Persson, C.; Robert, E.; Carlsson, E.; Robo, C.; López-Gil, A.; Ginebra, M.P.; Godoy-Gallardo, M.; Engqvist, H. Journal of biomaterials applications Vol. 30, num. 3, p. 279-289 DOI: 10.1177/0885328215581316 Data de publicació: 2015-09-01 Article en revista
Acrylic bone cements have an elastic modulus several times higher than the surrounding trabecular bone. This has been hypothesized to contribute to certain clinical complications. There are indications that the addition of specific fatty acids and triglyceride oils may reduce the elastic modulus of these types of cements. Some of these additives also appear to have inherent antibiotic properties, although this has never been evaluated in bone cements. In this study, several types of fatty acids and triglyceride oils were evaluated for use in acrylic bone cements. Their mechanical properties were evaluated under uniaxial compression testing and selected cements were then further characterized in terms of microstructure, handling and antibacterial properties using scanning electron microscopy, polymerization temperature measurements, agar diffusion tests and bactericidal activity assays of cement extracts. It was found that any of the evaluated fatty acids or triglyceride oils could be used to tailor the stiffness of acrylic bone cements, although at varying concentrations, which also depended on the type of commercial base cement used. In particular, the addition of very small amounts of linoleic acid (<2.0wt%) resulted in Young's moduli and compressive strengths in the range of human trabecular bone, while maintaining a similar setting time. Further, the addition of 12.6wt% ricinoleic acid to Osteopal V cement was found to have a significant antibacterial effect, inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in an agar diffusion test as well as demonstrating 100% bactericidal activity against the same strain.
Nowadays, one of the main challenges in metal implants for bone substitution is the achievement of an elastic modulus close to that of human cortical bone as well as to provide an adequate interaction with the surrounding tissue avoiding in vivo foreign body reaction. From this perspective, a new Ti-based alloy has been developed with Nb and Hf as alloying elements which are known as non-toxic and with good corrosion properties. The microstructure, mechanical behaviour and the physicochemical properties of this novel titanium alloy have been studied. Relationship of surface chemistry and surface electric charge with protein adsorption and cell adhesion has been evaluated due to its role for understanding the mechanism of biological interactions with tissues. The Ti25Nb21Hf alloy presented a lower elastic modulus than commercial alloys with a superior ultimate strength and yield strength than CP-Ti and very close to Ti6Al4V. It also exhibited good corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the results revealed that it had no cytotoxic effect on rat mesenchymal stem cells and allowed protein adsorption and cell adhesion. The experimental results make this alloy a promising material for bone substitution or for biomedical devices.
Fernandez, E.; Guillem-Marti, J.; Gutierrez, C.; Fernandez, A.; Ginebra, M.P.; Lopez, S. Journal of biomaterials applications Vol. 29, num. 6, p. 813-823 DOI: 10.1177/0885328214547400 Data de publicació: 2015-01-01 Article en revista
Ceramic/metal composites, cermets, arise from the idea to combine the dissimilar properties in the pure materials. This work aims to study the biocompatibility of new micro-nanostructured 3Y-TZP/Ti materials with 25, 50 and 75vol.% Ti, which have been successfully obtained by spark slasma sintering technology, as well as to correlate their surface properties (roughness, wettability and chemical composition) with the osteoblastic cell response. All samples had isotropic and slightly waved microstructure, with sub-micrometric average roughness. Composites with 75vol.% Ti had the highest surface hydrophilicity. Surface chemical composition of the cermets correlated well with the relative amounts used for their fabrication. A cell viability rate over 80% dismissed any cytotoxicity risk due to manufacturing. Cell adhesion and early differentiation were significantly enhanced on materials containing the nanostructured 3Y-TZP phase. Proliferation and differentiation of SaOS-2 were significantly improved in their late-stage on the composite with 75vol.% Ti that, from the osseointegration standpoint, is presented as an excellent biomaterial for bone replacement. Thus, spark plasma sintering is consolidated as a suitable technology for manufacturing nanostructured biomaterials with enhanced bioactivity.
Ajaxon, I.; Maazouz, Y.; Ginebra, M.P.; Ohman, C.; Persson, C. Journal of biomaterials applications Vol. 30, num. 5, p. 526-536 DOI: 10.1177/0885328215594293 Data de publicació: 2015 Article en revista
The porosity of a calcium phosphate cement is a key parameter as it affects several important properties of the cement. However, a successful, non-destructive porosity measurement method that does not include drying has not yet been reported for calcium phosphate cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate isopropanol solvent exchange as such a method. Two different types of calcium phosphate cements were used, one basic (hydroxyapatite) and one acidic (brushite). The cements were allowed to set in an aqueous environment and then immersed in isopropanol and stored under three different conditions: at room temperature, at room temperature under vacuum (300¿mbar) or at 37¿. The specimen mass was monitored regularly. Solvent exchange took much longer time to reach steady state in hydroxyapatite cements compared to brushite cements, 350 and 18¿h, respectively. Furthermore, the immersion affected the quasi-static compressive strength of the hydroxyapatite cements. However, the strength and phase composition of the brushite cements were not affected by isopropanol immersion, suggesting that isopropanol solvent exchange can be used for brushite calcium phosphate cements. The main advantages with this method are that it is non-destructive, fast, easy and the porosity can be evaluated while the cements remain wet, allowing for further analysis on the same specimen
Manero, J.; Gil, F.J.; Ginebra, M.P.; Planell, J. A.; Artola, A.; Goñi, I.; Gurruchaga, M. Journal of biomaterials applications Vol. 18, num. 4, p. 305-319 DOI: 10.1177/0885328204041531 Data de publicació: 2004-04 Article en revista