For the first time, Hispano-Moresque glazed tiles from Portuguese and Spanish collections were studied together and compared. This work is included in a wider study tackling the technology of Hispano-Moresque tile production from several collections in the Iberian Peninsula. While showing many similarities, differences were identified between collections, regarding both chemical and morphological characteristics. The collection from the Mosteiro de Santa Clara-a-Velha (Coimbra) stands out from the other collections, with higher SnO2 content (up to 14¿wt%), the highest Fe2O3 contents in amber glazes and a Ca-rich interface layer (mostly comprised of wollastonite, CaSiO3). Samples from Palácio Nacional de Sintra (near Lisbon) and Seville-attributed samples (from the Instituto Valencia de Don Juan) are chemically similar, except that most Sintra's samples display a K-rich glaze/ceramic interface, whereas the ones from Seville exhibit both K-rich and Ca-rich inclusions. The samples attributed to Toledo show glazes with many inclusions, contrasting with the homogeneous glazes in most Hispano-Moresque tiles. From these results, we identify differences that can be used as markers in future studies on Hispano-Moresque tiles.
The very rare find of the relic of the original lustre pigment attached to the glazed surface of a sherd of 13th century AD Raqqa type lustreware from Syria has been analysed using a combination of analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The composition of the pigment relic inferred from these analyses is shown to match those of recipes for lustre production given in the early treatises by Jazbir Ibn Hayyan (c. AD 721–c. AD 815) and Abu’l Qasim (AD 1301). Similarities and differences between this 13th century AD Syrian pigment and pigments used in the ninth century AD in Iraq, in the 14th century AD in Islamic and Hispano-Moresque Spain, and in the 16th century AD in Renaissance Italy are discussed.