Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a dissipative reinforced concrete structural wall that can improve the behavior of a tall multi-storey building. The main objective is to evaluate the damage of a dissipative wall in comparison with that of a solid wall. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, a comparative nonlinear dynamic analysis between a dissipative wall and a solid wall is performed by means of SAP2000 software and using a layer model. The solution to increase the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete structural wall is to create a slit zone with short connections. The short connections are introduced as a link element with multi-linear pivot hysteretic plasticity behavior. The behavior of these short connections is modeled using the finite element software ANSYS 12. In this study, the authors propose to evaluate the damage of reinforced concrete slit walls with short connections using seismic analysis. Findings: Using the computational model created in the second section of the paper, a seismic analysis of a dissipative wall from a multi-storey building was done in the third section. From the results obtained, the advantages of the proposed model are observed. Originality/value: A simple computational model was created that consume low processing resources and reduces processing time for a dynamic pushover analysis. Unlike other studies on slit walls with short connections, which are focussed mostly on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the short connections, in this paper the authors take into consideration the whole structural system, wall and connections.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate a reinforced concrete multi-storey building with dissipative structural walls. These walls can improve the behaviour of a tall multi-storey building. The authors' main objective is to evaluate the damage of a building with dissipative walls in comparison with that of a building with solid walls. In this paper,a comparative nonlinear dynamic analysis between a building with slit walls and then the same building with solid walls is performed by means of SAP2000 software and using a layer model. The solution to increase the seismic performance of a building with structural walls is to create slit zones with short connections in to the walls. The short connections are introduced as a link element with multi-linear pivot hysteretic plasticity behaviour. The hysteretic rules and parameters of these short connections were proposed by the authors and used in this analysis. In this study, the authors propose to evaluate the damage of a building with reinforced concrete slit walls with short connections using seismic analysis. Using the computational model created by the authors for the slit wall, a seismic analysis of a multi-storey building with slit walls was done. From the results obtained, the advantages of the proposed model are observed. Using a simple computational model, created by the authors, that consume low processing resources and reduces processing time, a nonlinear dynamic analysis on high-rise buildings was done. Unlike other studies on slit walls with short connections, which are focused mostly on the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the short connections, in this paper the authors take into consideration the whole structural system, wall, connections and frames.
Continuum-based discrete element method is an explicit numerical method, which is a combination of block discrete element method (DEM) and FEM. When simulating large deformation problems, such as cutting, blasting, water-like material flowing, the distortion of elements will lead to no convergence of the numerical system. To solve the convergence problem, a particle contact-based meshfree method (PCMM) is introduced in. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
PCMM is based on traditional particle DEM, and use particle contacts to generate triangular elements. If three particles are contact with each other, the element will be created. Once elements are created, the macroscopic constitutive law could be introduced in. When large deformation of element occurs, the contact relationship between particles will be changed. Those elements that do not meet the contact condition will be deleted, and new elements that coincide with the relationship will be generated. By the deletion and creation of elements, the convergence problem induced by element distortion will be eliminated. To solve FEM and PCMM coupled problems, a point-edge contact model is introduced in, and normal and tangential springs are adopted to transfer the contact force between particles and blocks.
According to the deletion and recreation of elements based on particle contacts, PCMM could simulate large deformation problems. Some numerical cases (i.e. elastic field testing, uniaxial compression analysis and wave propagation simulation) show the accuracy of PCMM, and others (i.e. soil cutting, contact burst and water-like material flowing) show the rationality of PCMM.
In traditional particle DEM, contact relationships are used to calculate contact forces. But in PCMM, contact relationships are adopted to generate elements. Compared to other meshfree methods, in PCMM, the element automatic deletion and recreation technique is used to solve large deformation problems.
Purpose: A nonlinear finite element (FE) beam-column model for the analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) frames with due account of shear is presented in this paper. The model is an expansion of the traditional flexural fibre beam formulations to cases where multiaxial behaviour exists, being an alternative to plane and solid FE models for the nonlinear analysis of entire frame structures. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Design/methodology/approach: Shear is taken into account at different levels of the numerical model: at the material level RC is simulated through a smeared cracked approach with rotating cracks; at the fibre level, an iterative procedure guarantees equilibrium between concrete and transversal reinforcement, allowing to compute the biaxial stress-strain state of each fibre; at the section level, a uniform shear stress pattern is assumed in order to estimate the internal shear stress-strain distribution; and at the element level, the Timoshenko beam theory takes into account an average rotation due to shear.
Findings: The proposed model is validated through experimental tests available in the literature, as well as through an experimental campaign carried out by the authors. The results on the response of RC elements critical to shear include displacements, strains and crack patterns and show the capabilities of the model to efficiently deal with shear effects in beam elements.
Originality/value: A formulation for the nonlinear shear-bending interaction based on the fixed stress approach is implemented in a fibre beam model. Shear effects are accurately accounted during all the nonlinear path of the structure in a computationally efficient manner.
– The purpose of this paper is to describe a set of simple yet effective, numerical method for the design and evaluation of parachute-payload system. The developments include a coupled fluid-structural solver for unsteady simulations of ram-air type parachutes. The main features of the computational tools are described and several numerical examples are provided to illustrate the performance and capabilities of the technique.
– For an efficient solution of the aerodynamic problem, an unsteady panel method has been chosen exploiting the fact that large areas of separated flow are not expected under nominal flight conditions of ram-air parachutes. A dynamic explicit finite element solver is used for the structure. This approach yields a robust solution even when highly nonlinear effects due to large displacements and material response are present. The numerical results show considerable accuracy and robustness.
– A simple and effective numerical tool for the analysis of parachutes has been developed.
– An analysis code has been developed which addresses the needs of ram-air parachute designers. The software delivers reasonably accurate results in a short time using modest hardware. It can therefore assist the design process, which nowadays relies on empirical methods.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the possibilities of a novel Lagrangian formulation in dealing with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with very large time steps.
Design/methodology/approach: The design of the paper is based on introducing the origin of this novel numerical method, originally inspired on the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), summarizing the previously published theory in its moving mesh version. Afterwards its extension to fixed mesh version is introduced, showing some details about the implementation.
Findings: The authors have found that even though this method was originally designed to deal with heterogeneous or free-surface flows, it can be competitive with Eulerian alternatives, even in their range of optimal application in terms of accuracy, with an interesting robustness allowing to use large time steps in a stable way.
Originality/value: With this objective in mind, the authors have chosen a number of benchmark examples and have proved that the proposed algorithm provides results which compare favourably, both in terms of solution time and accuracy achieved, with alternative approaches, implemented in in-house and commercial codes.
Literari Network Awards for Excellence: "Engineering Computationa" Outstanding Paper Presented at COMPLAS X - International Conference on Computational Plasticity in Barcelona
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibilities of the particle finite element method for simulation of free surface flows.
Design/methodology/approach – A numerical simulation of a number of examples for which experimental data are available is performed. The simulations are run using the same scale as the experiment in order to minimize errors due to scale effects. Some examples are chosen from the civil engineering field: a study of the flow over a flip bucket is analyzed for both 2D and 3D models, and the flow under a planar sluice gate is studied in 2D. Other examples, such as a 2D and 3D “dam break” with an obstacle are taken from the smooth particle hydrodynamics literature.
Findings – Different scenarios are simulated by changing the boundary conditions for reproducing flows with the desired characteristics. Different mesh sizes are considered for evaluating their influence on the final solution.
Originality/value – Details of the input data for all the examples studied are given. The aim is to identify benchmark problems for future comparisons between different numerical approaches for free surface flows.
Outlines a general methodology for the solution of the system of algebraic equations arising from the discretization of the field equations governing coupled problems. Considers that this discrete problem is obtained from the finite element discretization in space and the finite difference discretization in time. Aims to preserve software modularity, to be able to use existing single field codes to solve more complex problems, and to exploit computer resources optimally, emulating parallel processing. To this end, deals with two well-known coupled problems of computational mechanics – the fluid-structure interaction problem and thermally-driven flows of incompressible fluids. Demonstrates the possibility of coupling the block-iterative loop with the nonlinearity of the problems through numerical experiments which suggest that even a mild nonlinearity drives the convergence rate of the complete iterative scheme, at least for the two problems considered here. Discusses the implementation of this alternative to the direct coupled solution, stating advantages and disadvantages. Explains also the need for online synchronized communication between the different codes used as is the description of the master code which will control the overall algorithm.
Presents numerical aspects of the program CODE_BRIGHT, which is a simulator for COupled DEformation, BRIne, Gas and Heat transport problems. It solves the equations of mass and energy balance and stress equilibrium and, originally, it was developed for saline media. The governing equations also include a set of constitutive laws and equilibrium conditions. The main peculiarities of saline media are in the dissolution/precipitation phenomena, presence of brine inclusions in the solid salt and creep deformation of the solid matrix.
This paper shows a generalization of the classic isotropic plasticity theory to be applied to orthotropic or anisotropic materials. This approach assumes the existence of a real anisotropic space, and other fictitious isotropic space where a mapped fictitious problem is solved. Both spaces are related by means of a linear transformation using a fourth order transformation tensor that contains all the information concerning the real anisotropic material. The paper describes the basis of the spaces transformation proposed and the expressions of the resulting secant and tangent constitutive equations. Also details of the numerical integration of the constitutive equation are provided. Examples of application showing the good performance of the model for analysis of orthotropic materials and fibre-reinforced composites are given.
The arbitrary Lagrangian—Eulerian (ALE) formulation, which is already well established in the hydrodynamics and fluid-structure interaction fields, is extended to materials with memory, namely, non- linear path-dependent materials. Previous attempts to treat non- linear solid mechanics with the ALE description have, in common, the implicit interpolation technique employed. Obviously, this implies a numerical burden which may be uneconomical and may induce to give up this formulation, particularly in fast-transient dynamics where explicit algorithms are usually employed. Here, several applications are presented to show that if adequate stress updating techniques are implemented, the ALE formulation could be much more competitive than classical Lagrangian computations when large deformations are present. Moreover, if the ALE technique is interpreted as a simple interpolation enrichment, adequate—in opposition to distorted or locally coarse—meshes are employed. Notice also that impossible computations (or at least very involved numerically) with a Lagrangian code are easily implementable in an ALE analysis. Finally, it is important to observe that the numerical examples shown range from a purely academic test to real engineering simulations. They show the effective applicability of this formulation to non-linear solid mechanics and, in particular, to impact, coining or forming analysis.
The concept of active control has been introduced in recent years in order to reduce the seismic response of structures. A predictive control methodology is used to formulate a discrete-time structural control algorithm. This algorithm computes the control forces by using not only the information provided by the structural response but also that given by the measurement of the seismic ground acceleration. Results for checking the effectiveness of the control algorithm in reducing the structural response are presented.