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  • Water¿sanitation¿hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Science of the total environment
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District ¿Kenya¿; Kibondo District ¿Tanzania¿; and Municipality of Manhiça ¿Mozambique¿) are presented.

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District –Kenya–; Kibondo District –Tanzania–; and Municipality of Manhiça –Mozambique–) are presented.

  • Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: The WASH poverty index

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Water resources management
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Many studies have reported the effect of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in improving health and ultimately alleviating poverty. Current coverage estimates show however that a large proportion of people in the world still do not have access to a simple pit latrine or a source of safe drinking water, and this situation worsens in rural areas. To help end these appalling figures, much effort has gone into the development of policy instruments which support decision-making, i.e. planning, targeting and prioritization. Indices and indicators are increasingly recognised as powerful tools for such purposes. This paper details the theoretical framework and development of a multidimensional, WASH-focused, thematic indicator: the WASH Poverty Index (WASH PI). It describes the methodology in index construction and disseminates achieved results in a variety of forms to promote the utility of the tool for the integrated analysis of WASH and poverty linkages. The article uses Kenya as initial case study to illustrate the application of the index. Overall, WASH PI helps identify priority areas and guide appropriate action and policy-making towards improved service delivery.

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    Water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: Issues of sector monitoring and the role of aggregated indicators  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Water policy
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developingworld. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study producesmisleading results,which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMPindicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery

    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developingworld. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study producesmisleading results,which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMPindicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery

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  • El derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: desafios y oportunidades para mejorar el seguimiento del acceso a los servicios básicos

     Perez Foguet, Agusti; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Application of a revised Water Poverty Index to target the water poor

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Water science and technology
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Analyzing Water Poverty in Basins

     Perez Foguet, Agusti; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    Water resources management
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Journal article

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    A closer look at the sanitation ladder: issues of monitoring the sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Enhancing the water point mapping: a WASH approach

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    National Young Water Professionals Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Local government decision-making : from data to action  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    IWA Development Congress
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Decentralisation is built on the assumption that decentralized governments are more knowledgeable about and responsive to the needs of the poor. This article examines the role of local governments in Kenya and the ways in which they make their decisions about the allocation of resources to deliver water and sanitation services. Two major challenges are identified: i) lack of data that accurately reveal which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for planning, monitoring and evaluation. In tackling previous shortcomings, this study i) adopts a new specific approach for data collection at community level, and ii) exploits these data through simple composite indicators as policy tools that assist local government with decision-making. It concludes that accurate and comprehensive data are the basis of effective targeting and prioritization, which are fundamental to sector planning.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Improved method to calculate a water poverty index at local scale

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Journal of environmental engineering (ASCE)
    Date of publication: 2010-11
    Journal article

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    Application of bayesian networks to assess water poverty  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti; Molina, J. L.; Bromley, John
    International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, an integrated and holistic framework is required to capture the wide range of aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources. It is with this in mind that the Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created, as an interdisciplinary policy tool to assess water stress that links physical estimates of water availability with the socio-economic drivers of poverty. In parallel, in light of the investments envisaged for the next decade to reach the sector targets set by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), appropriate Decision Support Systems (DSS) are required to inform about the expected impacts to be achieved throughout these interventions. This would provide water managers with adequate information to define strategies that are efficient, effective, and sustainable. The paper explores the use of object oriented Bayesian networks (ooBn) as a valid approach for supporting decision making in water resource planning and management. On the basis of the WPI, a simple ooBn model has been designed and applied to reflect the main issues that determine access to safe water and improved sanitation. A pilot case study is presented for the Turkana district, in Kenya, where the Government has launched a national program to meet sector targets set out in the MDGs. Main impacts of this initiative are evaluated and compared with respect to the present condition. The study concludes that this new approach is able to accommodate local conditions and represent an accurate reflection of the complexities of water issues. Such a tool helps decision-makers to assess the effects of sector-related development policies on the variables of the index, as well as to analyse different future scenarios.

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    The enhanced Water Poverty Index: targeting the water poor at different scales  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    WISA Biennial Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    For a large proportion of the world's population, the provision of a reliable, sustained and safe water supply has become a top priority. As water stress increases, the need for effective water management becomes more pressing. However, the conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, a multi-faceted approach is required to achieve real water poverty reduction. In order to link the biophysical, social, economic and environmental aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index (eWPI) has been developed and is proposed in this study. A pressure – state – response function is combined with the original Water Poverty Index (WPI) framework to produce a holistic tool for policy making. In particular, the index is aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making. It highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales, and two different case studies are presented: in Bolivia, at local scale; and in Peru, at watershed scale.

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    Enhancing sector data management to target the water poor  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Appropriate data management as the basis of effective performance reporting is crucial if sector institutions are to track whether they achieve their objectives. This paper shows how a post process of readily available data to construct water poverty maps can be used to identify effectively the most water poor communities, and thus improve the targeting of sector development policies and projects. To this end, water poverty takes its definition from the Water Poverty Index, which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic and user-friendly tool for policy making. The study is based on a comprehensive record of the water sources developed by UNICEF in Turkana District, in Kenya. The main conclusion is that such an index allows decision-makers to determine and target priority needs for interventions in the water sector, while assessing the impacts of sector-related development policies.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Post-processing data from management information system through a water poverty index in East Africa  Open access

     Perez Foguet, Agusti; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    IWA Development Congress
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper highlights the relevance of the use of the Water Poverty Index as an effective water management tool in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Nevertheless, three conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index, including redundancy among variables, the decision of assigning weights to them, and the aggregation method. Based on a post process of readily available but sector relevant data, a revised method to construct the index has been developed through a case study in Kenya, at local scale. The paper discusses the results of this application. In particular, different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool are presented, with the aim of enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the water sector constraints and challenges, and thus enhance related decision-making accordingly.

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    Sustainability assessment of national rural water supply program in Tanzania  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Natural resources forum
    Date of publication: 2008-11
    Journal article

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    Sustainability of rural water supply programs in developing countries is still an elusive goal. It is widely accepted that, as a rule, they have failed to deliver benefits to society in the long run. Emphasis has frequently been placed on the short-term activities. Fast production of new schemes is thus a common strategy, prioritizing the engineering component, while sidestepping social and participatory issues and community empowerment. In 2006, the Government of Tanzania launched a national program to meet water sector targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals by the year 2015. In this study we evaluate key features of the program on a sustained basis. There is evidence that the Government is promoting more sustained facilities, focusing on cost recovery and on 'decentralization by devolution'. Nevertheless, there are several shortcomings which threaten the long-term functionality of the infrastructure that has to be built. In light of the implementation of the program, and based on the outputs of its pilot phase, we review the factors that can determine its sustainability.

    This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Giné, R.; Pérez, A. Sustainability assessment of national rural water supply program in Tanzania. "Natural resources forum", Novembre 2008, vol. 32, núm. 4, p. 327-342., which has been published in final form at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121517446/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

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    Sustainability issues of MDG-focussed programmes in the rural water sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    By 2015, to halve the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation has become a top priority in many developing countries (Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals -MDGs-). International concern towards water sector is rapidly increasing and significant investments are envisaged for the next decade. Sector-related policies and strategies aspire to increase prevalent low water supply coverage, particularly in rural areas. Nevertheless, rural water supply programs in developing countries frequently fail to deliver benefits to society in the long run. There is thus a strong need to focus on sustainability issues to prevent new water infrastructure which has to be built from breaking down. In this study we evaluate the rural water sector along this dimension. Its particular aim is twofold. The research first seeks to deepen into the analysis of all key factors which affect long-term functionality of rural water interventions. Second, the authors highlight the need to foster academic debate around relative influence of all these interelated aspects on sustainability of community water supplies. Aimed at identifying the most costeffective alternative, debate should focus on differentiating the essential aspects required to guarantee functionality of water supplies from those which are important but not indispensable.

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    Enhancing the Water Poverty Index: towards a meaningful indicator  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Perez Foguet, Agusti
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Several issues impact the ability of people to access safe water and improved sanitation. Among them are the social, economic, and environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. This paper is concerned with the development and underlying methodology of an aggregated index which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic tool for policy making. It will be first tested at basin level in Peru (International Catamayo – Chira Basin), and main results will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, and in the light of its implementation, the need to promote additional research will be evaluated, so as to apply same index at different scales (at least regional and community scale).

    Postprint (author’s final draft)