Dense radar networks offer the possibility of improved Quantitative Precipitation Estimation thanks to the additional information collected in the overlapping areas, which allows mitigating errors associated with the Vertical Profile of Reflectivity or path attenuation by intense rain. With this aim, Roca-Sancho et al. (2014) proposed a technique to generate 3-D reflectivity mosaics from the multiple radars of a network. The technique is based on an inverse method that simulates the radar sampling of the atmosphere considering the characteristics
(location, frequency and scanning protocol) of each individual radar.
This technique has been applied to mosaic the observations of the radar network of South Korea (composed of 14 S-band radars), and integrate the observations of the small X-band network which to be installed near Seoul in the framework of a project funded by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA). The evaluation of the generated 3-D mosaics has been done by comparison with point measurements (i.e. rain gauges and disdrometers) and with the observations of independent radars.
Hevy precipitation events and subsequent flash floods are one of the most dramatic hazards in many regions such as the Mediterranean basin as recently stressed in the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) international programme. The focus of this study is to assess the quality of very short range (below 3 hour lead times) precipitation forecasts based on weather radar nowcasting system. Specific nowcasting amounts of 10 and 30 minutes generated with a nowcasting technique (Berenguer et al 2005, 2011) are compared against raingauge observations and also weather radar precipitation estimates observed over Catalonia (NE Spain) using data from the Meteorological Service of Catalonia and the Water Catalan Agency. Results allow to discuss the feasibility of issuing warnings for different precipitation amounts and lead times for a number of case studies, including very intense convective events with 30minute precipitation amounts exceeding 40 mm (Bech et al 2005, 2011). As indicated by a number of verification scores single based radar precipitation nowcasts decrease their
skill quickly with increasing lead times and rainfall thresholds. This work has been done in the framework of the Hymex research programme and has been partly funded by the ProFEWS project (CGL2010-15892)
The global network of permanent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers has become an useful and
affordable way of monitoring the Solar EUV flux rate, especially -for the time being- in the context of Major and
Mid geoeffective intensity Solar Flares (M. Hernandez-Pajares et al., SpaceWeather, doi:10.1029/2012SW000826,
2012). In fact the maturity of this technique (GNSS Solar FLAre Indicator, GSFLAI) has allowed to incorporate
it in operational real-time (RT) conditions, thanks to the availability of global GNSS datastreams from the RT
International GNSS Network (M. Caissy et al, GPS World, June 1, 2012), and performed in the context of the
MONITOR and MONITOR2 ESA-funded projects (Y. Beniguel et al., NAVITEC Proc., 978-1-4673-2011-5
The main goal of this presentation is to summarize a detailed recent study of the statistical properties of
Solar Flares (E. Monte and M. Hernandez-Pajares, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JA020206, 2014) by
considering the GNSS proxy of EUV rate (GSFLAI parameter) computed independently each 30 seconds during
the whole last solar cycle. An statistical model has been characterized that explains the empirical results such
as (a) the persistence and presence of bursts of solar flares and (b) their long tail peak values of the solar flux
variation, which can be characterized by: (1) A fractional Brownian model for the long-term dependence, and (2),
a power law distribution for the time series extreme values.
Finally, an update of the Solar Flares’ occurrence during the recent months of Solar Activity, gathered in
RT within MONITOR2 project, will close the paper.
Nowadays different methodologies have been developed for very short-term precipitation forecasting based on radar observations. When the advection of precipitation explains a signi¿cant portion of the temporal evolution of
precipitation, the Lagrangian persistence is the most appropriate method. Unfortunately, in convective precipitation episodes it does not occur like this because the growth and decay of precipitation is generally fast and advection
provides little information. It is then necessary to introduce probabilistic nowcasting methods that allow to characterize the uncertainty associated with the temporal evolution of precipitation. SBMcast (Berenguer et al., 2011) is an ensemble nowcasting algorithm based on Lagrangian extrapolation of recent radar observations. It generates a set of future rainfall scenarios (ensemble members) compatible with the observations and preserving the spatial and temporal structure of the rainfall ¿eld according to the String of Beads model. The parameters used to generate a member of the ensemble model are the time series of a set of variables that model the rainfall ¿eld at two levels: at global and at pixel scale. We have analyzed these two components of SBMcast with the aim of identifying the role that each component has in the resulting forecast uncertainty. The ¿nal objective of this analysis is understanding the expected impact of the use of additional information to constrain each part of the algorithm. Conventional scores have been used to compare SBMcast with two reference algorithms: deterministic Lagrangian extrapolation, and the probabilistic “Local Lagrangian” technique [the one that demonstrated the best skill, among those analyzed by Germann and Zawadzki (2004)]. The results have been obtained for a set of rainfall episodes in the vicinity of Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain) using the observations of the Catalan Weather Service radar network.
Operational quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) are provided routinely by weather services or hydrological authorities, particularly those responsible for densely populated regions of small catchments, such as those typically found in Mediterranean areas prone to ¿ash-¿oods. Speci¿c rainfall values are used as thresholds for issuing warning levels considering different time frameworks (mid-range, short-range, 24h, 1h, etc.), for example 100 mm in 24h or 60 mm in 1h. There is a clear need to determine how feasible is a speci¿c rainfall value for a given lead-time, in particular for very short range forecasts or nowcasts typically obtained from weather radar observations (Pierce et al 2012). In this study we assess which speci¿c nowcast lead-times can be provided for a
number of heavy precipitation events (HPE) that affected Catalonia (NE Spain).
The nowcasting system we employed generates QPFs through the extrapolation of rainfall ¿elds observed with weather radar following a Lagrangian approach developed and tested successfully in previous studies
(Berenguer et al. 2005, 2011).Then QPFs up to 3h are compared with two quality controlled observational data sets: weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) and raingauge data. Several high-impact weather
HPE were selected including the 7 September 2005 Llobregat Delta river tornado outbreak (Bech et al. 2007) or the 2 November 2008 supercell tornadic thunderstorms (Bech et al. 2011) both producing, among other effects,
local ¿ash ¿oods. In these two events there were torrential rainfall rates (30’ amounts exceeding 38.2 and 12.3 mm respectively) and 24h accumulation values above 100 mm.
A number of veri¿cation scores are used to characterize the evolution of precipitation forecast quality with time, which typically presents a decreasing trend but showing an strong dependence on the selected rainfall
threshold and integration period. For example considering correlation factors, 30’ precipitation forecasts showed some skill (improvement over persistence) for lead times up to 60’ for moderate intensities (up to 1 mm in 30’) and up to 2.5h for lower rates (above 0.1 mm). However an important event-to-event variability has been found as illustrated by the fact that hit rates of rain-no-rain forecasts achieved the 60% value at 90’ in the 7 September 2005 and only 40’ in the 2 November 2008 case. The discussion of these results provides useful information on the potential application of nowcasting systems and realistic values to be contrasted with speci¿c end-user requirements. This work has been done in the framework of the Hymex research programme and has been partly funded by the ProFEWS project (CGL2010-15892).
In this work we present the results of the evaluation of the HAREN nowcasting system during summer and fall 2013, not only in terms of point and regional rainfall forecasts, but in terms of the skill in forecasting the hazard levels as well.
An Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) shall be applied to achieve a sustainable development, to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment. First step should be to understand water dynamics at basin level, starting by modeling the basin water resources. For model implementation, a large number of data and parameters are required, but those are not always available, especially in some developing countries where different sources may have different data, there is lack
of information on data collection, etc. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley (CRV) is an endorheic basin covering an area of approximately 10,000 km2. For the period 1996-2005, the average annual volume of rainfall accounted for 9.1 Mm3, and evapotranspiration for 8 Mm3 (Jansen et al., 2007). From the environmental point of view, basin ecosystems are endangered due to human activities. Also, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. Hence, there is an urgent need to set an IWRM, but datasets required for water dynamics simulation are not too reliable. In order to reduce uncertainty of numerical simulation, two semi-distributed open software hydrologic models were implemented: HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT. HEC-HMS was developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACoE) Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) to run precipitation-runoff simulations for a variety of applications in dendritic watershed systems. ArcSWAT includes the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Arnold et al., 1998) model developed for the USDA Agricultural Research Service into ArcGIS (ESRI®). SWAT was developed to assess the impact of land management practices on large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time (Neitsch et al., 2005). According to this, ArcSWAT would be the best option for IWRM implementation in the basin. However, considering data uncertainty and model complexity a previous hydrologic assessment of the basin based in HEC-HMS simulation is advisable. As a first approach HEC-HMS was implemented for basin modeling in order to get physical parameters of interest, results from HEC-HMS calibration were used to setup the accuracy of the ArcSWAT numerical modelling.
For monitoring the vadose zone, different strategies can be chosen, depending on the objectives and scale of observation. The effects of non-conventional water use on the vadose zone might produce impacts in porous media which could lead to changes in soil hydraulic properties, among others. Controlling these possible effects requires an accurate monitoring strategy that controls the volumetric water content, Ø, and soil pressure, h, along the studied profile. According to the available literature, different monitoring systems have been carried out independently, however less attention has received comparative studies between different techniques. An experimental plot of 9x5 m2 was set with automatic and non-automatic sensors to control Ø and h up to 1.5m depth. The non-automatic system consisted of ten Jet Fill tensiometers at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 cm (Soil Moisture®) and a polycarbonate access tube of 44 mm (i.d) for soil moisture measurements with a TRIME FM TDR portable probe (IMKO®). Vertical installation was carefully performed; measurements with this system were manual, twice a week for Ø and three times per week for h. The automatic system composed of five 5TE sensors (Decagon Devices®) installed at 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 cm for Ø measurements and one MPS1 sensor (Decagon Devices®) at 60 cm depth for h. Installation took place laterally in a 40-50 cm length hole bored in a side of a
trench that was excavated. All automatic sensors hourly recorded and stored in a data-logger. Boundary conditions were controlled with a volume-meter and with a meteorological station. ET was modelled with Penman-Monteith equation. Soil characterization include bulk density, gravimetric water content, grain size distribution, saturated hydraulic
conductivity and soil water retention curves determined following laboratory standards. Soil mineralogy was determined by X-Ray difractometry. Unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters were model-fitted through SWRC-fit code and ROSETTA based on soil textural fractions.
Simulation of water flow using automatic and non-automatic date was carried out by HYDRUS-1D independently. A good agreement from collected automatic and non-automatic data and modelled results can be recognized. General trend was captured, except for the outlier values as expected. Slightly differences were found between hydraulic
properties obtained from laboratory determinations, and from inverse modelling from the two approaches. Differences up to 14% of flux through the lower boundary were detected between the two strategies According to results, automatic sensors have more resolution and then they’re more appropriated to detect subtle changes of soil hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, if the aim of the research is to control the general trend of water dynamics, no significant differences were observed between the two systems.
Desalinated brackish groundwater is becoming a new source of water supply to comply with growing water demands, especially in (semi) arid countries. Irrigation with desalinated or a blend of desalinated and ground/surface water, presents associated impacts on plants, soil and aquifer media. Mixed waters with different salinities can lead to the formation of unexpected chemical precipitates. The use of desalted groundwater for irrigation counts with potential drawbacks, among them: changes of hydraulic properties of soil-aquifer systems (e.g. hydraulic conductivity, porosity) as a consequence of mineral precipitation; root growth blockage and plant uptake of pollutants; as well as leaching of contaminants to groundwater. An experimental plot located at SE Spain, covered by grass and irrigated by sprinklers with a blend of desalted and groundwater from a brackish aquifer, has been monitored in order to characterize at field scale the possible impacts on soil hydraulic properties. The monitoring strategy to control water and heat flux includes traditional and more updated devices. The field instrumentation, vertically installed from the ground surface and spatially distributed, consisted of: ten tensiometers (Soilmoisture Equipment Corp, Goleta, CA, USA) at different depths (two per depth); and, two access tubes (fiber glass, 44mm diameter 2m length) for soil moisture measurements from TRIME-FM TDR probe (Imko GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Automatic logging is carried out from a trench
located in the border of the experimental plot and it takes in: a set of five 5TE devices (Decagon Devices Inc, Pullman, WA, USA) vertically installed, which measure volumetric water content, electric conductivity and temperature; and additionally, a suction sensor at 0.6m depth. Finally, a periodic sampling of undisturbed soil cores (2m length) takes place for the purpose of imaging porosity changes from environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). First results about water and heat flux, as well as changes in the soil hydraulic properties, are presented in the current work.
The presence of 209 emerging compounds, surfactants, priority substances according to the 2008/105/EC Directive, 10 heavy metals and microbiological organisms in blended water and aquifer samples was investigated in a quaternary aquifer. The effects of these compounds over the environment are not clear in many cases, but many of them have been classified as endocrine disruptor compounds, EDC. Their presence in the media is controlled in one hand by their transformation and/or removal rates and, on the other hand, by their continuous release into the media, due to the broad use of these in many human activities (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, heavy metals, LAS and others). The attention of this work focusses on the presence and fate of these substances in the vadose zone and the aquifer. The aquifer catchment (81km2) located in SE Spain presents a high natural salinity (with EC values of ~7,500
µS cm-1, and high concentrations of chloride, sulphate and sodium), making it unsuitable to be used as drinking water or irrigation. Two sampling campaigns (February and June 2011) in wells and springs have been carried out top characterize physic-chemical, microbiological and emerging contaminants presence in the aquifer. A total of
209 emerging pollutants grouped into the following classes were analysed: 125 pharmaceutical compounds (Phs), 20 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Dioxins, 46 pesticides, 3 volatile priority pollutants as well as the most commonly used anionic surfactants were identified for further analysis. Heavy metals included: Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg,
Ni, Zn, Sn, Pt, Pd and Tl. Results showed that 39 out of all compounds were detected: 11 pharmaceuticals, 9 PAHs, 19 pesticides, 4 surfactants and 4 heavy metals. Two of the compounds, endosulfan-a and Ni, were detected in concentrations above the allowed regulation. Although results are limited to 2 sampling campaigns, it is important to note that surfactants (LAS), pesticides PAHs and Dioxins were detected in most of the water samples, this indicates the presence of wastewater effluents of urban origin and agricultural impacts. The ubiquitous presence of LAS is related to the low-sorption capacity and its wide variety of applications, ranging from cleaning products to
pesticide formulation (among others).
SURFace ACTive AgeNTS (SURFACTANTS) are usually organic compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid. They are widely used as active ingredients of detergents and cleaners, as well as in a wide variety of applications such as paints, pesticide formulations, pharmaceuticals, wetting agents, and personal care products. They can
be classified into four main groups according to their charge: anionics, non-ionics, cationics and amphoterics. In spite of their relative high solubility, these compounds have a moderate to great sorption capacity and degradation; several degradation intermediates are generated during this process. Its presence in aquatic media has been mainly
detected in surface water at concentrations in the range of µg/L.
The presence and distribution of anionic (LAS) and non-ionic (AEOs) surfactants have been studied in groundwater at the UH 05.56 hydrologic unit (Jerez, SW Spain). The main objective was using surfactants presence in the unconfined detrital aquifer as sewage pollution markers in order to identify treated and untreated wastewater sources origin, identifying degradation products and measuring its concentrations. Detected concentrations of LAS and AEOs ranged between 9.7 and 1.1 µg/L, being the greatest concentrations
detected in three of the ten sampled wells. In the aquifer, oxic conditions prevail and pH ranges between 6.5 and 9. Surfactant presence can be the result of agricultural irrigation with water from the river mixed with treated wastewater. However, as surfactants are currently applied in pesticide formulation, its presence would also be
related to agricultural management.
Presence of 166 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, priority substances according to the 2008/105EU Directive and four metals (Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) were investigated at the Llobregat delta, (Barcelona, Spain). In the monitoring waters from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant with an additional treatment of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and UV disinfection (WWATP) and groundwater were sampled. Treated wastewater was injected in the aquifer through four wells for the development of a hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion through four wells (P1 to P4). Over a time period of three years, first phase of the hydraulic barrier (2007-2010), occurrence and concentration of microcontaminants in the injected WWTAP water and aquifer has been investigated in order to obtain: representative results; to get an overall view of the specific compounds being detected in the aquifer media, and their concentration levels. A total of 92 out of 170 target active compounds were identified at detectable concentration in sampled water at least once. It is important to notice that 34 chemicals, among them Codeine (analgesic), Ibuprofen (antiinflammatory), Iopamidol and Iopromide (organic iodine applied as contrast agent) and Paraxanthine (metabolite of caffeine), were not detected in WWATP water currently being injected in the aquifer for the hydraulic barrier system. Chemicals present in groundwater maybe related to aquifer natural recharge probably receiving a mixture
of river water and untreated wastewater. The analytes present both in WWATP and monitoring wells distant less than 1 km from the barrier, were detected in the closest wells (2) to the injection barrier. Its presence was also favoured by the high transmissivity values of
the aquifer at this location. The monitoring well located 4 m distant from injection well showed similar WWATP concentration values, and a lower concentration is observed in wells distant from the injection points. In the aquifer media pH and Eh values indicate that neutral and oxidic conditions prevail and only TOC reduction is observed in
three of the monitoring wells. All compounds detected in groundwater samples exhibit a great variability of concentration, being greater than 0.1µg/L for Hydrochlorothiazine (diuretic), N-acetyl-4-amino-antipyrine metabolite of Metamizol) and BHT (antioxidant). However, concentrations were in the range of ng/L. To determine the mobility of detected compounds in ground water studies addressing its persistence and transport in the aquifer media are being carried out to assess fate and distribution in monitored wells.
The scale to scale transfer and the structure functions are calculated and from these the intermittency parametres [1. The estimates of turbulent diffusivity could also be measured. Some two point correlations and time lag calculations are used to investigate the local mixedness [4,5] and the temporal and spatial integral length scales
obtained from both Lagrangian and Eulerian correlations and functions. We compare these results with both theoretical and experimental ones in the Laboratory with a wind tunnel at the wake of a grid or cillinder with and withoutand a near Wall. The a theoretical description of how to simulate intermittency following the model of
Babiano et al. (1996) and the role of locality in higher order exponents is applied to the different flows. The information about turbulent jets is needed in several configurations providing basic information about the
turbulent free jet, the circular jet and the turbulent wall jet. The experimental measurements of turbulent velocity is based on Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter measurements of the jet centerline and off centered radial positions in the tank at several distances from the wall. Spectral and structure function analysis are useful to determine the
flow mixing ability using also flow visualization [6,7]. Results of experiments include the velocity distribution, entrainment angle of the jets, jet and wake average and fluctuating velocity, PDF’s, Skewness and Kurthosis, velocity and vorticity standard deviation, boundary layers function and turbulence intensity . Different range of
Wake and Jet flows show a maximum of turbulent intensity at a certain distance from the wall as it breaks the flow simmetry and adds large scale vorticity in the different experiments, these efects are also believed to occur in Geo-Astrophysical flows.
The present contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for a reference year
(2004). The CALIOPE modelling system is configured with 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa for the
meteorological core. Atmospheric initial and boundary conditions are obtained from the NCEP final analysis data.
The vertical resolution of the CMAQ chemistry-transport model for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased
from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Gas phase boundary conditions are
provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model (see Hauglustaine et al., 2004). The DREAM
model simulates long-range transport of mineral dust over the domains under study. For the European simulation,
emissions are disaggregated from the EMEP expert emission inventory for 2004 to the utilized resolution using
the criteria implemented in the HERMES emission model (Baldasano et al., 2008b). The HERMES model
system, using a bottom-up approach, was adopted to estimate emissions for the Iberian Peninsula simulation at
4 km horizontal resolution, every hour. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, model
simulations were compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and Spanish air quality networks.
For the European domain, 45 stations have been used to evaluate NO2, 60 for O3, 39 for SO2, 25 for PM10 and
16 for PM2.5. On the other hand, the Iberian Peninsula domain has been evaluated against 75 NO2 stations, 84
O3 stations, 69 for SO2, and 46 for PM10. Such large number of observations allows us to provide a detailed
discussion of the model skills over quite different geographical locations and meteorological situations.
Water requirements for different crop types according to soil type and climate conditions play not only an important role in agricultural efficiency production, though also for water resources management and control of pollutants in drainage water. The key issue to attain these objectives is the irrigation efficiency. Application of computer codes for irrigation simulation constitutes a fast and inexpensive approach to study optimal agricultural management practices. To simulate daily water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer the VisualBALAN V. 2.0 code was applied to an experimental area under irrigation characterized by its aridity. The test was carried out in three experimental plots for annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke), and fruit trees (citrus) under common agricultural practices in open air for October 1999-September 2008. Drip irrigation was applied to crops production due to the scarcity of water resources and the need for water conservation. Water level change was monitored in the top unconfined aquifer for each experimental plot. Results of water balance modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated water level values. For the study period, mean drainage obtained values were 343 mm, 261 mm and 205 mm for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus respectively. Assessment of water use efficiency was based on the IE indicator proposed by the ASCE Task Committee. For the modelled period, water use efficiency was estimated as 73, 71 and 78 % of the applied dose (irrigation + precipitation) for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus, respectively.
The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed "true" ocean bordering European nations
from the Western Europe to the near- and middle-East and Africa and inhibited by
some of the world’s most ancient civilizations and its tremendous resources could
be significantly influenced by global climate change which has considerable impact
to the society and human well-beings in the region. Long-term sea level change has
been quantified recently using a decadal data record from TOPEX/POSEIDON and
ERS-1/ERS-2, and using long-term (several decades to 100 years) tide gauge records.
The currently observed sea level change of 1.1-1.4 mm/yr from tide gauges [Tsimplis
and Baker, 2000] and 2.2 mm/yr from satellite altimetry (1996-2000) [Cazenave et
al., 2002; Fenoglio-Marc, 2002] indicate substantial regional variability (rise of sea
level in the Eastern Mediterranean and a drop of sea level in the Western Mediter-
ranean), and do not agree with the current estimated global sea level rise of 1.8 mm/yr
[Church et al., 2004]. This paper is focused on the potential quantification of the pro-
cesses governing Mediterranean circulation and long-term sea level change, includ-
ing hydrological fluxes associated with refreshening, heat transport, salinity, oceanic
mass variations, precipitation, and evaporation, using satellite altimetry and space-
borne gravimetry, and available in situ oceanic measurements.