Cegarra, J.; Puente, P.; Valldeperas, J.; Pepio, M. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Vol. 105, num. 10, p. 349-356 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.1989.tb01185.x Data de publicació: 1989-10 Article en revista
The deposition behaviour of carbon black on shrink-resist-treated wool fabric, and on untreated wool, in the presence of different mixtures of anionic and non-ionic surfactants has been investigated. Two types of surfactant mixtures were studied; sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate and sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate were used as anionic surfactants and Triton X-100 as a non-ionic surfactant. An electrokinetic study was also carried out, under similar conditions; the zeta potential was obtained, which was related to the amount of deposition found. From these zeta potential measurements the surface charge density was determined
Gacén, J.; Maillo, J.; Pepio, M.; Baixauli, J. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Vol. 101, num. 10, p. 325-330 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.1985.tb00990.x Data de publicació: 1985-10 Article en revista
Acrylic tow, partially relaxed during the first stage of a conventional manufacturing process, was fully relaxed, or stabilised, in steaming equipment under different conditions of time and temperature based on a central rotatable design of experiments. The shrinkage of the samples thus obtained was measured and differential solubility curves in a mixture of dimethy/formamide and water were obtained. From these results simple functional relationships between shrinkage and solubility on the one hand, and the process variables, temperature and time, have been obtained. Response surfaces showing an excellent fit have also been obtained. A very good negative linear correlation between the logarithm of shrinkage undergone during steaming and the logarithm of differential solubility, and also between the logarithms of overall shrinkage and differential solubility have been found. The differential solubility test has a very high sensitivity to relaxation process variables and, as shown by the correlations obtained, it is highly recommendable as a relaxation control measure in production plant.
The behaviour of two surface–active agents (anionic and cationic) in the dyeing of Hercosett wool with reactive dyes of the a–bromoacry/amide type has been studied. The influence of pH, concentration of dye and surface–active agent, temperature and time on the percentage of the dye adsorbed and reacted is studied. Due to the complexity of this subject, a central rotatable plan of five variables has been used. The results found are represented in three–dimensional graphs, and are examined through the possible mechanisms that operate in the dyeing process, considering the nature of the anionic and cationic agents used.