Riahi, E.; Allou, F.; Botella, R.; Dubois, F.; Absi, J.; Petit, C. International journal of fatigue Vol. 104, p. 334-341 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2017.07.016 Data de publicació: 2017-11 Article en revista
This paper studies the reduction in complex modulus when a bituminous binder is subjected to the fatigue test, along with the ability of this material to recover such a loss in modulus. It has been demonstrated in the literature that during a fatigue test, a rapid and reversible decrease of complex modulus can be observed at the beginning of the test. This reversible decrease is not correlated with fatigue and has been explained by the existence of reversible phenomena, such as thixotropy, self-heating, nonlinearity, etc. The aim of this work is to quantify the self-heating and determine its share in the reversible reduction of complex modulus under cyclic loading. A strain sweep test has been developed with different loading steps, followed by rest periods after each loading phase. The loading level increases with each step, and the loading phases allow observing the modulus decrease, while the rest periods are introduced to observe modulus recovery after each loading level. A complete recovery of modulus means that the modulus diminution is due to a reversible phenomenon however a partial recovery of modulus notifies the presence of nonreversible phenomenon (such as damage). In using this approach, the influence of loading level on both complex modulus decrease and recovery can be examined. In order to quantify self-heating during testing, the sample temperature is measured by embedding a thermocouple probe inside the sample during its manufacturing. To obtain the relationship between complex modulus and temperature, the complex modulus test results have been interpreted herein. A thermoviscoelastic numerical simulation was conducted to determine the temperature field in the material and quantify the variation in complex modulus with respect to self-heating. Results show a temperature variation of 11 °C inside the sample. A comparison between experimental and numerical results indicates that the numerical model perfectly predicts the variations in both temperature and complex modulus until a certain strain level, where the damage, thixotropy or other factors have not appeared yet. It is also observed that the reversible complex modulus decrease can be explained by self-heating.
Fatigue is associated with the deterioration caused by applying repeated loads, and is affected by temperature or aging. Generally, time sweep tests are used to simulate fatigue, in order to obtain the fatigue laws. However, this requires too much time, often preventing its use. A method to estimate the fatigue laws from a strain sweep test is presented. The test was performed on a semi-dense mixture with different types of binder (unconditioned or aged) tested at different temperatures. This test is able to estimate fatigue laws more quickly, allowing the effect of different factors on the mixtures' fatigue life to be studied.
Perez, F.; Botella, R.; López-Montero, T.; Miro, R.; Martinez, A. International journal of fatigue num. 98, p. 111-120 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2017.01.026 Data de publicació: 2017-05 Article en revista
This paper compares the results obtained in two types of cyclic tension-compression tests, a time sweep test, constant strain amplitude, and a strain sweep test, increasing strain amplitude every 5000 cycles, called EBADE (standing for the Spanish words for strain sweep test). This comparison has shown that the rapid loss of stiffness during the initial part of cyclic testing is recoverable in bituminous materials. It has been found that reversible phenomena dominate in asphalt binders, while in mixtures are as important as damage. A damage equation has been proposed to describe the evolution of the material distress during the phase II in time sweep tests. In addition, a new methodology to estimate the fatigue law of bituminous mixtures is proposed.
Sefer, B.; Gaddam, R.; Roa, J.J.; Mateo, A.; Antti, Marta-lena; Pederson, Robert International journal of fatigue Vol. 92, num. 1, p. 193-202 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.07.003 Data de publicació: 2016-11-01 Article en revista
The current research work presents the chemical milling effect on the low cycle fatigue properties of cast Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy. Chemical milling treatment is one of the final steps in manufacturing titanium alloy components that removes the brittle alpha-case layer formed during various thermal processes. The treatment includes immersion of the components in solutions containing hydrofluoric (HF) and nitric (HNO3) acids in relevant molar ratios. Although this treatment demonstrates advantages in handling components with complex net geometries, it may have detrimental effects on the surface, by introducing pitting and/or intergranular corrosion and thereby adversely affecting in particular the fatigue strength. The first series of specimens were tested in as-machined condition. Two more series were, prior to fatigue testing, subjected to 5 and 60 min chemical milling treatment. It was found that the fatigue lives were substantially decreased for the chemically treated specimens. The fractographic investigation of all mechanically tested samples revealed multiple fatigue crack initiation sites in the chemically milled samples. These cracks were located either at the prior beta grain boundary or the prior beta grain boundary triple joints. The prior beta grain boundaries were found to have deep ditch-like appearance which depth increased with increasing milling time. These ditch-like grain boundaries acts as stress raisers and thereby promote early fatigue crack initiation and thus lower fatigue life.
Current work estimates probabilistic fatigue life efficiently with scarce samples. The underlying idea of the estimation is to approximate the cumulative distribution function of the fatigue life in a transformed space using a third order polynomial subject to monotonicity constraint. The variations associated with the estimated quantiles are quantified using bootstrap. The proposed approach is validated on a data obtained from literature. It is observed that the life quantiles with reasonable accuracy can be estimated even with 10 samples. Finally, the probabilistic fatigue of Nitinol in austenitic condition is obtained with limited experiments. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper presents the results of finite element simulations made on a bent pipe subjected to an in-plane variable cyclic displacement combined with internal pressure. Special emphasis is put on the capacity of the model to illustrate different failure modes depending on the internal pressure applied on the pipe. The results of the numerical analyses will be compared to experimental ones. The constitutive model used for the simulation of Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) loading and the hardening-softening law used are only briefly touched upon. The monotonic behavior of a large diameter pipe, as obtained from the constitutive model proposed, is also shown and compared to experimental results under two different loading conditions. The total axial load at failure for this case resulted in less than 10% error as compared to the experiments. Regarding the ULCF in-plane bending simulations conducted on a 16-in. 90 degrees elbow, the results were in good agreement with the experimental test in terms of force-displacement hysteresis loops and total fatigue life of the specimen. An analysis of the dependence of the failure mode to the internal pressure applied has been conducted, showing that the formulation is capable of obtaining both habitual failure types. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The fatigue crack growth behavior of an austenitic metastable stainless steel AISI 301LN in the Paris region is investigated in this work. The fatigue crack growth rate curves are evaluated in terms of different parameters such as the range of stress intensity factor Delta K, the effective stress intensity factor Delta K-eff, and the two driving force parameter proposed by Kujawski K*.; The finite element method is used to calculate the stress intensity factor of the specimens used in this investigation. The new stress intensity factor solution has been proved to be an alternative to explain contradictory results found in the literature.; Fatigue crack propagation tests have been carried out on thin sheets with two different microstructural conditions and different load ratios. The influence of microstructural and mechanical variables has been analyzed using different mechanisms proposed in the literature. The influence of the compressive residual stress induced by the martensitic transformation is determined by using a model based on the proposal of McMeeking et al. The analyses demonstrate the necessity of including K-max as a true driving force for the fatigue crack growth. A combined parameter is proposed to explain the effects of different variables on the fatigue crack growth rate curves. It is found that along with residual stresses, the microcracks and microvoids are other factor affecting the fatigue crack growth rate in the steel studied. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper R-ratio effects on fatigue crack growth near threshold region of a metastable austenitic stainless steel (MASS) in two different conditions, i.e. annealed and cold rolled, is investigated. The authors present two approaches to correlate FCGR data for R = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and K-max = 23 MPa root m using a two-parameters approach (Delta K, K-max and alpha in Kujawski's model) and crack closure model (using Elber's K-op, and in Donald's ACRn2 approaches). The K-op and ACRn2 were experimentally measured on a single edge tension specimens. The K-op measurements were performed using a modified method and based on ASTM standards. While the two driving force approaches correlate data well in the Paris region, they fail to correlate them in the threshold region. However, this correlation can be improved in the threshold region when a different alpha value from the Paris region is used. The authors indicated that two different mechanisms operate; one in the Paris region and another in the near threshold. Hence, they proposed to combine the two-parameter and crack closure approaches where Delta K is replaced by Delta K-eff (estimated by a new method proposed in this paper), which is shown to correlate the FCGR data for different stress ratios for annealed steel. The correlation for cold rolled condition shows improvement with the new approach but is not as good as for the annealed one. The author further suggests to modify K-max in the two-parameter approach. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper presents a plastic-damage formulation and a new isotropic hardening law, based on the Barcelona plastic damage model initially proposed by Lubliner et al. (1989) , which is capable of predicting steel failure due to Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF). This failure mechanism is obtained when the material is subjected to cyclic loads and breaks after applying a very low number of cycles, usually less than hundreds. The failure is driven by the plastic response of the material, and it is often predicted based on the plastic strains applied to it. The model proposed in this work has been formulated with the objective of predicting accurately the plastic behavior of the material, as well as its failure due to ULCF. This is achieved taking into account the fracture energy dissipated during the whole loading process. This approach allows the simulation of ULCF when it takes place due to regular cyclic loads or non-regular cyclic loads, as it is the case of seismic loads. Several simulations are conducted in order to show the capabilities of the formulation to reproduce the mechanical response of steel when it is subjected to regular and non-regular cyclic loads. The formulation is validated comparing the numerical results with several experimental tests made on X52 steel specimens. The agreement between the numerical and experimental results asses the validity of the proposed model to predict the plastic behavior of steel and its failure due to Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue.
This paper presents a plastic-damage formulation and a new isotropic hardening law, based on the Barcelona plastic damage model initially proposed by Lubliner et al. (1989) , which is capable of predicting steel failure due to Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF). This failure mechanism is obtained when the material is subjected to cyclic loads and breaks after applying a very low number of cycles, usually less than hundreds. The failure is driven by the plastic response of the material, and it is often predicted based on the plastic strains applied to it. The model proposed in this work has been formulated with the objective of predicting accurately the plastic behavior of the material, as well as its failure due to ULCF. This is achieved taking into account the fracture energy dissipated during the whole loading process. This approach allows the simulation of ULCF when it takes place due to regular cyclic loads or non-regular cyclic loads, as it is the case of seismic loads. Several simulations are conducted in order to show the capabilities of the formulation to reproduce the mechanical response of steel when it is subjected to regular and non-regular cyclic loads. The formulation is validated comparing the numerical results with several experimental tests made on X52 steel specimens. The agreement between the numerical and experimental results asses the validity of the proposed model to predict the plastic behavior of steel and its failure due to Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tarrago, J.; Ferrari, C.; Reig, B.; Coureaux, D.; Schneider, L.; Llanes, L. International journal of fatigue Vol. 70, p. 252-257 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2014.09.011 Data de publicació: 2015-01-01 Article en revista
There is a major interest in replacing cobalt binder in hardmetals (cemented carbides) aiming for materials with similar or even improved properties at a lower price. Nickel is one of the materials most commonly used as a binder alternative to cobalt in these metal-ceramic composites. However, knowledge on mechanical properties and particularly on fatigue behavior of Ni-base cemented carbides is relatively scarce. In this study, the fatigue mechanics and mechanisms of a fine grained WC-Ni grade is assessed. In doing so, fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior and fatigue limit are determined, and the attained results are compared to corresponding fracture toughness and flexural strength. An analysis of the results within a fatigue mechanics framework permits to validate FCG threshold as the effective fracture toughness under cyclic loading. Experimentally determined data are then used to analyze the fatigue susceptibility of the studied material. It is found that the fatigue sensitivity of the WC-Ni hardmetal investigated is close to that previously reported for Co-base cemented carbides with alike binder mean free path. Additionally, fracture modes under stable and unstable crack growth conditions are inspected. It is evidenced that stable crack growth under cyclic loading within the nickel binder exhibit faceted, crystallographic features. This microscopic failure mode is rationalized on the basis of the comparable sizes of the cyclic plastic zone ahead of the crack tip and the characteristic microstructure length scale where fatigue degradation phenomena take place in hardmetals, i.e. the binder mean free path. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lacarac, V.; Garcia-Granada, A.A.; Smith, D.; Pavier, M.J. International journal of fatigue Vol. 26, num. 6, p. 585-595 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2003.10.015 Data de publicació: 2004-01-01 Article en revista
Girones, A.; Mateo, A.; Deluccia, J.; Llanes, L.; Laird, C.; Anglada, M. International journal of fatigue Vol. 25, num. 9-11, p. 1189-1194 DOI: 10.1016/S0142-1123(03)00119-1 Data de publicació: 2003-09 Article en revista
Mateo, A.; Llanes, L.; Akdut, N.; Stolarz, J.; Anglada, M. International journal of fatigue Vol. 25, num. 6, p. 481-488 DOI: 10.1016/S0142-1123(02)00173-1 Data de publicació: 2003-06 Article en revista
Llanes, L.; Mateo, A.; Villechaise, P.; Méndez, J.; Anglada, M. International journal of fatigue Vol. 21, num. Supl 1, p. S119-S125 DOI: 10.1016/S0142-1123(99)00063-8 Data de publicació: 1999-09 Article en revista