This paper presents a new approach for generating coarse-level approximations of topologically complex models. Dramatic
topology reduction is achieved by converting a 3D model to and from a volumetric representation. Our approach produces valid,
error-bounded models and supports the creation of approximations that do not interpenetrate the original model, either being completely contained in the input solid or bounding it. Several simple to implement versions of our approach are presented and discussed. We show that these methods perform significantly better than other surface-based approaches when simplifying topologically-rich models such as scene parts and complex mechanical assemblies.
Solid modelers must be based on reliable and fast algorithms for Boolean operations. The octree model, as well as several generalizations (polytrees, integrated polytrees, extended octrees), is specially well suited for these algorithms and can be used either as a primary or as a secondary model in solid modeling systems. This paper is concerned with a precise definition of the extended octree model that allows the representation of nonmanifold objects with planar faces and, consequently, is closed under Boolean operations on polyhedrons. Boolean nodes and nearly vertex nodes are introduced, and the model is discussed in comparison with related representations. A fast algorithm for the direct generation of the extended octree from the geometry of the base polygon in extrusion solids is presented, and its complexity is studied. Boolean operation algorithms are introduced.
Quadtree representation of two-dimensional objects is performed with a tree that describes the recursive subdivision of the more complex parts of a picture until the desired resolution is reached. At the end, all the leaves of the tree are square cells that lie completely inside or outside the object. There are two great disadvantages in the use of quadtrees as a representation scheme for objects in geometric modeling system: The amount of memory required for polygonal objects is too great, and it is difficult to recompute the boundary representation of the object after some Boolean operations have been performed. In the present paper a new class of quadtrees, in which nodes may contain zero or one edge, is introduced. By using these quadtrees, storage requirements are reduced and it is
possible to obtain the exact backward conversion to boundary representation. Algorithms for the generation of the quadtree, Boolean operations, and recomputation of the boundary representation
are presented, and their complexities in time and space are discussed. Three-dimensional algorithms working on octrees are also presented. Their use in the geometric modeling of three-dimensional polyhedral objects is discussed.