Identification and bi-manual handling of deformable objects, like textiles, is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of industrial and service robotics. Their unpredictable shape and pose makes it very difficult to identify the type of garment and locate the most relevant parts that can be used for grasping. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that first, identifies the type of garment and second, performs a search of the two grasping points that allow a robot to bring the garment to a known pose. We show that using an active search strategy it is possible to grasp a garment directly from predefined grasping points, as opposed to the usual approach based on multiple re-graspings of the lowest hanging parts. Our approach uses a hierarchy of three Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) with different levels of specialization, trained both with synthetic and real images. The results obtained in the three steps (recognition, first grasping point, second grasping point) are promising. Experiments with real robots show that most of the errors are due to unsuccessful grasps and not to the localization of the grasping points, thus a more robust grasping strategy is required.
This paper presents a new method of filtering graphs to check exact graph isomorphism and extracting their mapping. Each graph is modeled by a resistive electrical circuit using the Conductance Electrical Model (CEM). By using this model, a necessary condition to check the isomorphism of two graphs is that their equivalent resistances have the same values, but this is not enough, and we have to look for their mapping to find the sufficient condition. We can compute the isomorphism between two graphs in O(N-3), where N is the order of the graph, if their star resistance values are different, otherwise the computational time is exponential, but only with respect to the number of repeated star resistance values, which usually is very small. We can use this technique to filter graphs that are not isomorphic and in case that they are, we can obtain their node mapping. A distinguishing feature over other methods is that, even if there exists repeated star resistance values, we can extract a partial node mapping (of all the nodes except the repeated ones and their neighbors) in O(N-3). The paper presents the method and its application to detect isomorphic graphs in two well know graph databases, where some graphs have more than 600 nodes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manipulating textile objects with a robot is a challenging task, especially because the garment perception is difficult due to the endless configurations it can adopt, coupled with a large variety of colors and designs. Most current approaches follow a multiple re-grasp strategy, in which clothes are sequentially grasped from different points until one of them yields a recognizable configuration. In this work we propose a method that combines 3D and appearance information to directly select a suitable grasping point for the task at hand, which in our case consists of hanging a shirt or a polo shirt from a hook. Our method follows a coarse-to-fine approach in which, first, the collar of the garment is detected and, next, a grasping point on the lapel is chosen using a novel 3D descriptor.
In contrast to current 3D descriptors, ours can run in real time, even when it needs to be densely computed over the input image. Our central idea is to take advantage of the structured nature of range images that most depth sensors provide and, by exploiting integral imaging, achieve speed-ups of two orders of magnitude with respect to competing approaches, while maintaining performance. This makes it especially adequate for robotic applications as we thoroughly demonstrate in the experimental section.
Change detection is the most important task for video surveillance analytics such as foreground and anomaly detection. Current foreground detectors learn models from annotated images since the goal is to generate a robust foreground model able to detect changes in all possible scenarios. Unfortunately, manual labelling is very expensive. Most advanced supervised learning techniques based on generic object detection datasets currently exhibit very poor performance when applied to surveillance datasets because of the unconstrained nature of such environments in terms of types and appearances of objects. In this paper, we take advantage of change detection for training multiple foreground detectors in an unsupervised manner. We use statistical learning techniques which exploit the use of latent parameters for selecting the best foreground model parameters for a given scenario. In essence, the main novelty of our proposed approach is to combine the where (motion segmentation) and what (learning procedure) in change detection in an unsupervised way for improving the specificity and generalization power of foreground detectors at the same time. We propose a framework based on latent support vector machines that, given a noisy initialization based on motion cues, learns the correct position, aspect ratio, and appearance of all moving objects in a particular scene. Specificity is achieved by learning the particular change detections of a given scenario, and generalization is guaranteed since our method can be applied to any possible scene and foreground object, as demonstrated in the experimental results outperforming the state-of-the-art. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Two-dimensional shape models have been successfully applied to solve many problems in computer vision, such as object tracking, recognition, and segmentation. Typically, 2D shape models are learned from a discrete set of image landmarks (corresponding to projection of 3D points of an object), after applying Generalized Procustes Analysis (GPA) to remove 2D rigid transformations. However, the standard GPA process suffers from three main limitations. Firstly, the 2D training samples do not necessarily cover a uniform sampling of all the 3D transformations of an object. This can bias the estimate of the shape model. Secondly, it can be computationally expensive to learn the shape model by sampling 3D transformations. Thirdly, standard GPA methods use only one reference shape, which can might be insufficient to capture large structural variability of some objects. To address these drawbacks, this paper proposes continuous generalized Procrustes analysis (CGPA). CGPA uses a continuous formulation that avoids the need to generate 2D projections from all the rigid 3D transformations. It builds an efficient (in space and time) non-biased 2D shape model from a set of 3D model of objects. A major challenge in CGPA is the need to integrate over the space of 3D rotations, especially when the rotations are parameterized with Euler angles. To address this problem, we introduce the use of the Haar measure. Finally, we extended CGPA to incorporate several reference shapes. Experimental results on synthetic and real experiments show the benefits of CGPA over GPA.
The median graph has been presented as a useful tool to represent a set of graphs. Nevertheless its computation is very complex and the existing algorithms are restricted to use limited amount of data. In this paper we propose a new approach for the computation of the median graph based on graph embedding. Graphs are embedded into a vector space and the median is computed in the vector domain. We have designed a procedure based on the weighted mean of a pair of graphs to go from the vector domain back to the graph domain in order to obtain a final approximation of the median graph. Experiments on three different databases containing large graphs show that we succeed to compute good approximations of the median graph. We have also applied the median graph to perform some basic classification tasks achieving reasonable good results. These experiments on real data open the door to the application of the median graph to a number of more complex machine learning algorithms where a representative of a set of graphs is needed.
Given a set of graphs, the median graph has been theoretically presented as a useful concept to infer a representative of the set. However, the computation of the median graph is a highly complex task and its practical application has been very limited up to now. In this work we present two major contributions. On one side, and from a theoretical point of view, we show new theoretical properties of the median graph. On the other side, using these new properties, we present a new approximate algorithm based on the genetic search, that improves the computation of the median graph. Finally, we perform a set of experiments on real data, where none of the existing algorithms for the median graph computation could be applied up to now due to their computational complexity. With these results, we show how the concept of the median graph can be used in real applications and leaves the box of the only-theoretical concepts, demonstrating, from a practical point of view, that can be a useful tool to represent a set of graphs.
Sanfeliu, A.; Andrade-Cetto, J.; Climent, J.; Alquezar, R.; Serratosa, F.; Vergés, J. Pattern recognition Vol. 35, num. 3, p. 639-650 DOI: 10.1016/S0031-3203(01)00066-8 Data de publicació: 2002-03 Article en revista