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  • Enabling dynamic parametric scans for unmanned aircraft system remote sensing missions

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a methodology for performing dynamic and parametric scanning operations for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) on remote sensing missions. Most UAS autopilots only support elemental waypoint-based guidance, whereas most remote sensing applications imply the surveillance of wide areas that require the execution of elaborate scan patterns. Moreover, the long endurance of UAS platforms allows one to envisage future operations in which the areas to be scanned may dynamically change during a UAS flight. Using elemental waypoints to design and potentially update scan patterns is a time-consuming, inefficient and highly restrictive strategy. This paper discusses how to provide dynamic parametric scans over a RNAV-like flight plan manager that feeds basic waypoints to the UAS autopilot. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method based on flight simulations of complex UAS surveillance operations.

    This paper presents a methodology for performing dynamic and parametric scanning operations for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) on remote sensing missions. Most UAS autopilots only support elemental waypoint-based guidance, whereas most remote sensing applications imply the surveillance of wide areas that require the execution of elaborate scan patterns. Moreover, the long endurance of UAS platforms allows one to envisage future operations in which the areas to be scanned may dynamically change during a UAS flight. Using elemental waypoints to design and potentially update scan patterns is a time-consuming, ineffi cient and highly restrictive strategy. This paper discusses how to provide dynamic parametric scans over a RNAV-like flight plan manager that feeds basic waypoints to the UAS autopilot. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method based on flight simulations of complex UAS surveillance operations.

  • Una experiencia de unificación de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que originó)

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Royo Chic, Pablo; Valero Garcia, Miguel
    ReVisión
    Date of publication: 2013-09
    Journal article

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    En este artículo se describen los aspectos esenciales de una experiencia de unificación de parejas de asignaturas con el objetivo de crear un escenario más adecuado para el despliegue de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos. Como guía para el repaso de esos aspectos esenciales se utiliza una carta que elaboraron los estudiantes de la primera edición para protestar por el funcionamiento de las asignaturas. El análisis de las quejas de los estudiantes puede ser de mucha utilidad para otros que se planeen retos similares.

  • Best paper in track award - ATM Seminar 2013

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
    Award or recognition

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  • 2nd Young Scientist Award

     Perez Batlle, Marcos
    Award or recognition

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  • Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM interaction in non-segregated airspace

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Remote flight inspection using Unmanned aircraft

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Ramírez Alcántara, Jorge; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • Una experiencia de unificación de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que originó)

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Royo Chic, Pablo; Valero Garcia, Miguel
    Jornadas sobre la enseñanza universitaria de la informática
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Maintaining separation between airliners and RPAS in non-segregated airspace

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Towards the automation of the UAS mission management

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Most unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Most current UAS solutions, if not remotely piloted, rely on waypoint based flight control system for their navigation and are unable to coordinate the aircraft flight with payload and mission operation. In this paper, an architecture for providing automation in UAS application is presented. This architecture is part of a UAS-specific distributed service-oriented architecture designed to enable easy reconfiguration and deployment of UAS in a wide range of scenarios without (or very little) additional system development. Flight, payload and mission service coordination, service interfaces and message interactions between services are discussed in this paper. Finally, a preliminary prototype of these services has been implemented to validate the purpose architecture specification. Additionally, a helicopter-based UAS is being developed to test in real scenarios the automation capabilities provided by the USAL architecture.

  • Architecture issues and challanges for the integration of RPAS in non-segregated airspace

     Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Royo Chic, Pablo; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Despite the evolution of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), the technological development on airframes, autopilots, communications and payload, is still limited by the absence of software standardization. Engineers face the development of UAS systems with the implementation of ad - hoc solutions to satisfy the mission requirements. This is a major limitation with regard to the software maintenance and re-usability that may result in an increment of both project cost and risk. Well structured UAS avionics supporting increased levels of automation (and eventually autonomy), together with reconfiguration capabilities and costeffectiveness, are key requirements for UAS to be successful in a global scenario. Additionally the major civil applications require UAS with access to non-segregated airspace. Following Eurocontrol, FAA and ICAO philosophy, the introduction of unmanned traffic should not affect ATM operations, thus UAS should comply with the performance levels required by SESAR and NextGen. Hence, operations with unmanned aircraft should guarantee safe and efficient interaction with the ATM system. In that aspect gaps and issues into unmanned aircraft software architectures are discussed in this paper. Required mechanism for ATM communication, collision avoidance, maneuver automation and SESAR/NextGen integration are discussed to identify possible short-term and long-term software requirements. Moreover, existing standardized software frameworks and proposed software proposed are reviewed to identify the gaps it should deal with to achieve an efficient UAS integration.

    Despite the evolution of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), the technological development on airframes, autopilots, communications and payload, is still limited by the absence of software standardization. Engineers face the development of UAS systems with the implementation of ad - hoc solutions to satisfy the mission requirements. This is a major limitation with regard to the software maintenance and re-usability that may result in an increment of both project cost and risk. Wellstructured UAS avionics supporting increased levels of automation (and eventually autonomy), together with reconfiguration capabilities and costeffectiveness, are key requirements for UAS to be successful in a global scenario. Additionally the major civil applications require UAS with access to non-segregated airspace. Following Eurocontrol, FAA and ICAO philosophy, the introduction of unmanned traffic should not affect ATM operations, thus UAS should comply with the performance levels required by SESAR and NextGen. Hence, operations with unmanned aircraft should guarantee safe and efficient interaction with the ATM system. In that aspect gaps and issues into unmanned aircraft software architectures are discussed in this paper. Required mechanism for ATM communication, collision avoidance, maneuver automation and SESAR/NextGen integration are discussed to identify possible short-term and long-term software requirements. Moreover, existing standardized software frameworks and proposed software proposed are reviewed to identify the gaps it should deal with to achieve an efficient UAS integration.

  • Preparing for an unmanned future in SESAR real-time simulation of RPAS missions

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The insertion of RPAS in non-segregated IFR airspace has a number of well defined research gaps that need to be addressed in order to progress forward with the integration. Especially in the ATM domain, the lack of flight experience for RPAS maintains the myth that they will impose an increased burden to ATCo, thus reducing the operational safety and airspace capacity. The ISIS+ simulation infrastructure will allow the real time simulation of IFR operations by coupling a highly capable RPAS simulation system together with one of Eurocontrols ATC simulation environment called eDEP. Complex RPAS missions will be carried out under historic or forecast traffic obtained from Eurocontrols DDR2 database. Real ATC controllers can monitor the sectors of interest, while RPAS pilots can operate the simulated RPAS, and experienced pilots can operate the surrounding simulated IFR traffic. In all cases, voice communications, transponder and ADS-B, data-link, satellite induced latency, etc; can be reproduced as close to reality as possible. Overall ISIS+ will facilitate the reproduction of a variety of RPAS operational scenarios, asses its interaction with traffic controllers and surrounding traffic, and evaluate is any significant ATCo workload increase or capacity reductions occur for each selected concept of operation.

  • Flight plan specification and management for unmanned aircraft systems

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos
    Journal of intelligent and robotic systems
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a new concept for specifying Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flight operations that aims at improving the waypoint based approach, found in most autopilot systems, by providing higher level fligh plan specification primitives. The proposed method borrows the leg and path terminator concepts used in Area Navigation1 (RNAV). Several RNAV leg types are adopted and extended with new ones for a better adaptation to UAS requirements. Extensions include the addition of control constructs that enable repetitive and conditional behavior, and also parametric legs that can be used to generate complex paths from a reduced number of parameters. The paper also covers the design and implementation of a software component that manages execution of the flight plan. To take advantage of current off-the-shelf flight control systems the constructs included in the flight plan are translated to waypoint navigation commands. In this way, the advanced capabilities provided by the flight plan specification language are implemented as a new layer on top of existing technologies. The benefits and the feasibility of the proposed approach for UAS flight plan management are demonstrated by means of a simulated mission that performs the flight inspection of Radio Navigation Aids.

  • FASTOP: Fast optimiser for continuous descent approaches

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Participation in a competitive project

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    A taxonomy of UAS separation maneuvers and their automated execution  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non-segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.

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    On the design of UAS horizontal separation maneuvers  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper studies the separation maneuvers that an Unmanned Air System (UAS) may execute to avoid breaching the separation safety margins imposed in each type of airspace, namely 3 NM, 5 NM, and 10 NM. The UAS was assumed under the control of its Pilot in Command, with available information about its surrounding traffic through ADS-B or ADS-C, and most likely under the supervision of an ATCo. A number of UAS separation maneuvers have been identified that may guarantee the desired levels of separation if executed with the right parameters and enough anticipation. This paper focuses on identification of the most suitable maneuver for any separation conflict geometry and performance envelop. The conflict geometry is modeled to take into account the speed of both vehicles (the UAS and the intruder), the conflict angle, the turning limitations of the UAS, the reaction time of the pilot, and the communication latency.

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    Evaluation of separation strategies for unmanned aerial sytems  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Congress on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper analyzes loss of separation scenarios when an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) enters in conflict with a much faster airplane flying at the same altitude. Separation distances are analyzed in terms of minimum heading changes and reaction times. Results show that maneuvers need to be performed well in advance if the (low-speed) UA is the aircraft that changes its heading. In some cases the time in which the UA and the intruder are in conflict could be too long, and may even involve multiple airliners flying over the same airway. Given that standard separation strategies may have a negative impact on the UA mission, in this paper a set of pre-planned separation maneuvers are proposed. These maneuvers aim to improve the situational awareness of both air traffic controller and UA pilotin- command, but also to disrupt as less as possible the mission performed by the UA and to minimize the uncertainty in the reactions the UA may adopt autonomously if the link with the ground station is lost. Some preliminary real-time simulations are shown, using a UA ground station simulator linked to a air traffic control simulator.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Departure and approach procedures for unmanned aircraft systems in a visual-flight-rule environment

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2011-08
    Journal article

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  • Best paper award 1st International Conference on application and theory of automation in command and control system

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Award or recognition

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  • Fast geolocation for hot spot detection

     Salamí San Juan, Esther; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Depart and approach procedures for UAS in a VFR environment

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Evaluating technologies and mechanisms for the automated/autonomous operation of UAS in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2011-12-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An architecture to automate UAS operations in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Dynamic flight plan design for UAS remote sensing applications  Open access

     Solé Simó, Marc; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the civil market. UAS have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. In general, they are specially well suited for the so-called D-cube operations (Dirty, Dull or Dangerous). Current technology greatly facilitates the construction of UAS. Sophisticated flight con- trol systems also make them accessible to end users with little aeronautical expertise. How- ever, we believe that for its successful introduction into the civil market, progress needs to be made to deliver systems able to perform a wide variety of missions with minimal reconfiguration and with reduced operational costs. Most current flight plan specification mechanisms consist in a simple list of waypoints, an approach that has important limitations. This paper proposes a new specification mech- anism with semantically richer constructs that will enable the end user to specify more complex flight plans. The proposed formalism provides means for specifying iterative be- havior, conditional branching and other constructs to dynamically adapt the flight path to mission circumstances. Collaborating with the FCS, a new module on-board the UAS will be in charge of executing these plans. This research also studies how the proposed flight plan structure can be tailored to the specific needs of remote sensing. For these type of applications well structured and efficient area and perimeter scanning is mandatory. In this paper we introduce several strategies focused to optimize the scanning process for tactical or mini UAS. The paper also presents a prototype implementation of this module and the results obtained in simulations.

  • Mission formalism for UAS based navaid flight inspections

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In previous work UAS have been proposed as the platform of choice for performing Navaid Flight Inspections. It is expected that the use of these platforms will significantly reduce time and monetary costs, but a number of issues must be addressed for UAS to become a real alternative. An important requirement for flight inspection missions is to minimize their impact on other air traffic. In this paper we focus on provisioning UAS with a level of operational agility comparable to that provided by a human on-board pilot. To avoid conflicts, the unmanned vehicle must be able to momentarily interrupt and later on resume the inspection operations in an automated manner. In this paper we analyze the operational requirements for a specific inspection mission and design a flight plan for its execution. Afterwards, a flight plan specification formalism, that will enable us to perform the inspection mission in a highly automated manner, is presented. Finally, we demonstrate how the flight plan design is translated to a suitable representation using this formalism and how the required operational agility is achieved.

  • Smooth UAV: Evaluation and new strategies for the smooth integration of civil mission oriented UAV in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Perez Batlle, Marcos
    Participation in a competitive project

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