
    p. 1-13
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services can be strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: (i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of data and sector-re lated indicators, (ii) in adequate combination of different information sources, and (iii) statistical validity of collected data. The purpose of this study is to adopt an integrated water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) approach for data collection at community level in rural low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location, and this information is then linked to data provided from a household-based survey. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, a case study is presented at Tiraque Valley (Cochabamba, Bolivia).

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    Water point mapping en Tiraque  Open access

     Fons Gallo, Mª José; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Carnacho, Alan; Cossio, Vladimir; Duran, Alfredo
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En este artículo se describe la implementación de la metodología del Water Point Mapping (WPM) con el fin de estudiar el acceso sostenible al agua potable y al saneamiento básico e higiene en el municipio de Tiraque (Cochabamba, Bolivia). El WPM se fundamenta en realizar un mapeo exhaustivo de los puntos de agua “mejorados”, y en este caso se ha complementado el mapeo con un muestreo aleatorio de casas para obtener información relacionada con el saneamiento y las prácticas higiénicas. Por lo tanto, el estudio usa dos fuentes de información diferentes: (i) el punto de agua, y (ii) la familia; y el análisis de datos posterior se plantea a tres escalas distintas: (i) la comunidad, (ii) el distrito, y (iii) la municipalidad. En base a toda la información recogida se han identificado y analizado un conjunto reducido de indicadores críticos para la evaluación del sector desde diferentes perspectivas (disponibilidad de infraestructura, estado de los puntos de agua y de las letrinas, calidad del agua, nivel de servicio, etc.). El estudio concluye que el uso adecuado de un número limitado de indicadores (obtenidos gracias al WPM) permite diseñar políticas de forma participada a escala local, así como planificar las inversiones necesarias para mejorar la situación de acceso al agua potable y al saneamiento básico.

    En este artículo se describe la implementación de la metodología del Water Point Mapping (WPM) con el fin de estudiar el acceso sostenible al agua potable y al saneamiento básico e higiene en el municipio de Tiraque (Cochabamba, Bolivia) . E l WPM se fundamenta en realiza r un mapeo exhaustivo de los puntos de agua “mejorados”, y en este caso se ha complementado el mapeo con un muestreo aleatorio de casas para obtener información relacionada con el saneamiento y las prácticas higiénicas. Por lo tanto, el estudio usa dos fuentes de información diferentes: (i) el punto de agua, y (ii) la familia; y el análisis de datos posterior se plantea a tres escalas distintas: (i) la comunidad, (ii) el distrito, y (iii) la municipalidad. En base a toda la información recogida se han identificado y analizado un conjunto reducido de indicadores críticos para la e valuación del sector desde diferentes perspectivas (disponibilidad de infraestructura, estado de los puntos de agua y de las letrinas, calidad del agua, nivel de servicio, etc.). El estudio concluye que e l uso adecuado de un número limitado de indicadores (obtenidos gracias al WPM ) permite diseñar políticas de forma participada a escala local, así como planificar las inversiones necesarias para mejorar la situación de acceso al agua potable y al saneamiento básico

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    Local Government planning: from data to action  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWA Development Congress & Exhibition
    p. 1-18
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Decentralisation is built on the assu mption that decentralized governme nts are more knowledgeable about and responsive to the needs of the poor. This article ex amines the role of local governments in Kenya and the ways in which they make their decisions about the allocation of resources to deliver water and sanitation services. Two major challenges are identified: i) lack of data that accurately reveal which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for planning, monitoring and evaluation. In tackling previous shortcomings, this study i) adopts a new specific appr oach for data collection at community level, and ii) exploits these data through simple composite indicator s as policy tools that assist local government with decision-making. It concludes that accurate and compre hensive data are the basis of effective targeting and prioritization, which are fundamental to sector planning.

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    Evaluación del sector “Agua y Saneamiento” mediante el Índice de Pobreza del Agua (Kenia)  Open access

     Suárez Barral, Adrián; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El agua es cada vez un recurso más escaso y en los últimos años se están manifestando gran cantidad de efectos que nos indican una problemática creciente respecto a este tema global. Al mismo tiempo, no existe ninguna duda en afirmar que un acceso adecuado y sostenible al agua y al saneamiento es esencial desde una perspectiva de salud pública. Por lo tanto, la mejora del acceso a estos servicios básicos es un elemento clave donde priorizar en cualquier iniciativa que promueva el desarrollo. El logro y la eficiencia de dichas iniciativas dependerán en gran parte de la disponibilidad de herramientas que permitan gestionar y monitorizar los procesos de forma eficaz. El diseño de indicadores pertinentes es uno de los pasos críticos en el desarrollo de cualquier sistema de monitoreo. La presente investigación pretende identificar indicadores e índices apropiados para evaluar el sector del agua y el saneamiento. Se presenta como caso de estudio un análisis realizado para los distritos de la zona del norte keniata, donde durante los últimos años se han implementado mapeos exhaustivos de todos los puntos de agua a los que la población accede para consumo doméstico, generando por lo tanto un elevado volumen de información. El estudio consta de dos partes muy diferenciadas. En primer lugar, se analiza la validez y pertinencia de todos los indicadores evaluados durante los mapeos. En segundo lugar, y en base a los indicadores previamente validados, éstos se agregan en un único índice, un índice de pobreza de agua (Water Poverty Index), con el fin de facilitar una herramienta útil para apoyar los procesos de toma de decisión. Se elaboran un conjunto de mapas para diseminar y visualizar los resultados, que permiten evaluar eficientemente el sector del agua en la zona de estudio.

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    El seguimiento del acceso al agua y saneamiento: experiencias y desafíos en el marco de los derechos humanos  Open access

     Marín, Gonzalo; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, A.
    Date of publication: 2011
    Book chapter

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    Application of a revised Water Poverty Index to target the water poor  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water science and technology
    Vol. 63, num. 6, p. 1099-1110
    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.347
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    The Water Poverty Index (WPI) has been recognized as a useful tool in policy analysis. The index integrates various physical, social and environmental aspects to enable more holistic assessment of water resources. However, soundness of this tool relies on two complementary aspects: (i) inadequate techniques employed in index construction would produce unreliable results, and (ii) poor dissemination of final outcome would reduce applicability of the index to influence policy-making. From a methodological point of view, a revised alternative to calculate the index was developed in a previous study. This paper is therefore concerned not with the method employed in index construction, but with how the composite can be applied to support decision-making processes. In particular, the paper examines different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool. A number of alternatives to disseminate achieved results are presented. The implications of applying the composite at different spatial scales are highlighted. Turkana District, in Kenya has been selected as initial case study to test the applicability and validity of the index. The paper concludes that the WPI approach provides a relevant tool for guiding appropriate action and policy-making towards more equitable allocation of water resources.

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    Application of bayesian networks to assess water poverty  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Molina, J. L.; Bromley, John
    International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling
    p. 1-24
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, an integrated and holistic framework is required to capture the wide range of aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources. It is with this in mind that the Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created, as an interdisciplinary policy tool to assess water stress that links physical estimates of water availability with the socio-economic drivers of poverty. In parallel, in light of the investments envisaged for the next decade to reach the sector targets set by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), appropriate Decision Support Systems (DSS) are required to inform about the expected impacts to be achieved throughout these interventions. This would provide water managers with adequate information to define strategies that are efficient, effective, and sustainable. The paper explores the use of object oriented Bayesian networks (ooBn) as a valid approach for supporting decision making in water resource planning and management. On the basis of the WPI, a simple ooBn model has been designed and applied to reflect the main issues that determine access to safe water and improved sanitation. A pilot case study is presented for the Turkana district, in Kenya, where the Government has launched a national program to meet sector targets set out in the MDGs. Main impacts of this initiative are evaluated and compared with respect to the present condition. The study concludes that this new approach is able to accommodate local conditions and represent an accurate reflection of the complexities of water issues. Such a tool helps decision-makers to assess the effects of sector-related development policies on the variables of the index, as well as to analyse different future scenarios.

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    Improved method to calculate a water poverty index at local scale  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Journal of environmental engineering (ASCE)
    Vol. 136, num. 11, p. 1287-1298
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000255
    Date of publication: 2010-11
    Journal article

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    The Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created as an interdisciplinary indicator to assess water stress and scarcity, linking physical estimates of water availability with the socioeconomic drivers of poverty. This index has found great relevance in policy making as an effective water management tool, particularly in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Two conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index: (1) inadequate technique to combine available data and (2) poor statistical properties of the resulting composite. The purpose of this paper is to propose a suitable methodology to assess water poverty that overcomes these weaknesses. To this end, a number of combinations to create the WPI have been considered, based on indicators selection criteria, simple aggregation functions and multivariate analysis. The approach adopted has been designed for universal application at local scale. To exemplify the utilization of each alternative method, they have been piloted and implemented in the Turkana District (Kenya) as a case study. The paper concludes that the weighted multiplicative function is the most appropriate aggregation method for estimation of water poverty. It is least eclipsing and ambiguous free function, and it does not allow compensability among different variables of the index

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    The enhanced Water Poverty Index: targeting the water poor at different scales  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    WISA Biennial Conference & Exhibition
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    For a large proportion of the world's population, the provision of a reliable, sustained and safe water supply has become a top priority. As water stress increases, the need for effective water management becomes more pressing. However, the conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, a multi-faceted approach is required to achieve real water poverty reduction. In order to link the biophysical, social, economic and environmental aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index (eWPI) has been developed and is proposed in this study. A pressure – state – response function is combined with the original Water Poverty Index (WPI) framework to produce a holistic tool for policy making. In particular, the index is aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making. It highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales, and two different case studies are presented: in Bolivia, at local scale; and in Peru, at watershed scale.

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    Post-processing data from management information system through a water poverty index in East Africa  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWA Development Congress & Exhibition
    p. 1-16
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper highlights the relevance of the use of the Water Poverty Index as an effective water management tool in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Nevertheless, three conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index, including redundancy among variables, the decision of assigning weights to them, and the aggregation method. Based on a post process of readily available but sector relevant data, a revised method to construct the index has been developed through a case study in Kenya, at local scale. The paper discusses the results of this application. In particular, different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool are presented, with the aim of enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the water sector constraints and challenges, and thus enhance related decision-making accordingly.

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  • The Water Poverty Index : assessing water scarcity at different scales  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congrés UPC Sostenible 2015
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    An assessment of water stress and scarcity requires a multi-faceted approach to achieve real water poverty reduction. Several issues impact the ability of people to access to and properly use water and improved sanitation facilities. Among them are the availability of water resources, the capacity of communities to manage the schemes, the economic aspects of services affordability, and the environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. In order to integrate these biophysical, social, economic and environmental issues, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index, which uses a pressure–state–response function, has been developed and is proposed in this study. It is primarily designed to produce a holistic tool for policy making, aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales. It is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making

    An assessment of water stress and scarcity requires a multi-faceted approach to achieve real water poverty reduction. Several issues impact the ability of people to access to and properly use water and improved sanitation facilities. Among them are the availability of water resources, the capacity of communities to manage the schemes, the economic aspects of services affordability, and the environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. In order to integrate these biophysical, social, economic and environmental issues, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index, which uses a pressure–state–response function, has been developed and is proposed in this study. It is primarily designed to produce a holistic tool for policy making, aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales. It is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making.

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    Enhancing sector data management to target the water poor  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 286-295
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Appropriate data management as the basis of effective performance reporting is crucial if sector institutions are to track whether they achieve their objectives. This paper shows how a post process of readily available data to construct water poverty maps can be used to identify effectively the most water poor communities, and thus improve the targeting of sector development policies and projects. To this end, water poverty takes its definition from the Water Poverty Index, which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic and user-friendly tool for policy making. The study is based on a comprehensive record of the water sources developed by UNICEF in Turkana District, in Kenya. The main conclusion is that such an index allows decision-makers to determine and target priority needs for interventions in the water sector, while assessing the impacts of sector-related development policies.

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    Sustainability issues of MDG-focussed programmes in the rural water sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    By 2015, to halve the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation has become a top priority in many developing countries (Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals -MDGs-). International concern towards water sector is rapidly increasing and significant investments are envisaged for the next decade. Sector-related policies and strategies aspire to increase prevalent low water supply coverage, particularly in rural areas. Nevertheless, rural water supply programs in developing countries frequently fail to deliver benefits to society in the long run. There is thus a strong need to focus on sustainability issues to prevent new water infrastructure which has to be built from breaking down. In this study we evaluate the rural water sector along this dimension. Its particular aim is twofold. The research first seeks to deepen into the analysis of all key factors which affect long-term functionality of rural water interventions. Second, the authors highlight the need to foster academic debate around relative influence of all these interelated aspects on sustainability of community water supplies. Aimed at identifying the most costeffective alternative, debate should focus on differentiating the essential aspects required to guarantee functionality of water supplies from those which are important but not indispensable.

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    Enhancing the Water Poverty Index: towards a meaningful indicator  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-21
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Several issues impact the ability of people to access safe water and improved sanitation. Among them are the social, economic, and environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. This paper is concerned with the development and underlying methodology of an aggregated index which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic tool for policy making. It will be first tested at basin level in Peru (International Catamayo – Chira Basin), and main results will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, and in the light of its implementation, the need to promote additional research will be evaluated, so as to apply same index at different scales (at least regional and community scale).

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    Sustainability assessment of national rural water supply program in Tanzania  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Natural resources forum
    Vol. 32, num. 4, p. 327-342
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-8947.2008.00213.x
    Date of publication: 2008-11
    Journal article

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    Sustainability of rural water supply programs in developing countries is still an elusive goal. It is widely accepted that, as a rule, they have failed to deliver benefits to society in the long run. Emphasis has frequently been placed on the short-term activities. Fast production of new schemes is thus a common strategy, prioritizing the engineering component, while sidestepping social and participatory issues and community empowerment. In 2006, the Government of Tanzania launched a national program to meet water sector targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals by the year 2015. In this study we evaluate key features of the program on a sustained basis. There is evidence that the Government is promoting more sustained facilities, focusing on cost recovery and on 'decentralization by devolution'. Nevertheless, there are several shortcomings which threaten the long-term functionality of the infrastructure that has to be built. In light of the implementation of the program, and based on the outputs of its pilot phase, we review the factors that can determine its sustainability.

    This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Giné, R.; Pérez, A. Sustainability assessment of national rural water supply program in Tanzania. "Natural resources forum", Novembre 2008, vol. 32, núm. 4, p. 327-342., which has been published in final form at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121517446/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

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