The objective of this paper is to measure the deposition of solid impurity on finished cotton fabric treated with DMDHEU resin during washing cycles of cotton fabric treated with different softeners. Fabrics will be softened with the conventional esterquat and with aminosilicone products having different molecular weights and mixtures of both. The anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate and non-ionic surfactant ethoxylated fatty alcohol were used. Both separately and in different proportions during the deposition trials were used. In general, the deposition values decrease on increasing the quantity of non-ionic surfactant in the mixture and with the finished cotton fabric increase this one after the application of the softeners tested alone and with their mixtures
In this work we aimed our focus at the determination of the zeta potentials of a standard fabric of cotton Empa type (dyed, finished and softened), which was washed in the presence of surfactants and of a copolymer of action DTI - dye transfer inhibition agent -. The copolymer DTI the type VI/PVP, was used. The washing with ecological surfactants such as: a sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mixed with an non-ionic alkylpolyglucoside (APG) was made. The cotton fabric was dyed with three different direct dyes (with different molecular weights), finished by the resin of DMDHEU (dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea) and softened with a microemulsionated compound of ammo-niumsilicone. The variation of zeta potential of cotton articles was obtained under the influence of the total concentration and the proportion of mixture of the surfactants anionic with non-ionic, and of these separately. The polymer DTI stayed to constant concentration, when mixing it with the surfactants. The variation of the zeta potentials of the cotton undyed and finished in function of the DTI were obtained.
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of certain clay micro particles added to detergent formulation to act as builders in removal of impurities (detersive power) during the washing of a standard cotton fabric (EMPA), and also to determine the whiteness of the fabric and its softness after washing. Sepiolite was used separately and together with bentonite, in the forin of micro partides. Bentonite is held to have a softening effect on cotton. A whitener was added to the detergent formulations to compensate for a possible effect of diminished whiteness in the washed fabric. Scanning electron microscope images of the fibres were taken to show deposition of the builders on the fabric. A non-toxic microemulsified solvent, dimethylsulfoxi de (DMS), suitably microdispersed with use of an amphoteric sur factant as ernulsifier, was added to improve the performance of the detergent formulations used, notably enhancing the deter gency obtained in the presence of the clay microparticles tested.
Ziel dieser Arbeit ist, die Wirkung be stimmter Tonmikropartikel zu bestimmen, die in Waschm ittelfor mulierungen als Builder bei der Entfernung von Verunreinigun gen (Waschkraft) wahrend der Wasche von angeschmutztem Standard-Baumwolltestgewebe (EMPA) eingesetzt werden. Ebenso werden der Weigrad des Gewebes und seine Weich heit nach der Wasche bestimmt. Sepiolith-Mik ropartikel wurden allein und gemeinsam mit Bentonit verwendet. Bentonit wurde beibehalten, um einen weichmachenden Effekt an der Baum wolle zu erzielen. Ein Auf heller wurde der Waschmittelformulie rung ebenfalls zugesetzt, um eine mogliche Minderung des Weigrades der gewaschenen Gewebe zu kompensieren . Von den Geweben wurden rasterelektronenmikroskopische Aufnah men gemacht, um die Ablagerungen der Builder auf den Ge weben zu zeigen. Dimethylsulfoxid (DMS), ein nicht-toxisches, mikroemulgiertes Losemittel, wurde mit einem amphoteren Tensid (als Emulgator) mikrodipergiert und zur Verbesserung der Leistung der verwendeten Waschmittelformu ierung, speziell zur Verstarkung der Waschkraft in Gegenwart der Tonmikroparti kel, hinzudosiert
The aim of this work is to propose a contribution to obtain an improvement in the redeposition of solid impurities on cotton fabric during washing with ecological surfactants and also the enhancement of their smoothness. For that purpose, sodium bentonite was added to the detergent formulations to produce a smoothing effect while washing, to obtain what is known as “softergent”. Thus, smoothing with this product, the necessity of adding softener in the last rinse during washing is eliminated, with the savings of softeners and time and more ecological waste water. This was possible given the excellent compatibility of the bentonite with all the components of the detergent. As a water-soluble inorganic salt, bentonite is environmentally friendly. The surfactants used in the detergent formulations were the anionic sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and the two non-ionic surfactants, APG and AE with 7 m. EO, which were used separately and in mixtures of different proportions of anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The sodium bentonite (composed mainly of silicates and aluminates) was used with two types of particle size, without surface treatment and with and without ammoniumsilicone softener treatment to show the effect on their behaviour. The redeposition behaviour on the cotton fabric and the smoothness produced after washing with bentonite microparticles in the detergent formulation, depending on use of the surfactants alone or in the different proportions of anionic:non-ionic surfactants were measured. The smoothness of cotton fabrics produced by the bentonite microparticles after washing was evaluated by hand. A relationship between handle and inorganic ash contents was established. Also, the electrical double layer of the bentonites was measured in the presence of the surfacants tested
The primary aim of this work is to attain improvement of the softness of cotton fabric during the washing process with ecological surfactants. To attain that improvement, sodium bentonite was added to the detergent formulations to produce a softening effect during washing and obtain the so called “soft detergent” effect. Sodium bentonite (a mineral composed mainly of hydrated aluminium silicates) was mixed with the surfactants used in ecological detergents. This product was used with a suitable particle size that, given its large specific surface area, facilitated its deposition on the cotton fabric, producing the desired effect of increasing the softness of the washed fabric. The surfactants used were an anionic surfactant, namely LAS, and two non-ionic surfactants, namely APG and AE, used separately and as mixtures, without co-formulants, to demonstrate their detersive power in one wash and repeated washes, depending on the nature of the surfactants and on their separate mixtures an mixtures in different proportions of anionic and non-ionic surfactants in combination in all cases with a constant concentration of sodium bentonite with two particle sizes. Evaluation was performed of the subjective softness (to the touch) of pairs of samples by several observers and also of changes in whiteness after deposition of the bentonite during washing
The objective of this research was to study the effect of the copolymer polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinylimidazole (PVP/VI) for use as a dye transfer inhibitor (DTI) during the washing of dyed polyester fabric, depending on the detergent components. The DTI was used to find its efficiency during repeated washings of polyester fabric dyed with disperse dyes. At the same time, its efficiency was tested fer preventing dye migration to other fabrics, such as polyester, cellulose diacetate, acrylic, polyamide, cotton and wool. The influence of anionic (SDBS) and non-ionic (alkyl ethoxylates with 6 EO-groups) surfactants in different proportions and with zeolite as a builder and the aforementioned DTI was tested. Results of CIELAB colour differences were obtained for the dyed and undyed polyester fabrics after five washings
In this work, detersive power (soil removal) was studied after washing a soiled wool fabric with addition of a non-toxic solvent microemulsion to conventional washing detergent formulations with the aim of improving the performance of the conventional washing. The non-toxic solvent used was dimethyl sulfoxide micro-dispersed with an amphoteric surfactant as emulsifier. The fabric was washed with biodegradable non-ionic surfactants such as an alcohol ethoxylate (AE) with 7 m E. O. and an alkyl polyglucoside with 1.4 glucoside groups (APG). The fabric used was EMPA 107 wool (soiled with standard impurities). The non-ionic surfactants were used separately and in mixture in varying proportions for the washes. Given the large amount of impurities in the wool fabric, sodium carbonate and sodium chloride were used to attain a suitable pH to avoid damaging the wool. The fabric was washed at low temperature with water of different hardness (20hf, 30hf and 40hf). In addition, the sequestering agent DTPMP was used to obtain an improvement of detersive power at the hardness of 40 hf. Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich.
In this work, detersive power (soil removal) was studied after washing a soiled wool fabric with addition of a non-toxic solvent microemulsion to conventional washing detergent formulations with the aim of improving the performance of the conventional washing. The non-toxic solvent used was dimethyl sulfoxide micro-dispersed with an amphoteric surfactant as emulsifier. The fabric was washed with biodegradable non-ionic surfactants such as an alcohol ethoxylate (AE) with 7 mE.O. and an alkyl polyglucoside with 1.4 glucoside groups (APG). The fabric used was EMPA 107 wool (soiled with standard impurities). The non-ionic surfactants were used separately and in mixture in varying proportions for the washes. Given the large amount of impurities in the wool fabric, sodium carbonate and sodium chloride were used to attain a suitable pH to avoid damaging the wool. The fabric was washed at low temperature with water of different hardness (20º hf, 30º hf and 40º hf). In addition, the sequestering agent DTPMP was used to obtain an improvement of detersive power at the hardness of 40º hf