The influence of the silk-like finishing process on the frictional properties of polyester fabrics was examined by assessing fibre-to-metal friction through parameter R in a 100% polyester woven fabric processed under variable conditions of NaOH concentration and vaporization time. The alkali concentration influenced static and dynamic friction in the fabric, whereas the vaporization time only affected static friction. Process variables can be used to predict the frictional performance of silk-like finished fabrics via parameter R for dynamic friction. Fabric weight loss by effect of the silk-like finishing treatment influences the coefficient of fibre-to-metal friction. Industrially, the silk-line finishing process is typically monitored through weight loss in the finished fabric. As shown here, however, it can also be monitored by assessing changes in fabric surface via the dynamic friction parameter R
A search of the scientific literature for the period 1950–2013 retrieved 36 different drape indicators. Despite the large number of indicators currently available, the drape ratio (%DR) continues to be the most widely used, even though it has proved inadequate to explain drape shape. In order to assess their actual performance, the 36 currently existing drape indicators were determined in a total of 37 commercial drapery, woolmaking, shirtmaking and lining woven fabrics spanning a wide range of composition, aerial weight and weave type by using a digital Cusick drape meter. A correlation analysis between indicators, and subsequent suppression of duplicity and collinearity, revealed that seven were mutually correlated. A principal component analysis of the results revealed an underlying structure consisting of three common factors which allowed the indicators to be classified into three different groups according to drape intensity (a), severity (b), and shape symmetry and variability (c). Cluster analysis was additionally used to examine the results in graphical form and exposed three clusters coinciding with the three factors of the underlying structure. A criterion for distinguishing fabrics with an identical drape ratio in terms of drape shape based on sequential application of four of the seven initially selected indicators was developed and experimentally validated
The textile washing process involves basically three stages: (1) removing the soiling from the substrate, (2) suspending the soling removed in the washing bath and (3) preventing redeposition of the soiling onto the substrate from which it has just been removed. In fact, soiling removed from the substrate may have deposited on it to a greater or lesser extent during the detergent process, as unwanted phenomenon that can be avoided using appropriate polymers. Preventing the redeposition of impurities is especially important during the washing of synthetic fibres with a compact crystal structure such as polyester or acrylics. The primary purpose of this work was to assess the performance of a polyethylene glycol polyester copolymer used as a detergent additive to prevent redeposition of solid impurities during the washing of standard polyester and acrylic fabrics in terms of the zeta potential of the fabrics. The copolymer was used in combination with the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, the non-ionic surfactant fatty alcohol ethoxylate with 7 mol E.O. or both in variable proportions. The soiling used as a solid impurity in the washing process was carbon black. The observed behaviour is explained in terms of the electrical double layer of the fabrics, which was characterised separately with each surfactant and their mixture
A total of 33 commercial drapery and lining fabrics were used to determine the drape indicators drape ratio and R-factor. The slope of a plot of one indicator against the other was found not to afford complete characterization of drape shape for fabrics of different commercial use. In this work, further six parameters describing the drape, proposed by the authors to discriminate drape shapes were also calculated. Discriminant analysis of the data revealed that a linear combination of various parameters allowed two types of woven fabrics (viz. drapery and linen) to be distinguished. The discriminant function used accurately classified 75.76% of the fabrics studied
Alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) have appeared on the market, offering good levels of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. These nonionic surfactants, obtained from natural substances, are 100% biodegradable and very suitable for washing. They are highly soluble, only slightly sensitive to electrolytes and rarely influenced by water hardness. This paper analyses the behaviour of APG and linear alkyl sulfonate, separately and in mixtures of different proportions, in order to show how dyed polyester fabric changed colour during washing and how dye transfers to white textile items (diacetate, polyamide, cotton, acrylic and wool). Before this process, the polyester was dyed with disperse dyes. Disperse dyes can become deposited on white polyester fabric during washing due to various mechanical, chemical, electrical or adsorption-related causes. In an attempt to explain the behaviour of the deposition of disperse dyes in the washing process, we assessed the total potential energy between disperse dye and polyester fabric based on the theory of heterocoagulation. The zeta potentials of the insoluble disperse dyes and the fabrics were related to the results obtained by staining white fabric during washing
Ventura, H.; Ardanuy, M.; Capdevila, F.; Cano, F.; Tornero, J. Journal of the Textile Institute Vol. 105, num. 10, p. 1065-1075 DOI: 10.1080/00405000.2013.874628 Data de publicació: 2014-06-26 Article en revista
The main objective of this paper is to study the effects of the processing parameters of the needle-punching machine and the interactions between them on some physico-mechanical properties of interest of nonwoven (NW) fabrics. For this purpose, a fractional factorial design has been planned with two levels for each factor: feeding speed, delivery speed, stroke frequency, penetration depth and gap between plates. Sixteen NW fabrics were obtained from polyester fibre and characterized by tensile strength and stiffness for mechanical behaviour and air permeability as physical properties of interest in some technical applications. The results have been subjected to statistical analysis in order to find the effects of the processing variables and the interactions between them on the fabric properties. It was possible to find the effects of the five processing parameters studied on the thickness, fabric mass, stiffness, tensile strength and air permeability of the obtained needle-punched fabrics
Martí, M.; Martínez, V.; Lis, M.; Valldeperas, J.; de la Maza, A.; Parra, J.; Coderch, L. Journal of the Textile Institute Vol. 105, num. 2, p. 175-186 DOI: 10.1080/00405000.2013.833690 Data de publicació: 2014 Article en revista
Liposomes and mixed micelles were used to vehiculize gallic acid, as antioxidant, when applied to different textiles
designed to be in contact with the skin as biofunctional textiles. Foulard and bath exhaustion processes were assayed
without the use of a binder. Liposomes with the antioxidant encapsulated were applied to cotton, polyamide, polyester,
acrylic, and wool, using bath exhaustion and the pad-dry process. Higher absorption was obtained with bath exhaustion
than with the pad-dry process for all fabrics. Liposome application to the different textiles showed an adequate
substantivity for most fibers. However, the high desorption of most synthetic acrylic and polyester fibers confirmed the
preferential application of cotton and polyamide as cosmetic biofunctional textiles. Moreover, this study showed that
polyamide always presented high substantivity for the two phospholipid structures and also for the antioxidant.
In this, work the performance of several dye transfer inhibitors (DTI) copolymers (PVP, PVNO and PVNO with PVP) was tested for use as DTIs in washing softened undyed cotton fabric, in the presence of a direct dye in the washing bath, with and without water hardness. Three direct dyes were tested: red, blue and yellow. The detergent used was composed of an LAS anionic surfactant and a non-ionic fatty alcohol ethoxylate surfactant with 7¿m. OE, both separately and in the different molar proportions anionic with non ionic, at a total concentration of 5¿×¿10-3¿ M, and in the presence of zeolite as a builder. Washing temperature was 40°C and washing time was 30¿min. Staining of the softened undyed cotton fabric was assessed as the CIELAB colour differences between the original fabric and the stained fabric after washing.The different DTIs and the dye in the washing bath with and without water hardness were tested
Martí, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Carreras, N.; Lis, M.; Valldeperas, J.; Coderch, L.; Parra, J. Journal of the Textile Institute Vol. 103, num. 16, p. 1-9 DOI: 10.1080/00405000.2010.542011 Data de publicació: 2011-03-18 Article en revista
In recent years, new technologies have led to the production of biofunctional textiles. These biofunctional textiles contain microscopic capsules of ingredients that break as the fabric rubs the skin, releasing the active agents.
Absorption and desorption behaviour of active agents embedded into the different biofunctional textiles should be taken into account when determining the amount of active agents incorporated into these textiles and when following the delivery mechanism as the fabric comes in contact with the skin. In this work, an encapsulated active agent (a sun filter, ethyl hexyl methoxycinnamate [EHMC] into microcapsules or liposomes) was applied by foulard onto different fabrics. The amount of capsules and active agents embedded into the fibres were quantified by (1) weight difference
between untreated and treated fabrics, (2) extraction with isopropanol in an ultrasound bath, or (3) extraction with isopropanol/water 50/50 in a soxhlet device. Sun filter detection of the extraction baths was followed by HPLC and by UV spectrophotometry. The results show that the real amount of the EHMC present in different textile substrates depends on the way that the active agent is trapped, the ionic character of the fibres and on the vehicles used.