Loaiza, J.C.; Jarauta-Bragulat, E.; Porta, J.; Poch, R.M. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales Vol. XXXIV, num. 132, p. 327-338 Data de publicació: 2010 Article en revista
Berdugo, I.; Alonso, E.; Romero, E.; Gens, A.; Albis, M. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales Vol. 31, num. 129, p. 455-469 Data de publicació: 2009-12-31 Article en revista
The paper deals on tunnelling and swelling in anhydritic-gypsiferous claystones. The geology of the Gipskeuper in Baden-Württemberg (Germany) and the phenomenology of expansions in Wagenburg North tunnel are described. Consistent swelling triggering events, mechanisms and exhaustion causes were identified using a thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical theoretical analysis. It is suggested that long-term swelling in tunnels excavated through anhydritic-gypsiferous claystones is a result of solvent-way gypsum crystal growth due to ventilation induced groundwater evaporation and rock drying; an opposite concept to the usual consequences of drying in argillaceous materials, which causes shrinkage strains.
Vargas, C.; Pujades, L.G.; Arantza, U.; Canas, J. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales Vol. XXVI, num. 100, p. 373-391 Data de publicació: 2002-09 Article en revista
Application of satellital geodesy in campaigns CASA of 1991, 1994 and 1996, and stress inversion analysis of 96 focal mechanism s for period 1976-2000 obtained in Harvard University (Mw>5), allowed establishment of a compressive tendency in the west-east sense of the Panama Costa Rica Block (BPC), that hit the North Andes Block (BNA). Nevertheless, some seismic evidences would allow to confirm the existence of the proposed Chocó Block (BC), with western limit already Darién Range , and eastern limit in the zone of Murindó, demonstrated by the stress inversion of these two zones, with sub-parallel tendency north-south. The southern limit, already 4ºN, also shows stress with north-south tendency. Some located superficial earthquakes in the Pacific Coast, apparently western limit of Chocó Block, show stress with NW tendency. Additionally, the vectors of displacement and the main stress axis in the Colombian southwest, near to the zone of Tumaco, show clear tendencies west-east. Finally, the deep seismicity in the zone of Bucaramanga displays stress with tendency NNW-SSE. coherent with the Caribbean Plate subduction under South America.