Yubero-Lahoz, S.; Kuypers, K.; Ramaekers, J.; Langohr, K.; Farré, M.; De la Torre, R. Psychopharmacology Vol. 232, num. 11, p. 1921-1929 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-014-3827-4 Data de publicació: 2015-06 Article en revista
Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is an amphetamine derivative abused worldwide. Although data report that relatively high doses of MDMA deplete serotonin (5-HT) content and decrease the availability of serotonin transporters (5-HTT), there is no available evi- dence as to the adaptive mechanisms taking place in 5-HTT gene expression following MDMA intake in humans. Objective To evaluate the pharmacological effects of MDMA on 5-HTT gene expression, using peripheral mononuclear cells as a biomarker of the central nervous system, and study whether an association exists between 5-HTT gene expression and psychobiological scores. Methods A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted in 18 (nine women) healthy recreational MDMA users. Subjects were genotyped for 5-HTT linked polymor- phism region (5-HTTLPR). MDMA 75 mg or placebo was administered; Profile of Mood States (POMS) and 5-HTT gene expression measures were performed at baseline, 90, and 165 min post administration. POMS scores were correlat- ed with changes in gene expression. Results Theadministrationof75mgMDMAinducedasig- nificant twofold increase in 5-HTT gene expression after 165 min of drug administration. Significant associations were found between gene expression and POMS scores after MDMA administration. Results for each gender and 5- HTTLPR genotype are also reported. Conclusions Preliminary results show that MDMA causes substantial regulatory changes in the expression of serotoner- gic markers, likely being modulated by the 5-HTTLPR poly- morphism. Changes in 5-HTT gene expression may play an important role in the regulation of mood state
Rationale Quantitative analysis of electroencephalographic
signals (EEG) and their interpretation constitute a helpful
tool in the assessment of the bioavailability of psychoactive
drugs in the brain. Furthermore, psychotropic drug groups
have typical signatures which relate biochemical mechanisms
with specific EEG changes.
Objectives To analyze the pharmacological effect of a dose
of alprazolam on the connectivity of the brain during
wakefulness by means of linear and nonlinear approaches.
Methods EEG signals were recorded after alprazolam
administration in a placebo-controlled crossover clinical
trial. Nonlinear couplings assessed by means of corrected
cross-conditional entropy were compared to linear couplings
measured with the classical magnitude squared
Results Linear variables evidenced a statistically significant
drug-induced decrease, whereas nonlinear variables showed
significant increases. All changes were highly correlated to
drug plasma concentrations. The spatial distribution of the
observed connectivity changes clearly differed from a
previous study: changes before and after the maximum
drug effect were mainly observed over the anterior half of
the scalp. Additionally, a new variable with very low
computational cost was defined to evaluate nonlinear
coupling. This is particularly interesting when all pairs of
EEG channels are assessed as in this study.
Conclusions Results showed that alprazolam induced
changes in terms of uncoupling between regions of the
scalp, with opposite trends depending on the variables:
decrease in linear ones and increase in nonlinear features.
Maps provided consistent information about the way brain
changed in terms of connectivity being definitely necessary
to evaluate separately linear and nonlinear interactions.
de Sola, S.; Tarancon, T.; Peña-Casanova, J.; Espadaler, J.; Langohr, K.; Poudevida, S.; Farré, M.; Verdejo, A.; Torre, R. Psychopharmacology Vol. 200, num. 3, p. 425-437 Data de publicació: 2008-10 Article en revista
Ayahuasca is a traditional South American psychoactive
beverage and the central sacrament of Brazilianbased
religious groups, with followers in Europe and the
United States. The tea contains the psychedelic indole N,
N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids
with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties that render
DMT orally active. DMT interacts with serotonergic
neurotransmission acting as a partial agonist at 5-HT1A
and 5-HT2A/2C receptor sites. Given the role played by
serotonin in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle, we
investigated the effects of daytime ayahuasca consumption
in sleep parameters.
To compare the effects of typical and atypical
antipsychotic drugs on sleep activity and subjective sleep
Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
four-period cross-over, clinical trial was used to evaluate
the effects of active treatments on objective and subjective
Setting Sleep laboratory evaluation.
Participants Twenty healthy young volunteers, both sexes.
Interventions Single oral morning administrations of olanzapine
5 mg, risperidone 1 mg, haloperidol 3 mg and