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  • Valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products from mining and seawater desalination brines for water treatment applications

     Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
    Vol. 89, num. 6, p. 872-883
    DOI: 10.1002/jctb.4326
    Date of publication: 2014-06-01
    Journal article

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    BACKGROUNDBrines from the drainage of potash mine tailings and from seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination were previously evaluated as sources of NaCl for the chlor-alkali industry. Valorisation of NaCl as raw material is required to meet the membrane electrolysis specifications of NaCl saturation and control of interferences (Ca, Mg and sulphate). Brines concentration in NaCl was previously achieved for SWRO brines using electrodialysis (ED). In this work, valorisation of Ca and Mg by-products via selective recovery was evaluated.; RESULTSRecovery of Ca(II) and Mg(II) using chemical precipitation with Na2CO3 and NaOH was evaluated at 25 degrees C and 65 degrees C using one single reagent and mixtures of reagents. The excess of reactants needed to achieve the maximum removal efficiency ranged from 0.35 to 14 g L-1 Na2CO3 and 0.85 g L-1 NaOH. Selective concentration of SWRO brines by ED benefited the purification, as it slightly diluted the antiscalants. The increase of temperatures also benefited their removal process.; CONCLUSIONSTotal chemical analysis of Ca and Mg by-products showed the presence of mixed salts of Ca and Mg when Na2CO3 was used and more pure precipitates of Mg when NaOH was used. In both cases, small amounts of minor traces initially present in the brines were found. (c) 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • Concentration of NaCl from seawater reverse osmosis brines for the chlor-alkali industry by electrodialysis

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Casas Garriga, Sandra; Aladjem, Carlos; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valero Cervera, Fernando; Miguel Centeno, Carlos; Larrotcha, Enric; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Desalination
    Vol. 342, p. 107-117
    DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2013.12.021
    Date of publication: 2014-06-02
    Journal article

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    Currently, numerous studies are focused on the valorisation of seawater desalination reverse osmosis brines. Electrodialysis can be used to concentrate one of the primary components (NaCI) and obtain a suitable raw material for industrial applications, such as the chlor-alkali industry. An electrodialysis pilot plant was used to evaluate the efficiency of concentrating a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine under representative full-scale operational conditions covering the temperature range of a semiarid climate. The results indicate that electrodialysis is a technology that can concentrate SVVRO brines from approximately 70 to 245 g/L NaCl, achieving an additional intrinsic purification of major multivalent ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-) due to the selectivity patterns of ion exchange membranes and the ion-complexation reactions in the concentrated brines. However, minor components, such as Ni and Cu, are concentrated due to the formation of Cu and Ni complexes with chloride ions to form monocharged species (e.g., NiCl+ and CuCl+). Energy consumption values of 0.12 kWh/kg NaCl for 185 g NaCl/l at 27 degrees C and 0.35 kA/m(2) or 0.19 kWh/kg NaCl for 203 g NaCl/l at 27 degrees C and 0.50 kA/m(2) were reached. These results were compared with the data obtained from the literature for salt production by electrodialysers. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Phosphate recovery from tertiary treatment effluents using nanofiltration membranes

     Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Reig i Amat, Monica; Marín, Miguel; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 382-383
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Phosphate recovery will become more important within the next decades due to depletion ofmineral phosphorus resources [1]. Waste water has been identified as a secondary resource of this substance and nanofiltration (NF) is an attractive membrane process for selective phosphate recovery, since high rejections of NaCl are not required. This technique has similar performance as reverse osmosis (RO). However, NF membranes allow higher salt passage than RO membranes, which decreases osmotic pressure. Furthermore, the high permeability of NF membranes also reduces the pressure needed for phosphate recovery making NF a more cost effective process. Experimental studies evaluated the recovery of phosphate, however scare data on the description of the rejections could be found. Although those studies have obtained interesting results under several conditions, they do not explain the rejections of the phosphate under the extent of a rigorous transport model [2,3]. In this work the Solution-Diffusion-Film Model (SDFM) was used, to describe the phosphate transport through a planar NF membrane in the separation process of tertiary treatment effluents (TTEs) [4]. Experimental data was obtained with synthetic aqueous solutions of different major salts, present in TTEs, with phosphate as ion trace. The experiments were carried out with a polyamide thin-film composite NF membrane NF270 (Dow Chemical Company, Midland (USA)). A cross-flow set-up equipped with a test cell (GE SEPA¿ CF II) with a spacer-filled feed channel and the possibility of independent variation of transmembrane pressure and cross-flow velocity was used. A flat sheet membrane with an effective filtration surface of 0.014 m2 was used (See Figure 1). The SDFM performed a good prediction of the behavior of species in solution, and rejection streams, with small deviations between mesured and predicted values. Then, it can be considered as a suitable model for design and calculations. According to Figure 2, high performance in the separation of phosphate in solution was observed (above 90%), demonstraiting that NF is an appropriate membrane process for phosphate recovery. In turn, the phosphate rejection is not considerably affected by the different major salt used in the solution.

  • From sea water reverse osmosis desalination brines to chemical products: valorization of NaCl by electrodialysis in the chlor-alkali industry

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    International Water & Health Seminar
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Desalination plants are used to supply high quality water to the population. Although, the main problem of this process is the high quantity of reverse osmosis desalination brines (RODB) that are produced, which are disposed into the sea generating environmental impacts in the reception points such as diminishing the amount of flora and creating salinity, temperature and alkalinity gradients. In the brines, contaminants concentration is higher than in the feed furthermore, the biodiversity of the sea will bears bioaccumulation in a certain period of time[1]. Bromide is, for example, an ion that is present in the brines and is very harmful for human health since it can produce other substances such as tribromopyrrole, halofuranones, trihalomethanes, haloacids, which are known for their mutagenic effect[2]. Avoiding the discharge of RODB into the sea, will help to not contaminate the species used for human consume. Nowadays, a lot of alternative for the RODB valorization are been studied. In this research, a new management option for RODB based on the valorization of NaCl in the chlor-alkali industry by electrodialysis (ED) is presented. An ED pilot plant was used under full-scale operational conditions covering the temperature range of a semiarid climate. The diluted and electrolyte circuits had a single-pass design whereas the concentrate flow was recirculated until the maximum concentration was reached. Current densities were varied between 0.30 and 0.60 kA/m2 and other parameters were monitored by in-line measurements[3]. Results indicate that electrodialysis is a technology that can concentrate RODB from approximately 70 to 245 g/L NaCl, achieving an additional intrinsic purification of major multivalent ions due to the selectivity patterns of ion exchange membranes and the ion-complexation reactions in the RODB. ED performance was highly dependent on inlet temperature and current densities used. At higher inlet temperatures lower concentrations were obtained, but higher production flows and lower energy consumptions (Ec) could be reached. At higher current densities applied, higher production flows and concentrations could be obtained but higher Ec were recorded[4]. Ec values of 0.12 kWh/kgNaCl for 185 gNaCl/l at 27 °C and 0.35 kA/m2 or 0.19 kWh/kgNaCl for 203 gNaCl/l at 27 °C and 0.50 kA/m2 were reached. These results were in the range of those reported in the literature, but more research is needed to obtain data on Ec under different operating conditions so that the Ec of the pilot plant can be reduced and optimal NaCl concentrations can be reached.

  • Acid and base production in the desalination process by bipolar membrane electrodialysis: preliminary results

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Martínez, Montse; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 266-267
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aim of this work is to study the valorization of reverse osmosis desalination brines as acid and base by using bipolar membrane electrodialysis process. An experimental lab-scale pilot plant was used where the membranes stack used was PCCell ED 64-004 (PCCell GmbH, Germany). The dimension of the cell is 0.11x0.11m. It is a 4 chamber system with an active membrane area of 0.0064 m2 per membrane. The stack configuration is composed of three cell triplets; each cell triplet has one cationic exchange membrane (PC-SK), one anionic exchange membrane (PC Acid 60) and one bipolar membrane. Each cell triplet has three compartments: for diluted, acid, base. Moreover, there are two electrodes rinse compartments that form a single circuit located at the cell ends. Thus, the pilot plant was working by means of 4 circuits: the electrode rinse, acid, basic and diluted. Each of them has a pump, pressure, temperature, flow and conductivity sensors. Furthermore, pH of the dilution solution during the experiment was monitored by a pHmeter in the diluted circuit. A power supply device was used to establish an electrical current density in the stack. Preliminary experiments with NaCl as feed solution were carried out in recirculation configuration in order to test the stack and to find the optimal operation conditions. Some experiments were carried out at different conditions of current density and voltage (9V, 0.4kA/m2 and 6V, 0.1kA/m2) to evaluate the effect of these parameters. In turn, different initial acid and base concentration (0.05M and 0.1M) were used to determine their influence on the final concentration of HCl and NaOH obtained. Finally, the NaCl initial concentration was varied from 50 to 200 g/L. Results corroborated that the electrodialysis with bipolar membrane is a suitable method for desalinating NaCl while producing NaOH and HCl [1]. Furthermore, with regard to the effect of current density and voltage, it was found that the higher they were, the higher NaOH and HCl concentration were obtained [2] (Figure 1). Moreover, initial acid and base concentrations had no a substantial effect on the overall of the performance (Figure 2). Finally, concerning the effect of feed salt solution concentration, it was found that an increase of NaCl let to an increase of acid and base concentration (Figure 3).

  • Evaluation of electrolyte mixtures rejection behavior using nanofiltration membranes using spiral wound and flat sheet configurations

     Reig i Amat, Monica; Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 391-392
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nanofiltration (NF) is a growing separation technology for water treatment processes at different industrials lands. It can be used in different membrane configurations, such as flat sheet (FS) or spiral wound (SW). Usually, FS configuration is used at lab-scale test membrane. On the other hand, SW membrane configuration is used at industrial scale, due to the need for more active membrane area and the space optimization. For this reason, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability of the data obtained in a FS lab-scale set up when they are implemented at industrial scale level using SW configuration. Two different pilot plants were used to evaluate the ion rejection of mixed feed salt solutions, based on a dominant and a trace salt. The membrane used in both pilot plants was the NF270 membrane, supplied by Dow Chemical, with an active membrane area of 0.014m2 and 2.6m2 for the FS and SW configuration, respectively. The membrane used has a negative superficial charge. Experimental conditions in both membrane configurations were the same: different synthetic salt mixture feed solutions were used working at constant temperature while the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) varied from the osmotic pressure to 20 bars with increments of approximately 2 bars. For each sample taken at different pressures, a trans-membrane flux was obtained. The concentrate and the permeate streams were recirculated in both cases to maintain constant the feed solution concentration during the experiment. Different parameters such as, pH, conductivity, temperature, TMP and flow rate were measured and monitored along the experiment. Synthetic solutions were prepared representing brackish waters of Catalonian rivers, such as Llobregat and Ebre. For this reason, NaCl, MgSO4 and MgCl2 were used as dominant salts, and Br-, NH4 +, K+ and I- were used as ion traces. This experimental design was used to study the effect of different electrolyte mixtures to a trace ion rejection. Trace salt concentration was set from 0.5 to 2% of the dominant one. The results of each experiment were modelled using the Solution-diffusion-film model (SDFM) [1] and compared taking into account the membrane configuration. By means of the SDFM the ion permeability of each ion can be calculated. This value depends on the capacity of the ion to cross the membrane. Figure 1 shows the measured and predicted ion rejection data as a function of transmembrane flux for each feed salt solution using both membrane configurations. Results showed that the most rejected ions were divalent ones in both configurations, in which SO4 2- was the most rejected one followed by Mg2+. NaCl is rejected moderately and K+ has shown a negative rejection. This phenomena was previously explained by Pages et al. [2] Comparing both membranes configurations, it is observed that fairly similar results are been obtained. However, for the same operation conditions, more trans-membrane flux was obtained working with FS configuration. Besides, the ion permeability order for each experiment was the same in both membrane configurations.

  • Ammonium removal by liquid - liquid membrane contactors in water purification process for hydrogen production

     Licon Bernal, Edxon Eduardo; Reig i Amat, Monica; Villanova, Pilar; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology
    p. 246-247
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Hydrogen is considered a clean energy source since only water vapor is obtained during its combustion. However, production of H2 from water by electrolysis is limited by water quality requirements in terms of ionic conductivity [1]. The use of membrane distillation has been postulated as an attractive solution to achieve this objective, nonetheless the presence of aqueous ionic species with the potential of change to a gaseous phase are limiting its performance [2, 3]. In this work a liquid-liquid membrane contactor (LLMC) was evaluated to remove ammonia traces from water for electrolysis hydrogen production. Three operational parameters were evaluated: the feed flow rate, the initial ammonia concentration in the water stream and the pH of solution. Synthetic aqueous solutions with ammonium concentration of 5 to 25 ppm and a sulfuric acid as stripping solution (pH=2) were feeded to the LLMC (Liquicel X30) in countercurrent and open loop configuration with flow rates between 0.16 and 1.3 L/min and the pH of the feeding solution was set between 8 and 11. The ammonia concentration of the permeate was determined during the experiments with a selective ammonia electrode (HACH 51927). The ammonium removal efficiencies were calculated from the experimental data and the results were used to validate a 2D numerical model solved by COMSOL Multiphysics, which was developed considering advection-diffusion equation inside a single fibber of the lumen with laminar flow conditions and liquid gas equilibrium in the membrane-solution interface. According to both, experimental data and numerical predictions, the hollow fiber membrane contactor technology is a suitable alternative to remove ammonium from water and to feed the membrane distillation unit in order to fullfil water quality requirements for electrolysis-based hydrogen production. There was not found any clear dependance in the initial amonium concentration for the range evaluated. As can be seen in Figure 2, the amonium removal was clearly affected by the solution pH. It can explained with the pH dependance of the equilibrium between the ammonia gas and ammonium ions, making it the driving force responsible for the separation process inside the membrane. The other important parameter to be taken into account is the flow rate which affects the residence time of the solution inside the LLMC.

  • Characterising biofilm development on granular activated carbon used for drinking water production

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Lefèvre, B.; Fernández, Marc; Bernat, Xavier; Paraira, Miquel; Calderer Perich, Montserrat; Martínez Lladó, Xavier
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 47, num. 3, p. 1101-1110
    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.11.026
    Date of publication: 2013-03-01
    Journal article

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    Under normal operation conditions, granular activated carbon (GAC) employed in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) for natural organic matter (NOM) removal can be colonised by microorganisms which can eventually establish active biofilms. The formation of such biofilms can contribute to NOM removal by biodegradation, but also in clogging phenomena that can make necessary more frequent backwashes. Biofilm occurrence and evolution under full-scale-like conditions (i.e. including periodic backwashing) are still uncertain, and GAC filtration is usually operated with a strong empirical component. The aim of the present study was to assess the formation and growth, if any, of biofilm in a periodically backwashed GAC filter. For this purpose, an on-site pilot plant was assembled and operated to closely mimic the GAC filters installed in the DWTP in Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain). The study comprised a monitoring of both water and GAC cores withdrawn at various depths and times throughout 1 year operation....

    Under normal operation conditions, granular activated carbon (GAC) employed in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) for natural organic matter (NOM) removal can be colonised by microorganisms which can eventually establish active biofilms. The formation of such biofilms can contribute to NOM removal by biodegradation, but also in clogging phenomena that can make necessary more frequent backwashes. Biofilm occurrence and evolution under full-scale-like conditions (i.e. including periodic backwashing) are still uncertain, and GAC filtration is usually operated with a strong empirical component. The aim of the present study was to assess the formation and growth, if any, of biofilm in a periodically backwashed GAC filter. For this purpose, an on-site pilot plant was assembled and operated to closely mimic the GAC filters installed in the DWTP in Sant Joan Despí (Barcelona, Spain). The study comprised a monitoring of both water and GAC cores withdrawn at various depths and times throughout 1 year operation. The biomass parameters assessed were total cell count by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), DNA and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Visual examination of GAC particles was also conducted by high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Additionally, water quality and GAC surface properties were monitored. Results provided insight into the extent and spatial distribution of biofilm within the GAC bed. To sum up, it was found that backwashing could physically detach bacteria from the biofilm, which could however build back up to its pre-backwashing concentration before next backwashing cycle.

  • Fractionation and removal of dissolved organic carbon in a full-scale granular activated carbon filter used for drinking water production

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Lefèvre, B.; Fernández, Marc; Bernat, Xavier; Paraira, Miquel; Pons, Marc
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 47, num. 8, p. 2821-2829
    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2013.02.028
    Date of publication: 2013-03-15
    Journal article

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    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and, more particularly, its individual fractions by two different GACs was investigated in full-scale filters in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Fractionation of NOM was performed by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) into biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks and low molecular weight organics. The sorption capacity of GAC in terms of iodine number (IN) and apparent surface area (SBET), as well as the filling of narrow- and super-microporosity were monitored over the 1-year operation of the filters. Both GACs demonstrated to be effective at removing NOM over a wide range of fractions, especially the low and intermediate molecular weight fractions. TOC removal initially occurred via adsorption, and smaller (lighter) fractions were more removed as they could enter and diffuse more easily through the pores of the adsorbent.

    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and, more particularly, its individual fractions by two different GACs was investigated in full-scale filters in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Fractionation of NOM was performed by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) into biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks and low molecular weight organics. The sorption capacity of GAC in terms of iodine number (IN) and apparent surface area (SBET), as well as the filling of narrow- and super-microporosity were monitored over the 1-year operation of the filters. Both GACs demonstrated to be effective at removing NOM over a wide range of fractions, especially the low and intermediate molecular weight fractions. TOC removal initially occurred via adsorption, and smaller (lighter) fractions were more removed as they could enter and diffuse more easily through the pores of the adsorbent. As time progressed, biodegradation also played a role in the TOC removal, and lighter fractions continued to be preferentially removed due to their higher biodegradability. The gained knowledge would assist drinking water utilities in selecting a proper GAC for the removal of NOM from water and, therefore, complying more successfully the latest water regulations.

  • Salinity gradient solar pond: Validation and simulation model

     Bernad, Francesc; Casas Garriga, Sandra; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto
    Solar energy
    Vol. 98, p. 366-374
    DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.10.004
    Date of publication: 2013-12
    Journal article

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    This paper describes the development, validation and use of a design and simulation tool for modeling the performance of a salinity gradient solar pond. An experimental solar pond pilot plant was constructed in central Catalonia (NE part of the Iberian Peninsula). The body of the pond is a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank, with 3m height, 8m diameter and total area of 50m2. The lateral tank wall has been insulated with 60mm of rock wool. The gradient in the solar pond was settled and maintained since 30 September 2009 to date. The developed tool was validated by comparing simulation results to experimental data collected from the experimental solar pond from November 2009 until August 2011. The resulting first-order differential equations describing the overall energy balance in the pond were solved numerically using a finite-difference method. The temperature profiles of the pond were properly described, especially at lower subzones of the non-convective zone (NCZ) and the lower convective zone (LCZ). The higher errors between experimental and predicted values were found in the upper convective zone (UCZ). Once validated, successfully, the model was used to predict the thermal performance of pre-industrial solar pond to be constructed and operated in Granada, SW of Spain. The thermal profiles predicted temperature differences between surface and bottom of around 40°C during summer time, with a maximum temperature of 75°C. The energy efficiency of the LCZ was anticipated to range between 12% and 25% along one year operation, resulting in 16% of incoming radiation to be extractable for site application.

    This paper describes the development, validation and use of a design and simulation tool for modeling the performance of a salinity gradient solar pond. An experimental solar pond pilot plant was constructed in central Catalonia (NE part of the Iberian Peninsula). The body of the pond is a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank, with 3 m height, 8 m diameter and total area of 50 m2. The lateral tank wall has been insulated with 60 mm of rock wool. The gradient in the solar pond was settled and maintained since 30 September 2009 to date. The developed tool was validated by comparing simulation results to experimental data collected from the experimental solar pond from November 2009 until August 2011. The resulting first-order differential equations describing the overall energy balance in the pond were solved numerically using a finite-difference method. The temperature profiles of the pond were properly described, especially at lower subzones of the non-convective zone (NCZ) and the lower convective zone (LCZ). The higher errors between experimental and predicted values were found in the upper convective zone (UCZ). Once validated, successfully, the model was used to predict the thermal performance of pre-industrial solar pond to be constructed and operated in Granada, SW of Spain. The thermal profiles predicted temperature differences between surface and bottom of around 40 °C during summer time, with a maximum temperature of 75 °C. The energy efficiency of the LCZ was anticipated to range between 12% and 25% along one year operation, resulting in 16% of incoming radiation to be extractable for site application.

  • Pre-treatment of Llobregat River raw water through pressurised inside/out hollow fibre ultrafiltration membranes

     Ferrer-Roca, Olga; Serrallach, Xavier; Horvath, Ferry; Mesa Fernandez, Jose; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Bernat Camí, Xavier
    Desalination and water treatment
    Vol. 51, num. 7, p. 1831-1837
    DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2012.714637
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    The feasibility of raw river direct ultrafiltration, as an alternative to conventional drinking water treatment plant pre-treatment, was investigated at prototype scale (May–October 2011). A highly variable and challenging water resource was selected, in order to assess different scenarios, covering a broad range of conditions. The prototype was able to deal with conditions ranging from 20 to >800NTU successfully, without any chemical pre-treatment and consuming low amount of chemical reagents for cleaning purposes. The membranes’ performance proved to work better in terms of water production yield and resistance build up stability at medium and high turbidity episodes than at lower ones, probably due to a cake layer formation which prevented small binding organic species and particles reaching the membrane. Permeate quality, both in physico-chemical and microbiological terms, was independent of the feed water characteristics.

  • Rejection of trace ionic solutes in nanofiltration: Influence of aqueous phase composition

     Pages Hernando, Neus; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Chemical engineering science
    Vol. 104, p. 1107-1115
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2013.09.042
    Date of publication: 2013-12-18
    Journal article

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    The use of nanofiltration (NF) in water treatment has been proposed to improve the quality of the produced water and extend the options of concentrate valorization, taking the benefit of its different ions selectivity patterns. However, there is a need to understand and optimize the rejection not only of major components (e.g. NaCl or MgSO4) but also of minor components specially in brackish waters. The selectivity of ion rejection by NF membranes has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis has been carried out within the scope of the solution-diffusion-film model (SDFM) recently extended to electrolyte mixtures. In this study, experimental ion rejection data of typical cationic and anionic species present in surface waters at various trans-membrane pressures and cross-flow velocities have been obtained with a NF membrane (NF270). Several combinations of dominant salts (NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, Na2SO4) with trace ions (Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, SO42-) have been used. The rejection of ions crucially depends on their environment. The dramatic differences in the rejections can be explained by the spontaneously arising electric fields generated in the membrane phase. Their effect gives rise to negative rejections of singly charged inorganic ions present as small additions to well-rejected dominant salts. As a result of theoretical interpretation the intrinsic membrane permeabilities to ions have been estimated for different aqueous solutions compositions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

    The use of nanofiltration (NF) in water treatment has been proposed to improve the quality of the produced water and extend the options of concentrate valorization, taking the benefit of its different ions selectivity patterns. However, there is a need to understand and optimize the rejection not only of major components (e.g. NaCl or MgSO4) but also of minor components specially in brackish waters. The selectivity of ion rejection by NF membranes has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis has been carried out within the scope of the solution-diffusion-film model (SDFM) recently extended to electrolyte mixtures. In this study, experimental ion rejection data of typical cationic and anionic species present in surface waters at various trans-membrane pressures and cross-flow velocities have been obtained with a NF membrane (NF270). Several combinations of dominant salts (NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, Na2SO4) with trace ions (Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, SO42−) have been used. The rejection of ions crucially depends on their environment. The dramatic differences in the rejections can be explained by the spontaneously arising electric fields generated in the membrane phase. Their effect gives rise to negative rejections of singly charged inorganic ions present as small additions to well-rejected dominant salts. As a result of theoretical interpretation the intrinsic membrane permeabilities to ions have been estimated for different aqueous solutions compositions

  • Performance of a field-scale permeable reactive barrier based on organic substrate and zero-valent iron for in situ remediation of acid mine drainage

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; De Pablo, Joan; Ayora Ibañez, Carlos
    Environmental science and pollution research
    Vol. 20, num. 11, p. 7854-7862
    DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1507-2
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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    A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in Aznalcóllar (Spain) in order to rehabilitate the Agrio aquifer groundwater severely contaminated with acid mine drainage after a serious mining accident. The filling material of the PRB consisted of a mixture of calcite, vegetal compost and, locally, Fe0 and sewage sludge. Among the successes of the PRB are the continuous neutralisation of pH and the removal of metals from groundwater within the PRB (removals of >95 %). Among the shortcomings are the improper PRB design due to the complexity of the internal structure of the Agrio alluvial deposits (which resulted in an inefficient capture of the contaminated plume), the poor degradability of the compost used and the short residence time within the PRB (which hindered a complete sulphate reduction), the clogging of a section of the PRB and the heterogeneities of the filling material (which resulted in preferential flows within the PRB). Undoubtedly, it is only through accumulated experience at field-scale systems that the potentials and limits of the PRB technology can be determined.

  • Evaluation of sheep manure for in-situ acid mine drainage treatment

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos; Pablo Ribas, Joan de
    Date of publication: 2012
    Book chapter

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  • Atenuación natural e inducida de la contaminacion de origen agrícola e industrial en aguas subterráneas

     Martínez Martínez, María R.; Oliva Moncunill, Josep; Soler Gil, Albert; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Mas Pla, Josep; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç
    Competitive project

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  • Extraction of valuable metal ions (Cs, Rb, Li, U) from reverse osmosis concentrate using selective sorbents

     Peterskova, Michaela; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Desalination
    Vol. 286, p. 316-323
    Date of publication: 2012-02-01
    Journal article

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  • Cleaning optimisation of reverse osmosis membranes used for wastewater reclamation

     Bernat, X.; Prats, G.; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Lefèvre, B.; Tobella, J.
    Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination
    Vol. 2, num. 1, p. 47-54
    DOI: 10.2166/wrd.2012.011
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Solar energy storage by salinity gradient solar pond: pilot plant construction and gradient control

     Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Arcal, J; Solano, P.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Larrotcha, E.; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Desalination
    Vol. 279, num. 1-3, p. 445-450
    DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2011.06.035
    Date of publication: 2011-09-15
    Journal article

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  • Membrane fouling characterization and cleaning adaptation in wastewater reclamation plants: from plant to lab

     Bernat, Xavier; Prats, G; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Lefèvre, B.; Tobella Brunet, Joana
    Desalination and water treatment
    Vol. 34, num. 1-3, p. 361-366
    DOI: 10/5004/dwt.2011.2805
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Journal article

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  • In-situ remediation of acid mine drainage using a permeable reactive barrier in Aznalcóllar (Sw Spain)

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Rötting, Tobias; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Ayora Ibañez, Carlos; Bolzicco, J,
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Vol. 191, num. 1-3, p. 287-295
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.04.082
    Date of publication: 2011-07-15
    Journal article

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  • Denitrification in presence of acetate and glucose for bioremediation of nitrate-contaminated groundwater

     Calderer, M.; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Rovira Boixaderas, Miguel Arcangel; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Jordana, S.; Guimera, J; Bruno Salgot, Jorge
    Environmental technology
    Vol. 31, num. 7, p. 799-814
    DOI: 10.1080/09593331003667741
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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  • Evaluation of Selective Sorbents for the Extraction of Valuable Metal Ions (Cs, Rb, Li, U) from Reverse Osmosis Rejected Brine

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Peterkova, Michaela; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Solvent extraction and ion exchange
    Vol. 28, num. 4, p. 543-562
    DOI: 10.1080/07366299.2010.480931
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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  • In situ removal of arsenic from groundwater by using permeable reactive barriers of organic matter/limestone/zero-valent iron mixtures

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Environmental geochemistry and health
    Vol. 32, num. 4, p. 373-378
    DOI: 10.1007/s10653-010-9290-1
    Date of publication: 2010-08
    Journal article

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    Abstract In this study, two mixtures of municipal compost, limestone and, optionally, zero-valent iron were assessed in two column experiments on acid mine treatment. The effluent solution was systematically analysed throughout the experiment and precipitates from both columns were withdrawn for scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry analysis and, from the column containing zero-valent iron, solid digestion and sequential extraction analysis. The results showed that waters were cleaned of arsenic, metals and acidity, but chemical and morphological analysis suggested that metal removal was not due predominantly to biogenic sulphide generation but to pH increase, i.e. metal (oxy)hydroxide and carbonate precipitation. Retained arsenic and metal removal were clearly associated to co-precipitation with and/or sorption on iron and aluminum (oxy)hydroxides. An improvement on the arsenic removal efficiency was achieved when the filling mixture contained zero-valent iron. Values of arsenic concentrations were then always below 10 lg/L.

  • Natural attenuation potential of a groundwater-fed Danish Wetland Impacted by diffuse nitrate contamination

     Bosch, Carme; Calderer, M.; Jubany, Irene; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Springael, Dirk; Aamand, Jens
    International UFZ-Deltares/TNO Conference, on Management of Soil, Groundwater and Sediments
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Assessment of heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification in aquifers by using batch tests

     Calderer, M.; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Rovira Boixaderas, Miguel Arcangel; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Gimenez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier
    International UFZ-Deltares/TNO Conference, on Management of Soil, Groundwater and Sediments
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Statistical testing based methodology for the analysis of soil pollution evidence

     Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Gimenez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier; Martínez Lladó, Xavier; De Fays, Isolda
    International UFZ-Deltares/TNO Conference, on Management of Soil, Groundwater and Sediments
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • GROUND WATER POLLUTION FORM AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

     Martínez Martínez, María R.; Oliva Moncunill, Josep; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Torras Grane, Josep; Gimenez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier
    Competitive project

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  • INTEGRACIÓN DE PROCESOS DE EXTRACCION REACTIVA Y PROCESOS DE MEMBRANAS EN LA ELIMINACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS INDESADOS EN ETAPAS DE POTABI

     Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Changes of heavy metal and PCB contents in surficial sediments of the Barcelona harbour after the opening of a new entrance

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Diez Berart, Sergio; Romo, Javier; Bayona ., Josep Maria; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Martínez Lladó, Xavier
    Water, air and soil pollution
    Vol. 204, num. 1-4, p. 271-284
    DOI: 10.1007/s11270-009-0044-6
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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    The Barcelona harbour is one of the biggest and most important in commercial and passenger traffic in the Mediterranean Sea. In 2003, construction works for the enlargement of the port were carried out with the opening of a new entrance for large boats in the northern area. Following the opening of this new mouth, the redistribution of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr), As and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated to discuss their origin and to evaluate the environmental implications. A previous study of the sediments provided a first picture of high levels of heavy metals and PCBs in the innermost harbour (Port Vell). Then, the opening of the northern mouth led to a remarkable decline in the contaminant concentrations and to an improvement of the sediment quality. During the period 2002–2005, the percentage of concentration decreases in Port Vell for Hg, Pb and PCB (from 20% to 34%), for Zn and Cd (from 10% to 15%) and for the remaining metals with values lesser than 10%. This general decline was probably due to a more efficient water flushing between the original and the new northern entrance. Concentrations of target contaminants were also compared against sediment quality guidelines to assess the ecotoxicological significance of sedimentary contaminants on the benthic communities.

  • Selection of organic substrates as potential reactive materials for use in a denitrification permeable reactive barrier (PRB)

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pomierny, Sylwia; Rowe, Ivan; M. Kalin, Robert
    Bioresource technology
    Vol. 99, num. 16, p. 7587-7596
    DOI: doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.02.012
    Date of publication: 2008
    Journal article

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  • Evaluation of a sheep manure/limestone mixture for in-situ acid mine drainage treatment

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Environmental engineering science
    Vol. 25, num. 1, p. 52-61
    DOI: 10.1089/ees.2006.0247
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Microbial analysis of soil and groundwater from a gasworks site and comparison with a sequenced biological reactive barrier remediation process

     Ferguson, Andrew S.; Huang, W.E.; Lawson, K.A.; Doherty, Rory; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Dickson, Keith W.; Whiteley, A.S.; Kulakov, L.A.; Thompson, I.P.; Kalin, Robert M.; Larkin, M.J.
    Journal of applied microbiology
    Vol. 102, num. 5, p. 1227-1238
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03398.x
    Date of publication: 2007
    Journal article

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  • Access to the full text
    Performance of a sequential permeable reactive barrier for bioremediation of coal tar contaminated groundwater  Open access

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Kalin, Robert M.; Doherty, Rory; Dickson, Keith W.; McGeough, Karen L.; Robinson, Jamie; Thomas, Russell
    Environmental science and technology
    Vol. 41, p. 6795-6801
    DOI: 10.1021/es071527f
    Date of publication: 2007
    Journal article

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    Following a thorough site investigation, a biological Sequential Reactive Barrier (SEREBAR), designed to remove Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and BTEX compounds, was installed at a Former Manufactured Gas Plant (FMGP) site. The novel design of the barrier comprises, in series, an interceptor and six reactive chambers. The first four chambers (2 nonaerated-2 aerated) were filled with sand to encourage microbial colonization. Sorbant Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) was present in the final two chambers in order to remove any recalcitrant compounds. The SEREBAR has been in continuous operation for 2 years at different operational flow rates (ranging from 320 L/d to 4000 L/d, with corresponding residence times in each chamber of 19 days and 1.5 days, respectively). Under low flow rate conditions (320-520 L/d) the majority of contaminant removal (>93%) occurred biotically within the interceptor and the aerated chambers. Under high flow rates (1000-4000 L/d) and following the installation of a new interceptor to prevent passive aeration, the majority of contaminant removal (>80%) again occurred biotically within the aerated chambers. The sorption zone (GAC) proved to be an effective polishing step, removing any remaining contaminants to acceptable concentrations before discharge down-gradient of the SEREBAR (overall removals >95%).

  • Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

     Marti Gregorio, Vicenç; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Martinez-Llado, X; Diez, S; Romo, J; Bayona Termens, Josep Maria; Pablo Ribas, Joan de
    Environmental pollution
    Vol. 149, num. 1, p. 104-113
    Date of publication: 2007-07
    Journal article

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  • Metal complexation role of natural organic susbstrates on reactive mixtures for permeable reactive barriers for mitigation of acid mine drainage

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Pablo, J De; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Water research (Oxford)
    num. 39, p. 2827-2838
    Date of publication: 2005-01
    Journal article

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  • Municipal compost-based mixture for acid mine drainage bioremediation:Metal retention mechanisms

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Applied geochemistry
    Vol. 20, num. 9, p. 1648-1657
    Date of publication: 2005-09
    Journal article

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  • Sorption studies of Zn(II) and Cu(II) onto vegetal compost used on reactive mixtures for in situ treatment of acid mine drainage

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 39, p. 2827-2838
    Date of publication: 2005-09
    Journal article

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  • Processos físico-químics i biològics en el tractament d'aigües àcides de mina: Aplicació a barreres permeables reactives  Open access

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    CATALA La contaminació de les aigües superficials i subterrànies representa el problema mediambiental més greu a què s'ha d'enfrontar la indústria minera, a causa de les denominades aigües àcides de mina (AAM), generades com a resultat de la lixiviació dels residus finals dipositats a les basses d'emmagatzematge. Els jaciments minerals que contenen sulfurs metàl·lics són una font potencial d'AAM. L'exposició d'aquests materials als agents atmosfèrics, com l'oxigen i l'aigua, dóna lloc a la generació d'un lixiviat fortament contaminat, amb una elevada acidesa (pH4), alts continguts de SO42- (100-7000 mg dm-3) i quantitats variables de ions metàl·lics. En aquestes noves condicions d'acidesa i d'oxidació-reducció, les AAM poden escórrer-se pel sòl i els elements químics poden viatjar amb les aigües subterrànies, amb les consegüents repercussions per a l'ecosistema aquàtic.El tractament de les aigües subterrànies ha generat un gran interès en el camp de la biotecnologia ambiental. La tècnica més recent és el tractament in situ del plomall contaminat mitjançant una barrera permeable reactiva (BPR), que consisteix en la instal·lació d'un material reactiu a l'aqüífer capaç d'induir processos fisicoquímics i biològics que eliminin els contaminants de l'aigua. La tecnologia de les BPR per al tractament d'AAM és relativament moderna, sense precedents a Europa fins la instal·lació, l'any 2000, d'una BPR a l'aqüífer del riu Agrio, fortament contaminat per AAM després del trencament de la bassa de residus de la mina d'Aznalcóllar. L'enfocament biològic per al tractament de les AAM mitjançant una BPR es basa en l'ús de bacteris sulfato-reductors (BSR), capaços de reduir SO42- a S2-, que precipiten en presència de metalls en forma de sulfurs metàl·lics.L'objectiu primordial d'aquesta tesi és el d'estudiar, a escala de laboratori, els processos físico-químics i biològics involucrats en el tractament d'AAM mitjançant una BPR com la instal·lada a Aznalcóllar.Amb aquest propòsit, es va procedir a simular la barrera en experiments en columna, en què es va avaluar la capacitat de mescles reactives -a base de compost vegetal, calcita i puntualment Fe0- per al tractament d'una AAM sintètica. Els resultats van mostrar que el compost utilitzat és una font de carboni massa poc biodegradable per promoure l'activitat dels BSR. Malgrat la falta de condicions sulfato-reductores, la majoria dels metalls fou eliminada de forma significativa, la qual cosa va suggerir l'existència de processos diferents de la precipitació de sulfurs. En experiments posteriors es va demostrar que la precipitació d'(oxi)hidròxids i carbonats metàl·lics, la co-precipitació amb aquests, i l'adsorció sobre el compost són responsables de la disminució de la concentració de metalls. Aquest darrer mecanisme va ser objecte d'un estudi més exhaustiu, que va demostrar que els grups àcids presents a la superfície del compost poden adsorbir Zn i Cu. Posteriorment, i constatada la poca idoneïtat del compost per engegar un procés de sulfato-reducció bacteriana, l'objecte d'estudi es va orientar cap a la recerca d'altres matèries orgàniques, i més concretament, d'una metodologia per predir-ne la biodegradabilitat. Es va comparar, així, la composició química de quatre substrats orgànics (compost vegetal, fulles vegetals, i fems d'ovella i de cavall) amb la seva capacitat de promoure condicions sulfato-reductores. Els resultats van mostrar que la biodegradabilitat d'una matèria orgànica està estretament relacionada amb el seu contingut de lignina, i que aquest pot ser utilitzat per a la predicció de la seva biodegradabilitat. Dels substrats orgànics assajats, la mostra de fems d'ovella va resultar ser la més favorable, per la qual cosa es va seleccionar per a experiments posteriors en el tractament d'AAM. Els resultats d'aquests últims experiments van indicar que la presència de metalls a altes concentracions a l'aigua a tractar pot exercir efectes toxicològics als BSR i inhibir-ne el metabolisme.

    ANGLES The contamination of surface and groundwater represents the most serious environmental concern associated with the mining industry around the world, owing to the so-called acid mine drainage (AMD), which is generated as the result of the leaching of the residual wastes disposed of in open-air impoundments.Mineral deposits containing metal sulphides represent a potential source of AMD. The exposition of these residues to the atmospheric agents, like oxygen and water, results in the generation of a heavily contaminated-leachate characterised by a high acidity (pH<4), high contents in SO42- (100-7000 mg dm-3) and variable amounts of metallic ions. In these new acidic and redox conditions, these acidic waters can drain through the soil and enter into the groundwater system, resulting in a potential risk to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.The treatment of such groundwaters has in the last decades drawn the attention in the field of environmental biotechnology. A recent economically attractive technology in the in-situ treatment of AMD are the permeable reactive barriers (PRB), which consist of the installation into the aquifer of an appropriate reactive material able to induce physico-chemical and biological processes that remedy contaminated groundwater that flows through it. The PRB technology has emerged as a cost-effective alternative, without any precedent in Europe until the installation, in 2000, of a PRB into the Agrio river aquifer, which was heavily contaminated by AMD after the break down of the tailing pond in the pyritic mine of Aznalcóllar. The biological approach of the AMD treatment by means of a PRB is based on the use of sulphate-reducing bacteria (BSR), able to reduce SO42- to S2-, which can precipitate in presence of metals as metal sulphides.The present Thesis forms part of the research work on the PRB in Aznalcóllar, and its aim is the study, at the laboratory-scale, of the physico-chemical and biological processes taking place in the PRB in Aznalcóllar.For this purpose, the PRB was simulated in column experiments, in which the capacity of reactive mixtures -based on vegetal compost, calcite, and occasionally Fe0- was evaluated in the treatment of a synthetic AMD. The results showed that the compost used in this study is a too poor biodegradable carbon source to promote the SRB activity. Despite the lack of sulpahte-reducing conditons, most of metals were significantly removed, suggesting the existence of other processes than the sulphide precipitation. In subsequent experiments, the metallic (oxy)hydroxide and carbonate precipitation, the co-precipitation with them, and sorption onto the compost were demonstrated to be responsible of the decrease of the metal concentration. This latter mechanism was object of a more exhaustive study, which demonstrated that acidic groups on the compost surface can sorb Zn and Cu present in the solution. Subsequently, and because compost was found to be not suitable in promoting the bacterial sulphate-reducing process, the object of the study was directed towards the research of other organic matters and, more specifically, of a methodology for predicting their biodegradabity. The chemical composition of four organic substrates (vegetal compost, vegetal leaves, and sheep and poultry manure) and their ability in promoting sulphate-reducing conditions in a metal-free medium were compared. Results showed that the biodegradability of an organic matter is closely linked to its lignin content, which can be used as a predictable parameter. Among the assessed organic substrates, sheep manure resulted to be the most favourable in terms of sulphate-reduction, and was selected for the treatment of AMD. Results of these further experiments indicated that the presence of metals at high concentrations in the water can exert toxicological effects to the SRB and inhibit their metabolism.

  • Chemical characterisation of natural organic substrates for biological mitigation of acid mine drainage

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 38, num. 19, p. 4186-4196
    Date of publication: 2004-10
    Journal article

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  • On-site remediation of chromium contaminated sediments by combination of sediment washing and stabilization with magnesium oxide/limestone mixtures

     Carlos, Wildt; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Giuliana, Coscera
    Journal of soil contamination
    Vol. 4, num. 3, p. 184-191
    Date of publication: 2004-04
    Journal article

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  • Metal retention mechanisms for the Aznalcóllar permeable reactive barrier (SW Spain)

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Roetting, Tobias Stefan; Pablo, J De; Cortina, J L; Bolzicco, J; Carrera Ramirez, Jesus
    Symposium: Mine Water 2004 - Process, Policy and Progress
    p. 61-68
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Biosorption of heavy metal onto municipal compost as filling material for permeable reactive barriers for in-situ acid mine drainage treatment

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Pablo, J De; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    ION EXCHANGE- SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
    p. 1-2
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Remediation of chromium contaminated soils by combination of soil washing and stabilization with magnesium oxide

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Wildt, C; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Coscera, G
    Contaminated Soils 2003
    p. 1234-1242
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Treatment of acid mine drainage by sulphate-reducing bacteria using permeable reactive barriers: a review from laboratory to full-scale experiments.

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos
    Reviews in environmental science and bio-technology
    Vol. 1, num. 4, p. 327-333
    Date of publication: 2003-01
    Journal article

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  • Evaluation of municipal compost/limestone/iron mixtures as filling material for permeable reactive barriers for in-situ acid mine drainage treatment.

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibañez, Carlos
    Journal of chemical technology & biotechnology
    Vol. 78, num. 5, p. 489-496
    Date of publication: 2003-04
    Journal article

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  • Laboratory and field evaluation of municipal compost/limestone/iron mixtures as filling material for permeable reactive barriers fro in-situ acid mine drainage treatment

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Pablo, J De; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos; Carrera Ramirez, Jesus; Bolzicco, J
    Contaminated Soils 2003
    p. 2345-2352
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Laboratory and field evaluation of municipal compost/limestone/iron mixtures as filling material for permeable reactive barriers for in-situ acid mine drainage treatment

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos; Urmeneta, J.; Navarrete, A.; Bolzicco, J,; Carrera Ramirez, Jesus
    Contaminated Soils
    p. 450-456
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Remediation of chromium contaminated soils by combination of soil washing and stabilization with magnesium oxide

     Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Wildt, Carlos; Cortina Pallas, Jose Luis; Coscera, Giuliana; Grau Vilalta, Maria Dolors
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    p. 1-2
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Barrera Geoquímica

     Alcolea Rodriguez, Andres; Ayora Ibáñez, Carlos; Bernet, O; Bolzicco, J; Carrera Ramirez, Jesus; Cortina, J L; Coscera, G; Pablo Ribas, Joan de; Domènech Ortí, Cristina; Galache, J; Gibert Agullo, Oriol; Knudby, C; Mantecón, R; Manzano, M; Saaltink, Maarten Willem
    Boletín geológico y minero
    Vol. 112, num. Especial, p. 229-255
    Date of publication: 2001-04
    Journal article

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