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  • Grup de tecnologies d'estructures

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Bairan Garcia, Jesus Miguel; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon; Chacon Flores, Rolando Antonio; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Duarte Gomez, Noemi; Garcia Vicente, Tomas; Mirambell Arrizabalaga, Enrique; Molins Borrell, Climent; Oller Ibars, Eva; Pelà, Luca; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Real Saladrigas, Esther; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Santos Ferreira, Denise Carina; Segura Pérez, Ignacio; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Mari Bernat, Antonio Ricardo
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  • A localized mapped damage model for orthotropic materials

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Chiumenti, Michele
    Engineering fracture mechanics
    Vol. 124-125, p. 196-216
    DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2014.04.027
    Date of publication: 2014-05-08
    Journal article

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    This paper presents an implicit orthotropic model based on the Continuum Damage Mechanics isotropic models. A mapping relationship is established between the behaviour of the anisotropic material and that of an isotropic one. The proposed model is used to simulate the failure loci of common orthotropic materials, such as masonry, fibre-reinforced composites and wood. The damage model is combined with a crack-tracking technique to reproduce the propagation of localized cracks in the discrete FE problem. The proposed numerical model is used to simulate the mixed mode fracture in masonry members with different orientations of the brick layers.

  • Structural assessment of the masonry vaults of a pavilion of Hospital de Sant Pau in Barcelona

     Endo, Yohei; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Pelà, Luca; García, Joan Francesc; Zazurca, Mercè
    International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-15
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    The large complex of Hospital de la Santa Creu i de Sant Pau in Barcelona, built between 1901 and 1930 and designed (in their largest part) by architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner, constitute one of the major examples of the Catalan Modernism which flourished in Barcelona in the early 20th century. The historical part of the complex was inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. In addition to their interesting architectural and aesthetic value, the buildings draw attention because of their genuine structural features. The structures combine a significant amount of steel members with masonry ones. In most of the pavilions of the complex, masonry is utilised for walls and single- and double-curvature Catalan vaults forming the floor slabs and ceilings, while steel members provide the main vertical structure sustaining the vaults as well as the ties necessary to retain their horizontal thrust. The combination of steel and thin tile vaults permits diaphanous and functional spaces, both wide and tall, with large windows allowing satisfactory levels of natural light. A large part of the complex is at present being subjected to detailed studies and restoration works for the rehabilitation and adaptation to new uses. The buildings have required a deep repair due to the corrosion of steel members. The paper comprises two parts. Firstly, the structure of one of the pavilions, Nra. Sra de la Mercé pavilion, is described with focus on the vault morphology and the combined use of steel and masonry members. Secondly, a tentative structural analysis is presented on two different selected vaults of the same pavilion. The analysis carried out, aimed to provide an estimation of the loading capacity, takes into account the combination of masonry and steel members that compose the vaulting system.

  • Experimental calibration of in-situ sampling and testing of historical masonry

     Pelà, Luca; Peverini, Alice; Garijo Alonso, Lucia; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-17
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    The mechanical characterization of existing masonry is a difficult task due to the heterogeneous and composite character of the material. In most cases, the historical structure cannot be damaged during the in-situ sampling procedure due to its cultural, historical and economical value. Non-destructive testing techniques have been proposed to minimise the damage during the inspection. Another possibility is the extraction of small samples to be subjected to destructive testing in laboratory. This paper presents the results of an experimental program aimed at calibrating a non-standard testing method for the determination of the mechanical response of existing masonry. Cores of 150 mm diameter were extracted from a masonry wall built in the laboratory. The upper and lower portions of the cylinder were properly regularized to create two plane paral-lel surfaces. The specimen was tested under compression. The results are discussed and compared with those derived from conventional compression tests on stack prisms, built with the same materials. The outcomes of the research show that the test provides an estimation of the compressive strength of the composite material, comparable with that obtained through the standard method. The proposed experimental technique can be helpful for the inspection and the analysis of structures of the built cultural heritage.

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    Assessment of structural damage in historical constructions using numerical models : the case of the church of the Poblet Monastery  Open access

     Saloustros, Savvas; Pelà, Luca; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Portal, Jorge
    International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction
    p. 1-13
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-15
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    This paper presents the assessment of the structural damage and stability of the church of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Poblet, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites in Spain. The structure presents damage affecting mostly the main nave and lateral aisles, including cracking in the vaults and significant deformation in the clerestory walls and the barrel vault of the main nave. Following the historical survey, a sophisticated finite element model was used for the structural analysis of a damaged bay of the church. The 3D model was developed on the basis of the results of a terrestrial laser-scanning survey. In this way, the current deformed state of the structure was taken into consideration in the performed analyses. A continuum damage model allowed a realistic representation of the masonry behavior under tension and compression, which is a key factor for the assessment of masonry structures. The simulation of past reported or possible actions i.e. earthquakes, structural alterations and settlements provided valuable information on the causes of the present deformation and damage of the church. The influence of the material parameters in the structural response was evaluated with a detailed parametrical analysis. The paper ends with the graphic statics solution for the structure and a comparison with the equivalent finite element analysis outcomes

    This paper presents the assessment of the structural damage and stability of the church of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Poblet, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites in Spain. The structure presents damage affecting mostly the main nave and lateral aisles, including cracking in the vaults and significant deformation in the clerestory walls and the barrel vault of the main nave. Following the historical survey, a sophisticated finite element model was used for the structural analysis of a damaged bay of the church. The 3D model was developed on the basis of the results of a terrestrial laser-scanning survey. In this way, the current deformed state of the structure was taken into consideration in the performed analyses. A continuum damage model allowed a realistic representation of the masonry behavior under tension and compression, which is a key factor for the assessment of masonry structures. The simulation of past reported or possible actions i.e. earthquakes, structural alterations and settlements provided valuable information on the causes of the present deformation and damage of the church. The influence of the material parameters in the structural response was evaluated with a detailed parametrical analysis. The paper ends with the graphic statics solution for the structure and a comparison with the equivalent finite element analysis outcomes

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    Seismic assessment of historical masonry construction including uncertainty  Open access

     Petromichelakis, Yiannis; Saloustros, Savvas; Pelà, Luca
    International Conference on Structural Dynamics
    p. 297-304
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-30
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    The evaluation of the seismic vulnerability in monumental buildings is a complex task. This is due to the inherent uncertainty of ancient structures regarding their structural characteristics and material properties that should be properly handled in their seismic assessment. Consequently, a probabilistic study considering the material and structural uncertainties is a necessary step for the seismic protection of the built cultural heritage. This paper presents the study of the seismic vulnerability of the church of the Poblet Monastery, an UNESCO World Heritage Site in Spain. The seismic capacity was studied using a Finite Element model of a selected damaged bay of the church by means of a pushover analysis. The nonlinear behaviour of masonry is described by a continuum damage model improved by a tracking technique representing the localization of cracks and the consequent activation of the collapse mechanism. A Monte Carlo simulation enhanced by the Latin Hypercube Sampling technique was utilized to estimate the effect of the uncertainties, regarding the material and structural characteristics, on the seismic performance of the structure. The developed fragility curves express the safety level and the damage expected on the structure for different seismic scenarios

  • Numerical modelling of masonry shear walls failure mechanisms

     Drougkas, Anastasios; Pelà, Luca; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International Masonry Conference
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2014-07-07
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    This paper presents an investigation on the ability of two alternative FE-based numerical methods to simulate the in-plane strength and collapse of brick masonry shear walls. The methods considered consist of a meso-model, in which the mortar-unit interface properties are modeled indirectly through the adoption of an appropriate model for the mortar joints, and a simplified micro-model with sliding interface elements to represent the joints. The performance of both methods is analyzed by the simulation of an experimental campaign on 1:4 scale masonry shear walls with different pre-compression applied levels. The numerical testing is adopted as a procedure to evaluate failure envelopes in a wide range of possible structural in-plane responses. The FE analyses tools proposed are intended to reproduce the failure mechanisms that may occur for different combinations of vertical and horizontal forces, such as sliding, diagonal cracking and crushing. The comparison has allowed the appraisal of the capacity of the numerical models considered to simulate the strength of shear walls for these different failure conditions

    This paper presents an investigation on the ability of two alternative FE-based numerical methods to simulate the in-plane strength and collapse of brick masonry shear walls. The methods considered consist of a meso-model, in which the mortar-unit interface properties are modeled indirectly through the adoption of an appropriate model for the mortar joints, and a simplified micro-model with sliding interface elements to represent the joints. The performance of both methods is analyzed by the simulation of an experimental campaign on 1:4 scale masonry shear walls with different pre-compression applied levels. The numerical testing is adopted as a procedure to evaluate failure envelopes in a wide range of possible structural in-plane responses. The FE analyses tools proposed are intended to reproduce the failure mechanisms that may occur for different combinations of vertical and horizontal forces, such as sliding, diagonal cracking and crushing. The comparison has allowed the appraisal of the capacity of the numerical models considered to simulate the strength of shear walls for these different failure conditions

  • IDENTIFICACION DE PARAMETROS MECANICO-RESISTENTES EN OBRA DE FABRICA ESTRUTURAL

     Molins Borrell, Climent; Pelà, Luca; Gil Espert, Lluis; Cornado Bardon, Cossima; Serrà Martín, Isabel; Diaz Gomez, Cesar; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
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  • 2009 SGR 1524 - GRUP DE TECNOLOGIA D'ESTRUCTURES

     Pelà, Luca; Mari Bernat, Antonio Ricardo
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  • Comparison of seismic assessment procedures for masonry arch bridges

     Pelà, Luca; Aprile, Alessandra; Benedetti, Andrea
    Construction & building materials
    Vol. 38, p. 381-394
    DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.08.046
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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    This work delves into the seismic assessment of masonry bridges through a detailed analysis of an existing triple-arched bridge. Firstly, the effectiveness of the nonlinear static analysis is evaluated by means of a comparison with a comprehensive set of 84 nonlinear dynamic analyses. Secondly, the choice of the control node on the finite element structural model is investigated, in order to understand its influence on the prediction of seismic capacity. Although the node located at the top level is usually considered to characterize the force–displacement response of common structures, such a choice is not suitable for the considered case-study. The node located at the level of the bridge’s centre of mass proves to be a better choice since it ensures a more reliable estimation of the seismic capacity. The critical discussion of the numerical analyses results gives useful indications towards an improved procedure for the seismic assessment of the considered structural typology.

  • Continuum FE models for the analysis of Mallorca Cathedral

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Chiumenti, Michele
    Engineering structures
    Vol. 46, p. 653-670
    DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.08.005
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    From the theoretical point of view, systems composed by masonry arches or vaults would require, during construction, the simultaneous activation of all structural elements in order to reach the optimum balance of thrusts. This is not obviously the case of complex ancient masonry constructions, whose long and gradual building process may have contributed to their deformed condition and even to damage. In this paper, the possible influence of the construction process as well as that of later long-term deformation on the final condition of the building is investigated in the case of a complex and large historical structure, namely Mallorca Cathedral. A FE code has been specifically developed for the present study. The code is able to account for construction processes through sequential-evolutionary analyses, with the description of masonry mechanical damage and long-term deformation. The representative bay of the cathedral is analyzed taking into account different construction phases, as emerged from historical research. The response of such substructure to transverse earthquake equivalent forces is then investigated. In this case, the damage model is improved with a local crack-tracking algorithm. This numerical strategy models the tensile damage as distinct cracks, leading to a better prediction of realistic collapsing mechanisms.

  • Seismic assessment of the Milano Centrale railway station

     Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea; Aprile, Alessandra; Mangoni, Enrico
    International journal of architectural heritage
    Vol. 7, num. 6, p. 609-627
    DOI: 10.1080/15583058.2012.654894
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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  • An orthotropic damage model for the analysis of masonry structures

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Construction & building materials
    Vol. 41, p. 957-967
    DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.014
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a numerical model for nonlinear analysis of masonry structural elements based on Continuum Damage Mechanics. The material is described at the macro-level, i.e. it is modeled as a homogeneous orthotropic continuum. The orthotropic behavior is simulated by means of an original methodology, resulting from the concept of mapped tensors from the anisotropic field to an auxiliary workspace. The application of this idea to strain-based Continuum Damage Models is innovative and leads to several computational benefits. The suitability of the model for representing the behavior of different types of brickwork masonry is shown via the simulation of experimental tests.

  • Viscoelasticity and damage model for creep behaviour of historical masonry structures

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Chiumenti, Michele
    The open civil engineering journal
    Vol. 6, num. Suppl 1-M7, p. 188-199
    DOI: 10.2174/1874149501206010188
    Date of publication: 2012-11-23
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a continuum model for the simulation of the viscous effects and the long-term damage ac-cumulation in masonry structures. The rheological model is based on a generalized Maxwell chain representation with a constitutive law utilizing a limited number of internal variables. Thanks to its computational efficiency, this approach is suitable for the analysis of large and complex structures. In the paper, the viscous and damage models are presented and their coupling is discussed. The FE simulation of the construction process of the representative bay of Mallorca Cathedral is presented, together with the analysis of the long-term effects. The parameters of the model are tentatively calibrated on the basis of the time-dependent viscous deformations detected during the cathedral monitoring.

  • Experimental study of retrofit solutions for damaged concrete bridge slabs

     Pelà, Luca; Aprile, Alessandra; Benedetti, Andrea
    Composites Part B: Engineering
    Vol. 43, num. 5, p. 2471-2479
    DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.08.038
    Date of publication: 2012-07
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  • Repair and strengthening of R/C bridges degraded by environmental actions and pollution

     Benedetti, Andrea; Donchev, Ted; Pelà, Luca
    International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Many bridges all around the world experience very hard environmental conditions, and due to the irregular maintenance effort, show different problems of cracking, concrete cover detachment and steel reinforcement wear and corrosion. In general, as a consequence of the polluted rain wetting, the problem is more evident in vertical structures than in the horizontal ones, and serious problems can arise when the piers and columns are very tall. In recent times, the solutions offered by composite materials have shown their effectiveness in the field of bridge maintenance. As a consequence of lightness and ease of installation they are particularly intended to the rehabilitation of tall slender structures. Furthermore, the externally bonded reinforcement offers a valid protection to chloride diffusion and rusting of steel rebar. In the paper some interesting cases in Italy and Bulgaria are briefly discussed in order to point out the key factors that promote the deterioration of concrete bridge structures. Afterwards, two very interesting strengthening works completed recently by using only externally bonded C-FRP reinforcement are presented and discussed. Finally, the main findings of an ongoing research on bridge slab strengthening are presented. The obtained results are based on an extensive experimental investigation carried out on slab specimens obtained by cutting an existing bridge 30 years old laying in the E45 Italian highway.

  • Interpretation of experimental tests on small specimens of historical mortars

     Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea; Marastoni, Diego
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    p. 716-723
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The experimental characterization of mortar in historical masonry constructions is a difficult task. Entire units or unit samples can be extracted, without deteriorating excessively the masonry member. The mechanical properties of bricks can be obtained from standard tests with sufficient precision. On the contrary, the difficulties in the assessment of historical mortars even arise from the extraction of appropriate specimens. If it is possible to take undisturbed mortar samples, they can be subject to punching test to deduce the compressive strength. The test results account for the joint thickness effect that cannot be neglected during the estimation of masonry strength. Another possibility is the extraction of small specimens including both bricks and mortar, using a common core drill. This activity is suitable for historical buildings, since it does not inflict severe damage. The cores can be subject to splitting tests with particular setups, providing 30 degrees, 45 degrees or 60 degrees inclinations of the mortar layer with respect to the loading plane. This test induces a mixed compression-shear stress state in the central mortar layer. In this case, the confinement effect exerted by units on the mortar layer can be regarded. This work presents the interpretation of experimental tests on small specimens of historical mortars. Different test setups have been considered, in order to analyse the material subject to different states of stress. The actual interpolating failure envelope has been estimated. The analytical interpretation of the experimental results can be helpful to determine the input parameters for numerical analyses.

  • Structural assessment of Mallorca Cathedral

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Chiumenti, Michele
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    p. 359-367
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optimization of design for floors, roofs and vaults

     Valluzzi, Maria Rosa; Girardello, Paolo; Francescato, Dario; Pospí¿il, Stanislav; Král, R; D'Ayala, Dina; Paganoni, Sara; Pelà, Luca; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Branco, J; El Harrouni, Khalid; Kucukdogan, Bilge; Parisi, M A
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    p. 2879-2887
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
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  • Construction process numerical simulation and seismic assessment of Mallorca Cathedral

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Clemente, Roberto
    International Brick and Block Masonry Conference
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a numerical study of Mallorca Cathedral carried out by means of a FE approach devised for the study of this complex historical construction. Previous studies, including inspection and historical research, have shown that part of the existing damage and deformation might have been experienced during the construction process itself, while later historical processes causing long-term deformation, may also have contributed significantly to the final deformation. In order to analyse the possible influence of the construction process and long term deformation on the deformation of the structure, a numerical tool has been developed to carry out sequential-evolutionary analyses, involving the superposition of consecutive construction stages. A constitutive model has been implemented accounting for both viscoelasticity and mechanical damage by means of an enhanced continuum damage model. This tool has been used to carry out the sequential FE analysis of a typical bay structure of the main nave of the building. The proposed numerical tool has been also used to assess the seismic performance of the typical bay, in the transverse direction, through a nonlinear static analysis. The proposed numerical strategy seems effective to describe deformation and damage and could be applied to other similar historical masonry constructions.

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    Experimental characterization of mortar by testing on small specimens  Open access

     Benedetti, Andrea; Pelà, Luca
    International Brick and Block Masonry Conference
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The experimental characterization of mortar mechanical properties in existing masonry constructions is considerably complex. Whereas bricks parameters can be assessed with a sufficient precision, the mortar properties are very difficult to obtain and the results are highly dispersed. For instance, the in-situ techniques based on the measurement of the amount of energy required to drill a small cavity provide very scattered values that should be handled cautiously. Also, the characterization of existing mortar joints by means of surface testing may be difficult, since the surface decay or even the presence of new restoration mortar may spoil the results. On the other hand, tests on small mortar cubes or double punch tests usually lead to inaccurate estimates of mechanical characteristics, since the confining effect exercised by bricks on the mortar layer is completely disregarded. Another difficulty is the extraction of undisturbed specimens from the joints of existing brickwork. Such problems can be overcome by laboratory destructive testing on small specimens including both bricks and mortar. This activity is suitable for existing historic buildings, since it does not inflict severe damage on the structural element. This work presents the results of a comprehensive experimental program on cores including a central mortar layer along a symmetry plane. Such specimens were easily extracted by different panels of an existing historical building using a common core drill. The cores were subjected to splitting test with a particular set-up, providing 30°, 45° or 60° inclinations of the mortar layer with respect to the loading plane. This test induces a mixed compression–shear stress state in the central mortar layer. The experimental results have been interpreted using different failure criteria in order to assess the mechanical properties of mortar.

  • Continuum damage model for orthotropic materials: application to masonry

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering
    Vol. 200, num. 9-12, p. 917-930
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2010.11.010
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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  • Experimental characterization of mortar by testing on small specimens

     Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea
    Congresso dell'Associazione Italiana di Meccanica Teorica e Applicata
    p. 388
    Presentation's date: 2011
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    Continuum model for inelastic behaviour of masonry  Open access

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Congresso dell'Associazione Italiana di Meccanica Teorica e Applicata
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-13
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    A continuum model capable of modelling the inelastic behaviour of masonry is presented. The model includes the description of viscoelasticity, orthotropic damage and tensile crack localization. The theoretical framework is summarized. The model has been implemented in a FE package and validated through the analysis of a complex masonry construction and the simulation of experimental tests on shear walls.

  • New Integrated Knowledge Based Approaches to the protection of cultural heritage from earthquake induced risk

     Serrà Martín, Isabel; Molins Borrell, Climent; Bernat Maso, Ernest; Casquero Modrego, Núria; Caselles Magallon, Jose Oriol; Clapes Boixader, Jaime; Gil Espert, Lluis; Pelà, Luca; Elyamani Ali Mohamed ., Ahmed; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
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  • A crack-tracking technique for localized damage in quasi-brittle materials

     Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Engineering fracture mechanics
    Vol. 77, num. 13, p. 2431-2450
    DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2010.06.013
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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  • Structural analysis of masonry historical constructions: classical and advanced approaches

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Gariup, Giuseppe; Pelà, Luca
    Archives of computational methods in engineering
    Vol. 17, num. 3, p. 299-325
    DOI: 10.1007/s11831-010-9046-1
    Date of publication: 2010-09
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    Dalla raccolta dei dati all'analisi del modello nella valutazione della sicurezza sismica  Open access

     Benedetti, Andrea; Pelà, Luca
    Seminario Nazionale CIAS
    p. 72-100
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-11
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    Nella nota si presentano considerazioni e valutazioni utili a istituire un procedimento logico per la traduzione del ventaglio dei dati raccolti nello studio preliminare di una costruzione, in un modello numerico sufficientemente accurato nella determinazione del grado di sicurezza, delle sezioni critiche, e dell’effetto degli eventuali interventi di consolidamento. In particolare, la raccolta dei dati storici della costruzione, della consistenza materica rilevata dalla prove in sito e di laboratorio, della geometria degli elementi strutturali, necessita di una fase di rielaborazione per tradurre i dati in geometria di una discretizzazione in elementi finiti e in parametri meccanici dei materiali costituenti. La necessità di valutare la variabilità della soluzione in funzione di eventuali errori sui dati richiede la messa a punto di un procedimento per il confronto di differenti ipotesi e di differenti modelli numerici di rappresentazione. Nel caso di strutture in muratura la soluzione non può essere espressa da un solo modello omnicomprensivo, ma sono necessarie analisi globali a differenti livelli di complessità e analisi locali capaci di definire il comportamento di singoli elementi strutturali enucleati dal complesso strutturale

  • FEM analysis of orthotropic masonry walls via localized damage models

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International Masonry Conference
    p. 217-226
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In finite element analysis of masonry structures, continuum damage models are generally combined with a smeared description of damage. This common approach however, fails to provide a realistic simulation of damage and only affords general information on expected damage levels. Moreover, spurious mesh-size and mesh-bias dependence emerges from the discrete problem. In order to overcome these drawbacks, this work proposes a smeared model modified in such a way that it can reproduce localized individual (discrete) cracks. This is achieved by means of a crack tracking algorithm, which enforces the crack to develop along a single row of finite elements. In addition, the material orthotropic behaviour is simulated making use of the concept of mapped stress and strain tensors from the anisotropic real space to a scaled isotropic one. This original methodology establishes a one-to-one mapping relationship between the behaviour of the anisotropic material and that of a corresponding scaled isotropic one. In this way, the problem is solved in scaled space and the results are mapped back onto the anisotropic field, with consequent advantages from the computational point of view. The validity of the model is demonstrated through the comparison between the numerical results and the experimental evidence observed on an in-plane loaded masonry wall.

  • Control node identification in nonlinear seismic analysis of masonry arch bridges

     Leprotti, Linda; Pelà, Luca; Aprile, Alessandra; Benedetti, Andrea
    International Masonry Conference
    p. 1113-1122
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The structural analysis of masonry arch bridges involves several crucial issues related to the seismic safety assessment, since the application of both static and dynamic nonlinear analyses is not trivial. The reliability of the pushover analysis results is essential since the seismic structural safety is predicted by means of a simplified approach. In particular, the selection of the most significant vibration mode is not straightforward for massive structures. This work delves into several factors related to such analysis techniques, with reference to the case-study of an existing three-arched masonry bridge. First of all, the effectiveness of the nonlinear static analysis is evaluated by means of a comparison with the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Then, the choice of the control node on the FE structural model is investigated, in order to understand its influence on the variability of the results in terms of seismic capacity. Although the top node is usually considered as the most significant point of framed structures global behaviour, in case of arch bridges such a choice may not to be suitable. The critical discussion of the performed numerical analyses gives an important contribution to the understanding of the seismic assessment of the considered structural typology.

  • Non linear reticular models for unreinforced and reinforced masonry analyses

     Benedetti, Andrea; Pelà, Luca; Ramalho, Marcio
    International Masonry Conference
    p. 593-602
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-05
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    Assessing the collapse load for complex masonry structures, such as historic monuments, is a very hard task and looking for a reliable and suitable procedure considering all the available numerical techniques is still under debate. One interesting and simple approach for wide modelling capabilities is based on the discretization of the masonry structure as a system of truss elements with appropriate constitutive law. According to this procedure, the inclusion of reinforcement elements is a simple operation of adding bars representing the reinforcement net. This approach presents several favourable features. First of all, after cracking, masonry behaves as a system of thrust wedges which are very similar to a reticular frame. Secondly, shear and flexural mechanisms are clearly distinguished but derive from a single constitutive law valid for all the elements composing the model. Finally, some specific problems, such as multiple leaf walls or curved shells, can be solved in the same way as ordinary in-plane loaded walls. Initially, some very simple representation rules needed to construct the equivalent reticular model of common masonry structures are presented in detail. Some updated topics, such as adding FRP reinforcement to masonry models are also addressed. Next, the results obtained for some experimental tests are compared with those obtained by means of several numerical simulations, including the procedure proposed in this paper. Finally, some interesting conclusions are stated, showing that the reticular simple model presented in this paper produces very good results.

  • L¿uso di materiali innovativi nell¿adeguamento sismico di strutture in muratura

     Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea
    Seminario sul tema Evoluzione nella Sperimentazione per le Construzioni
    p. 1-22
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La problematica della sicurezza degli edifici di uso pubblico è diventata oggigiorno un tema cruciale, alla luce delle nuove normative sismiche e dei recenti terremoti avvenuti in Italia. I progettisti sono pertanto chiamati a eseguire un’accurata valutazione della vulnerabilità sismica di strutture esistenti, in modo da poter procedere con il progetto di un efficace e affidabile intervento di riabilitazione e adeguamento. In questo contesto, recentemente sta assumendo notevole importanza nel campo del rinforzo strutturale l’impiego di materiali innovativi, quali i compositi fibrorinforzati. In questo lavoro, si descrive la procedura seguita nel consolidamento e adeguamento normativo di alcuni edifici significativi, sottolineando l’importanza fondamentale delle indagini sperimentali e dell’analisi strutturale per una corretta scelta degli interventi più idonei.

  • Continuum Damage Model for Nonlinear Analysis of Masonry Structures.

     Pelà, Luca
    Department of Strength of Materials and Structural Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • GRUP DE RESISTÈNCIA DE MATERIALS I ESTRUCTURES A L'ENGINYERIA

     Chiumenti, Michele; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Bugeda Castelltort, Gabriel; Codina Rovira, Ramon; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Weyler Perez, Rafael; González Lopez, Jose Manuel; Badia Rodriguez, Santiago I.; Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Suarez Arroyo, Benjamin; Miquel Canet, Juan; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Hernandez Ortega, Joaquin Alberto; Davalos Chargoy, Cesar Emilio; Baiges Aznar, Joan; Cante Teran, Juan Carlos; Pelà, Luca; Oliver Olivella, Fco. Javier
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  • Verifica della vulnerabilità sismica dei ponti in muratura

     Benedetti, Andrea; Mangoni, Enrico; Pelà, Luca
    Strade & Autostrade
    Vol. 73, p. 134-142
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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  • Seismic assessment of masonry arch bridges

     Pelà, Luca; Aprile, Alessandra; Benedetti, Andrea
    Engineering structures
    Vol. 31, num. 8, p. 1777-1788
    DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.02.012
    Date of publication: 2009-08
    Journal article

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  • Analisi di strutture murarie rinforzate con FRP attraverso modelli reticolari non lineari

     Benedetti, Andrea; Marani, Federica; Pelà, Luca
    National Congress Mechanics of Masonry Structures Strengthened with Composite Materials: Modeling, Testing, Design, Control
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2009-04-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nell’articolo si affronta il tema della valutazione di affidabilità sismica di strutture ordinarie di muratura anche rinforzate con polimeri CFRP. La valutazione dell’efficienza di interventi di consolidamento ed altresì una realistica stima della vulnerabilità dell’edifico richiedono sovente una modellazione fem non lineare tale da simulare la fragilità della muratura per effetto di stati di trazione. Lo studio di edifici modellati mediante elementi di guscio a quattro o più nodi con leggi di materiale non lineari per la costruzione di curve di capacità, richiede in genere un elevato onere computazionale. Per questo motivo viene proposta una soluzione alternativa, assai più facile da utilizzare e molto stabile dal punto di vista dell’ottenimento di una soluzione equilibrata, basata sull’impiego di modelli discreti costruiti con sistemi di bielle equivalenti. Nella nota si esaminano i criteri fondamentali della equivalenza al discreto di sistemi murari; si prendono poi in esame casi di elementi strutturali, ache riparati con FRP, e si mostra come tali sistemi discreti siano in grado di simulare in modo efficiente i risultati di prove sperimentali.

  • FAR2008 - Vulnerabilità sismica di strutture esistenti e efficacia di tecniche innovative di consolidamento

     Aprile, Alessandra; Pelà, Luca; Capuani, Domenico; Toni, Michela Maria
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  • Un modelo de daño ortótropo para el análisis de estructuras históricas en obra de fábrica

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pere, Roca; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Benedetti, Andrea
    I Congreso Iberoamericano sobre Construcciones Históricas y Estructuras de Mampostería
    p. 311-317
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An orthotropic damage model for the analysis of masonry structures

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pere, Roca; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Benedetti, Andrea
    International Seminar on Structural Masonry
    p. 175-182
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Masonry properties determination via splitting tests on cores with a rotated mortar layer

     Benedetti, Andrea; Pelà, Luca; Aprile, Alessandra
    International Seminar on Structural Masonry
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The in situ evaluation of the masonry mechanical properties is a very complicated task. Since in general extracting a significant masonry specimen is not possible at all, alternative methods look for the solution by combining the properties of mortar and bricks. The evaluation of the existing mortar is however a not very simple issue. A viable alternative is based on the use of brick cores including a central mortar layer lying on a symmetry plane. In fact these specimens can be extracted very easily by cutting cores spanning two bricks at least. The obtained core is then subjected to a splitting test with a set up providing a 45° inclination of the mortar layer with respect to the loading plane. This type of test is similar to a diagonal wallet test and induces a mixed compression – shear stress state in the central mortar layer. By using a Mohr –Coulomb failure criterion the test result can be interpreted in order to obtain all the mechanical properties of the masonry. In particular, by assuming a friction angle based on the compression to tension strength ratio of the mortar, the cohesion can be evaluated, and by using appropriate formulas, all the other constitutive parameters in turn. In the paper a numerical model with a Mohr Coulomb plasticity constitutive law is compared with a Damage Mechanics model by using the experimentally evaluated brick and mortar parameters. Both models give accurate splitting load evaluation but the one based on damage mechanics is also capable to predict the splitting crack evolution area.

  • Vulnerabilità sismica di strutture esistenti ed efficacia di tecniche innovative di consolidamento

     Capuani, Domenico; Aprile, Alessandra; Pelà, Luca; Toni, Michela Maria; Lanza, Luisfilippo
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  • Tecniche diagnostiche e di intervento poco invasive e completamente reversibili per il consolidamento e il miglioramento sismico delle strutture lignee di edifici storici

     Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea; Piazza, Maurizio; Ricci Bitti, Giovanni; Mangoni, Enrico; Marani, Federica; Fabbri, Elisabetta; Gasparini, Giada; Brosio, Ivan; Zini, Elisa
    Competitive project

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  • Seguridad y durabilidad de estructuras de construcción (SEDUREC)

     Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, Eugenio; Pelà, Luca; Andrade, María del Carmen
    Competitive project

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  • Repair and strengthening with FRP of damaged bridge R/C slabs

     Aprile, Alessandra; Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea
    International Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Reinforcement Concrete Structures
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2007-07-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The object of the present study is a viaduct, known as "Fornello", of the Orte-Ravenna highway (E45), Italy, managed by the National Organization for Highways (ANAS).

  • Patrimonio e modelli di sviluppo locali. Salvaguardia del costruito e affidabilità di tecniche

     Capuani, Domenico; Aprile, Alessandra; Pelà, Luca; Toni, Michela Maria; Lanza, Luisfilippo
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  • Salvaguardia del costruito e affidabilità di tecniche di consolidamento in ambito sismico

     Capuani, Domenico; Aprile, Alessandra; Pelà, Luca; Toni, Michela Maria; Lanza, Luisfilippo
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  • Análisis experimental y modelización numérica del comportamiento de estructuras de obra de fábrica ante estados de carga paralela y perpendicular al plano

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Serrà Martín, Isabel; Pelà, Luca; Diaz Gomez, Cesar; Gonzalez Moreno-navarro, Jose Luis; Casals Balague, Alberto; Villalba Herrero, Vicente; Andreu Torras, Antoni
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  • Analisi pushover di ponti in muratura

     Aprile, Alessandra; Pelà, Luca; Benedetti, Andrea
    Convegno Internazionale Ponti e Viadotti - Aspetti Progettuali, Strutturali e di Manutenzione
    p. 1-15
    Presentation's date: 2006-09-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    I ponti ad arco in muratura sono assai diffusi nella rete infrastrutturale nazionale; si tratta di opere costruite per lo più nel secolo scorso, che svolgono tuttora la propria attività a pieno regime. Il recente adeguamento delle Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni riporta in primo piano la necessità di effettuare valutazioni di vulnerabilità sismica sui manufatti esistenti, gestiti da Enti pubblici e privati, allo scopo di adeguarli in tempi successivi ai nuovi standard di sicurezza introdotti dalla normativa cogente. In questa nota viene presentata una metodologia pratica per la valutazione della vulnerabilità sismica di tali manufatti. Per i due ponti in muratura oggetto di studio viene adottato il metodo del Capacity Spectrum, suggerito da recenti normative [1] [2] [3] [4] per gli edifici ordinari.