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1 to 13 of 13 results
  • Effectiveness of hybrid recovery techniques on parametric failures

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design
    Presentation's date: 2013-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Modern day microprocessors effectively utilise supply voltage scaling for tremendous power reduction. The minimum voltage beyond which a processor cannot operate reliably is defined as V ddmin. On-chip memories like caches are the most susceptible to voltage-noise induced failures because of process variations and reduced noise-margins thereby arbitrating whole processor's V ddmin. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of a new class of hybrid techniques in improving cache yield through failure prevention and correction. Proactive read/write assist techniques like body-biasing (BB) and wordline boosting (WLB) when combined with reactive techniques like ECC and redundancy are shown to offer better quality-energy-area trade offs when compared to their standalone configurations. Proactive techniques can help lower V ddmin (improving functional margin) for significant power savings and reactive techniques ensure that the resulting large number of failures are corrected (improving functional yield). Our results in 22nm technology indicate that at scaled supply voltages, hybrid techniques can improve parametric yield by atleast 28% when considering worst-case process variations

  • An energy-efficient and scalable eDRAM-based register file architecture for GPGPU

     Jing, Naifeng; Shen, Yao; Lu, Yao; Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Mao, Zhigang; Guo, Minyi; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Liang, Xiaoyao
    Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The heavily-threaded data processing demands of streaming multiprocessors (SM) in a GPGPU require a large register file (RF). The fast increasing size of the RF makes the area cost and power consumption unaffordable for traditional SRAM designs in the future technologies. In this paper, we propose to use embedded-DRAM (eDRAM) as an alternative in future GPGPUs. Compared with SRAM, eDRAM provides higher density and lower leakage power. However, the limited data retention time in eDRAM poses new challenges. Periodic refresh operations are needed to maintain data integrity. This is exacerbated with the scaling of eDRAM density, process variations and temperature. Unlike conventional CPUs which make use of multi-ported RF, most of the RFs in modern GPGPU are heavily banked but not multi-ported to reduce the hardware cost. This provides a unique opportunity to hide the refresh overhead. We propose two different eDRAM implementations based on 3T1D and 1T1C memory cells. To mitigate the impact of periodic refresh, we propose two novel refresh solutions using bank bubble and bank walk-through. Plus, for the 1T1C RF, we design an interleaved bank organization together with an intelligent warp scheduling strategy to reduce the impact of the destructive reads. The analysis shows that our schemes present better energy efficiency, scalability and variation tolerance than traditional SRAM-based designs.

  • A Novel variation-tolerant 4T-DRAM with enhance soft-error tolerance

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Alexandrescu, Dan; Costenaro, Enrico; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In view of device scaling issues, embedded DRAM (eDRAM) technology is being considered as a strong alternative to conventional SRAM for use in on-chip memories. Memory cells designed using eDRAM technology in addition to being logic-compatible, are variation tolerant and immune to noise present at low supply voltages. However, two major causes of concern are the data retention capability which is worsened by parameter variations leading to frequent data refreshes (resulting in large dynamic power overhead) and the transient reduction of stored charge increasing soft-error (SE) susceptibility. In this paper, we present a novel variation-tolerant 4T-DRAM cell whose power consumption is 20.4% lower when compared to a similar sized eDRAM cell. The retention time on-average is improved by 2.04X while incurring a delay overhead of 3% on the read-access time. Most importantly, using a soft-error (SE) rate analysis tool, we have confirmed that the cell sensitivity to SEs is reduced by 56% on-average in a natural working environment.

  • A novel variation-tolerant 4T-DRAM cell with enhanced soft-error tolerance

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Alexandrescu, Dan; Costenaro, Eric; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In view of device scaling issues, embedded DRAM (eDRAM) technology is being considered as a strong alternative to conventional SRAM for use in on-chip memories. Memory cells designed using eDRAM technology in addition to being logic-compatible, are variation tolerant and immune to noise present at low supply voltages. However, two major causes of concern are the data retention capability which is worsened by parameter variations leading to frequent data refreshes (resulting in large dynamic power overhead) and the transient reduction of stored charge increasing soft-error (SE) susceptibility. In this paper, we present a novel variation-tolerant 4T-DRAM cell whose power consumption is 20.4% lower when compared to a similar sized eDRAM cell. The retention time on-average is improved by 2.04X while incurring a delay overhead of 3% on the read-access time. Most importantly, using a soft-error (SE) rate analysis tool, we have confirmed that the cell sensitivity to SEs is reduced by 56% on-average in a natural working environment.

    In view of device scaling issues, embedded DRAM (eDRAM) technology is being considered as a strong alternative to conventional SRAM for use in on-chip memories. Memory cells designed using eDRAM technology in addition to being logic-compatible, are variation tolerant and immune to noise present at low supply voltages. However, two major causes of concern are the data retention capability which is worsened by parameter variations leading to frequent data refreshes (resulting in large dynamic power overhead) and the transient reduction of stored charge increasing soft-error (SE) susceptibility. In this paper, we present a novel variation-tolerant 4T-DRAM cell whose power consumption is 20.4% lower when compared to a similar sized eDRAM cell. The retention time on-average is improved by 2.04X while incurring a delay overhead of 3% on the read-access time. Most importantly, using a soft-error (SE) rate analysis tool, we have confirmed that the cell sensitivity to SEs is reduced by 56% on-average in a natural working environment

  • Impact of positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) on 3T1D-DRAM cells

     Aymerich Capdevila, Nivard; Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria
    Integration. The VLSI journal
    Date of publication: 2012-06
    Journal article

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  • Dynamic fine-grain body biasing of caches with latency and leakage 3T1D-based monitors

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Impact of positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) on 3T1D-DRAM cells

     Aymerich Capdevila, Nivard; Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria
    ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Memory circuits are playing a key role in complex multicore systems with both data and instructions storage and mailbox communication functions. There is a general concern that conventional SRAM cell based on the 6T structure could exhibit serious limitations in future CMOS technologies due to the instability caused by transistor mismatching as well as for leakage consumption reasons. For L1 data caches the new cell 3T1D DRAM is considered a potential candidate to substitute 6T SRAMs. We first evaluate the impact of the positive bias temperature instability, PBTI, on the access and retention time of the 3T1D memory cell implemented with 45 nm technology. Then, we consider all sources of variations and the effect of the degradation caused by the aging of the device on the yield at system level.

  • On the effectiveness of hybrid mechanisms on reduction of parametric failures in caches

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2011-12-05
    Report

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    In this paper, we provide an insight on the different proactive read/write assist methods (wordline boosting & adaptive body biasing) that help in preventing (and reducing) parametric failures when coupled with reactive techniques like ECC and redundancy which cope with already existent failures. While proactive and reactive have been previously viewed as complementary techniques, we show that it is not necessarily the case when considering the benefits of such hybrid schemes.

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    Dynamic fine-grain body biasing of caches with latency and leakage 3T1D-based monitors  Open access

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2011-04-15
    Report

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    In this paper, we propose a dynamically tunable fine-grain body biasing mechanism to reduce active & standby leakage power in caches under process variations.

  • MODEST: a model for energy estimation under spatio-temporal variability

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design
    Presentation's date: 2010-08-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Circuit propagation delay estimation through multivariate regression-based modeling under spatio-temporal variability

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    Design, Automation and Test in Europe
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    vPROBE: Variation aware post-silicon power/performance binning using embedded 3T1D cells  Open access

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2010-09-05
    Report

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    In this paper, we present an on-die post-silicon binning methodology that takes into account the effect of static and dynamic variations and categorizes every processor based on power/performance.The proposed scheme is composed of a discretization hardware that exploits the delay/leakage dependence on variability sources characteristic for categorization

  • Circuit propagation delay estimation through multivariate regression-based modeling under spatio-temporal variability

     Ganapathy, Shrikanth; Canal Corretger, Ramon; Gonzalez Colas, Antonio Maria; Rubio, Antonio
    Date: 2009-09-07
    Report

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