Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L.E.; Alferez, E.; Acho, L.; Tutivén, C.; Vidal, Y.; Rodellar, J.; Pozo, F. Mechanical systems and signal processing Vol. 107, p. 149-167 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.12.035 Data de publicació: 2018-07 Article en revista
The future of the wind energy industry passes through the use of larger and more flexible wind turbines in remote locations, which are increasingly offshore to benefit stronger and more uniform wind conditions. The cost of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines is approximately 15-35% of the total cost. Of this, 80% goes towards unplanned maintenance issues due to different faults in the wind turbine components. Thus, an auspicious way to contribute to the increasing demands and challenges is by applying low-cost advanced fault detection schemes. This work proposes a new method for detection and classification of wind turbine actuators and sensors faults in variable- speed wind turbines. For this purpose, time domain signals acquired from the operating wind turbine are represented as two-dimensional matrices to obtain grayscale digital images. Then, the image pattern recognition is processed getting texture features under a multichannel representation. In this work, four types of texture characteristics are used: statistical, wavelet, granulometric and Gabor features. Next, the most significant ones are selected using the conditional mutual criterion. Finally, the faults are detected and distinguished between them (classified) using an automatic classification tool. In particular, a 10-fold cross-validation is used to obtain a more generalized model and evaluates the classification performance. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of a 5MW offshore type wind turbine are carried out in several fault scenarios. The results show a promising methodology able to detect and classify the most common wind turbine faults.
For complex geometries, the definition of the subsystems is not a straightforward task. We present here a subsystem identification method based on the direct transfer matrix, which represents the first-order paths. The key ingredient is a cluster analysis of the rows of the powers of the transfer matrix. These powers represent high-order paths in the system and are more affected than low-order paths by damping.
Once subsystems are identified, the proposed approach also provides a quantification of the degree of coupling between subsystems. This information is relevant to decide whether a subsystem may be analysed in a computer model or measured in the laboratory independently of the rest or subsystems or not. The two features (subsystem identification and quantification of the degree of coupling) are illustrated by means of numerical examples: plates coupled by means of springs and rooms connected by means of a cavity.
In the present paper, acoustic emission was studied in honing experiments obtained with different abrasive densities, 15, 30, 45 and 60. In addition, 2D and 3D roughness, material removal rate and tool wear were determined. In order to treat the sound signal emitted during the machining process, two methods of analysis were compared: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT). When density 15 is used, the number of cutting grains is insufficient to provide correct cutting, while clogging appears with densities 45 and 60. The results were confirmed by means of treatment of the sound signal. In addition, a new parameter S was defined as the relationship between energy in low and high frequencies contained within the emitted sound. The selected density of 30 corresponds to S values between 0.1 and 1. Correct cutting operations in honing processes are dependent on the density of the abrasive employed. The density value to be used can be selected by means of measurement and analysis of acoustic emissions during the honing operation. Thus, honing processes can be monitored without needing to stop the process.
This paper proposes an analytical solution of the Inverse Kinematics (IK) problem at dead point configurations for any planar one degree of freedom linkage mechanism, with regard to the continuity C n of the motion law. The systems analyzed are those whose elements are linked with lower pairs and do not present redundancies. The study aims to provide the user with some rules to facilitate the design of feasible motion profiles to be reproduced by conventional electrical actuators at these configurations. During the last decades, sev- eral methods and techniques have been developed to study this specific configuration. However, these techniques are mainly focused on solving numerically the IK indetermi- nacy, rather than analyzing the motion laws that the mechanisms are able to perform at these particular configurations. The analysis presented in this paper has been carried out differentiating and applying l’Hôpital’s rule to the system of constraint equations / ð q Þ of the mechanism. The study also considers the feasibility of the time-domain profiles to be reproduced with conventional electrical actuators (i.e. AC/DC motors, linear actuators, etc.). To show the usefulness and effectiveness of the method, the development includes the analytical application and numerical simulations for two common one degree of free- dom systems: a slider-crank and a four linkage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results are presented on a four linkage mechanism test bed.
We prove that the solution of any linear mechanical system can be expressed as a linear combination of signal transmission paths. This is done in the framework of the Global Transfer Direct Transfer (GTDT) formulation for vibroacoustic problems. Transmission paths are expressed as powers of the transfer matrix. The key idea of the proof is to generalise the Neumann series of the transfer matrix --which is convergent only if its spectral radius is smaller than one-- into a modified Neumann series that is convergent regardless of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix. The modification consists in choosing the appropriate combination coefficients for the powers of the transfer matrix in the series. A recursive formula for the computation of these factors is derived. The theoretical results are illustrated by means of numerical examples. Finally, we show that the generalised Neumann series can be understood as an acceleration (i.e. convergence speedup) of the Jacobi iterative method.
In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new performance demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 m s(-1) and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 mu m. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire have been identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations has been given high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This article presents a new strategy to measure the wire vibrations based on the piezoresistive effect of the wire itself. An electronic readout system based on a Wheatstone bridge is used to measure the variation of the carbon wire resistance, which is directly proportional to the wire elongation caused by the oscillations.
Egusquiza, E.; Valero, M.; Presas, A.; Huang , X.; Guardo, A.; Seidel, U. Mechanical systems and signal processing Vol. 68-69, p. 330-341 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2015.05.034 Data de publicació: 2016-02-01 Article en revista
This paper deals with the dynamic response of pump-turbine impellers. A pump-turbine impeller is a complex structure attached to a rotor and rotating inside a casing full of water with very small clearances between the rotating and the stationary parts. The dynamic response of this type of structures is very complex and it is very much affected by the connection to the rotor as well as by the added mass and boundary conditions. As a consequence its calculation presents several uncertainties.; First, the dynamic response of pump-turbine impellers is introduced. Second an experimental investigation in a real impeller attached to the rotor and inside the machine was carried out. For this investigation, the impeller of an existing pump-turbine unit with an installed power of 110 MW and a diameter of 2.87 m was studied. For a better analysis of the experimental results a numerical model using FEM was also built-up. Frequencies and mode-shapes were identified numerically and experimentally and the characteristics of the structural response analyzed.; To determine the influence of the rotor and supporting structures on the impeller response the results were compared with the ones obtained with the same impeller but suspended (non-connected to the rotor). Experimental and numerical simulation were also used for this case. The changes in the dynamic response due to the rotor connection were determined.; Finally the results obtained are compared with the results from other pump-turbine impellers of different designs and general conclusions about the dynamics of this type of structures are given. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Presas, A.; Valentin, D.; Egusquiza, E.; Valero, M.; Seidel, U. Mechanical systems and signal processing Vol. 60-61, p. 547-570 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2015.01.013 Data de publicació: 2015-08 Article en revista
To avoid resonance problems in rotating turbomachinery components such as impellers, it is of paramount importance to determine the natural frequencies of these parts when they are under operation. Nevertheless, most of these rotating structures are inaccessible and in some cases submerged and confined. To measure the natural frequencies of submerged impellers from the rotating frame is complicated, because sensors have to be well fixed, withstand with large pressure and centrifugal forces. Furthermore, the signals have to be transmitted to the stationary frame. For this reason it may be advantageous to measure the natural frequencies with sensors placed on the casing.
In this paper, the analysis of rotating disk-like structures submerged and confined has been performed from the stationary frame. Previously, an analytical model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the disk from the rotating frame is presented. Once natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained in the rotating frame, the transmission to the stationary frame has been deduced.
A rotating disk test rig has been used for the experimental study. It consist of a rotating disk that has been excited from the rotating frame with a piezoelectric patch and it response has been measured from both rotating and stationary frame. Results shows that for rotating submerged structures in heavy fluids such as water, not only the structural modes of the rotating part are different than for rotating structures in air, but also the transmission from the rotating to the stationary frame.
An automatic methodology for identifying SEA (statistical energy analysis) subsystems within a vibroacoustic system is presented. It consists in dividing the system into cells and grouping them into subsystems via a hierarchical cluster analysis based on the problem eigenmodes. The subsystem distribution corresponds to the optimal grouping of the cells, which is defined in terms of the correlation distance between them. The main advantages of this methodology are its automatic performance and its applicability both to vibratory and vibroacoustic systems. Moreover, the method allows the definition of more than one subsystem in the same geometrical region when required. This is the case of eigenmodes with a very different mechanical response (e.g. out-of-plane or in-plane vibration in shells).
Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has received considerable attention over the past few years. PCA has been used not only as a direct method to identify, classify and localize damages but also as a significant primary step for other methods. Despite several positive specifications that PCA conveys, it is very sensitive to outliers. Outliers are anomalous observations that can affect the variance and the covariance as vital parts of PCA method. Therefore, the results based on PCA in the presence of outliers are not fully satisfactory. As a main contribution, this work suggests the use of robust variant of PCA not sensitive to outliers, as an effective way to deal with this problem in SHM field. In addition, the robust PCA is compared with the classical PCA in the sense of detecting probable damages. The comparison between the results shows that robust PCA can distinguish the damages much better than using classical one, and even in many cases allows the detection where classic PCA is not able to discern between damaged and non-damaged structures. Moreover, different types of robust PCA are compared with each other as well as with classical counterpart in the term of damage detection. All the results are obtained through experiments with an aircraft turbine blade using piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators and adding simulated damages.
Tibaduiza, D.A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.A.; Mujica, L.E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.P Mechanical systems and signal processing Vol. 41, num. 1-2, p. 467-484 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2013.05.020 Data de publicació: 2013-12-06 Article en revista
This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.
The use of Optical Backscatter Reflectometer (OBR) sensors is a promising measurement technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) as it offers the possibility of continuous monitoring of strain and temperature along the fiber. Several applications to materials used in the aeronautical construction have demonstrated the feasibility of such technique. These materials (composites, steel, aluminum) apart from having a smooth surface where the bonding of the sensor is easily carried out, they also have a continuous strain field when subject to external loading and therefore the bonding of the OBR on the material surface is not in danger for high levels of loading as the OBR can easily follow the strain in the material. The application of such type of sensor to concrete structures may present some difficulties due to (1) the roughness of the concrete surface and the heterogeneity due to the presence of aggregates of several sizes, (2) the fact that reinforced concrete cracks at very low level of load, appearance of a discontinuity in the surface and the strain field that may provoke a break or debonding of the optical fiber. However the feasibility of using OBR in the SHM of civil engineering constructions made of concrete is also of great interest, mainly because in this type of structures it is impossible to know where the crack may appear and therefore severe cracking (dangerous for the structure operation) can appear without warning of the monitoring if sensors are not placed in the particular location where the crack appears. In order to explore the potentiality of detecting cracks as they appear without failure or debonding, as well as the compatibility of the OBR bonding to the concrete surfaces, this paper shows the test carried out in the loading up to failure of a concrete slab.
Pujol-Vazquez, G.; Acho, L.; Pozo, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Vidal, Y. Mechanical systems and signal processing Vol. 25, num. 1, p. 465-474 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2010.08.011 Data de publicació: 2011-01 Article en revista
Hysteresis is a property of systems that do not instantly follow the forces applied to them, but react slowly, or do not return completely to their original state. A velocity based active vibration control, along with a special class of hysteretic models using passive functions are presented in this paper. This hysteretic model is based on a modification of the Bouc–Wen model, where a nonlinear term is replaced by a passive function. The proposed class retains the rate-independence property of the original Bouc–Wen model, and it is able to reproduce several kinds of hysteretic loops that cannot be reproduced with the original Bouc–Wen model. Using this class of hysteretic models, a chattering velocity-based active vibration control scheme is developed to mitigate seismic perturbations on hysteretic base-isolated structures. Our hysteretic model is used because of its simplicity in proving the stability of the closed-loop system; i.e., a controller is designed using the proposed model, and its performance is tested on the original hysteretic system, modeled with Bouc–Wen. Numerical experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the proposed control algorithm.
This project is about the simulation design of an engine control unit (ECU) for an Otto cycle engine with electronic fuel injection (EFI). The simulation includes a model for the ECU as well as physical parameters of the engine, which allows closed-loop control and monitoring of various systems. This simulation has been realized using Simulink and Stateflow, which are components of Mathworks’ MATLAB software. The program allows control of various parameters of the ECU, as well as the simulation of failures to verify that the designed ECU is fault-tolerant and can control the engine using an open loop control. The main function the ECU provides is fuel metering. Subsequently, this program could be used as a tool to quickly develop and test models of ECU in order to control an engine in laboratory for gas emission, fuel economy and engine performance improvements purposes.
Mujica, L.E.; Vehí, J.; Ruiz, M.; Verleysen, M.; Staszewski, W.; Worden, K. Mechanical systems and signal processing Vol. 22, num. 1, p. 155-171 DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2007.05.001 Data de publicació: 2008-01-01 Article en revista