Ribes, E.; Giménez-Bonafé, P.; Martínez-Soler, F.; González, A.; Saperas, N.; Kasinsky, H.; Chiva, M. Molecular reproduction and development Vol. 68, num. 2, p. 223-231 DOI: 10.1002/mrd.20069 Data de publicació: 2004-06 Article en revista
In the process of the chromatin remodeling that occurs during spermiogenesis in some animal species, it is possible to distinguish between two separate aspects: the chromatin condensation pattern itself (granular, fibrillar, or lamellar), and the architecture of this pattern, that is to say, its arrangement within the nucleus. In the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris these two aspects are clearly differentiated. The condensation pattern develops from 25 nm fibers to fibers with a tubular aspect and with a progressively increasing diameter (40-60 nm and then to 80 nm), to end finally in the form of very thin fibers (3-5 nm) product of the coalescence and dissolution of the major fibers. The main directive force that governs this process lies in the global change that occurs in the proteins that interact with all (or the major part) of the genomic DNA. The condensation pattern by itself in this species does not present a fixed order: most of the fibers appear without any predominant spatial direction in the spermiogenic nuclei. However, as the nuclei elongate, the chromatin fibers arrange in parallel following the elongation axis. This parallel disposition of the chromatin fibers appears to be mediated by two specific areas, each of which we call a "polar nuclear matrix" (PNM). These matrices differentiate in the basal and apical nuclear poles adjacent to the centriolar implantation fosse and the acrosome, respectively. The areas that constitute the PNM have the following characteristics: (a) they are the only areas where DNA is found anchored to the nuclear membrane; (b) they are the zones from which the chromatin condensation pattern (fibers/tubules) begins; and (c) they are most probably the points through which the mechanical forces originating from nuclear elongation are transmitted to chromatin, causing the chromatin fibers/tubules to adopt an almost perfectly parallel disposition. Finally, we discuss the importance of the architecture of the chromatin condensation pattern, as it is one of the determining factors of the spatial organization of the mature sperm genome and chromosome positioning.
Giménez-Bonafé, P.; Laszczak, M.; Kasinsky, H.; Lemke, M.; Lewis, J.; Isandar, M.; He, T.; Ikonomou, M.; White, F.; Hunt, D.; Chiva, M.; Ausió, J. Molecular reproduction and development Vol. 56, p. 1-9 Data de publicació: 2000-05 Article en revista