Objective: This works investigates the time-frequency content of impedance cardiography signals during a propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.
Materials and Methods: In the last years, impedance cardiography (ICG) is a technique which has gained much attention. However, ICG signals need further investigation. Time-Frequency Distributions (TFDs) with 5 different kernels are used in order to analyze impedance cardiography signals (ICG) before the start of the anesthesia and after the loss of consciousness. In total, ICG signals from one hundred and thirty-one consecutive patients undergoing major surgery under general anesthesia were analyzed. Several features were extracted from the calculated TFDs in order to characterize the time-frequency content of the ICG signals. Differences between those features before and after the loss of consciousness were studied.
Results: The Extended Modified Beta Distribution (EMBD) was the kernel for which most features shows statistically significant changes between before and after the loss of consciousness. Among all analyzed features, those based on entropy showed a sensibility, specificity and area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic above 60%.
Conclusion: The anesthetic state of the patient is reflected on linear and non-linear features extracted from the TFDs of the ICG signals. Especially, the EMBD is a suitable kernel for the analysis of ICG signals and offers a great range of features which change according to the patient’s anesthesia state in a statistically significant way.
Objective: To investigate if 3D gamified simulations can be valid vocational training tools for persons with intellectual disability. Methods: A 3D gamified simulation composed by a set of training tasks for cleaning in hostelry was developed in collaboration with professionals of a real hostel and pedagogues of a special needs school. The learning objectives focus on the acquisition of vocabulary skills, work procedures, social abilities and risk prevention. Several accessibility features were developed to make the tasks easy to do from a technological point-of-view. A pilot experiment was conducted to test the pedagogical efficacy of this tool on intellectually disabled workers and students. Results: User scores in the gamified simulation follow a curve of increasing progression. When confronted with reality, they recognized the scenario and tried to reproduce what they had learned in the simulation. Finally, they were interested in the tool, they showed a strong feeling of immersion and engagement, and they reported having fun. Conclusions: On the basis of this experiment we believe that 3D gamified simulations can be efficient tools to train social and professional skills of persons with intellectual disabilities contributing thus to foster their social inclusion through work.
Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on “Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Neural Signals and Images“. Objectives: An efficient way to investigate the neural basis of nociceptive responses is the analysis of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The main objective of this work was to study how adaptation and fatigue affect the ERPs to stimuli of different modalities, by characterizing the responses to infrequent and frequent stimulation in different recording periods. Methods: In this work, series of averaged EEG epochs recorded after thermal, electrical and auditory stimulation were analyzed with time-frequency representation and non-linear measures as spectral entropy and auto-mutual information function. The study was performed by considering the traditional EEG frequency bands. Results: The defined measures presented a statistical significance p-value < 0.01 and accuracy higher than 60% by differentiating windows of response to infrequent (I) and frequent (F) stimuli between the start and end of the EEG recording. Conclusions: These measures permitted to observe some aspects of the subject’s adaptation and the nociceptive response