We propose an ultrafast femtosecond time scale trichromatic p-pulse illumination scheme for coherent excitation and manipulation of low-lying Rydberg states in rubidium. Selective population of nP3/2 levels with principal quantum numbers n¿12 using 75-fs laser pulses is achieved. The density-matrix equations of a four-level ladder system beyond the rotating-wave approximation have to be solved to clarify the balance between the principal quantum numbers, the duration of the laser pulses, and the associated ac-Stark effects for the fastest optimal excitation. The mechanism is robust for femtosecond control using different level configurations for applications in ultrafast quantum information processing and spectroscopy.
Electromagnetic response of a PT dipole is studied both analytically and numerically. In the analytical approach, the dipole is represented by two point scatterers. Within the first Born approximation, the asymmetry of the scattering field with respect to the orientation of the dipole is proven. In numerical simulations, the dipole is represented by two infinitely long, parallel cylinders with opposite sign of the imaginary part of a refractive index. Numerical data confirm the validity of the Born approximation in the weak scattering limit, while significant deviations from the Born approximation were observed for stronger scatterers and in the near-field range.
We show that the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman splitting in atomic systems can lead to the existence of bound states in the continuum (BICs) supported by trapping potentials. Such states have energies falling well within the continuum spectrum, but nevertheless they are localized and fully radiationless. We report the existence of BICs, in some cases in exact analytical form, in systems with tunable spin-orbit coupling and show that the phenomenon is physically robust. We also found that BIC states may be excited in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, where under suitable conditions they may be metastable with remarkably long lifetimes.
We study the ground state of a bilayer system of dipolar bosons with dipoles oriented by an external field perpendicularly to the two parallel planes. By decreasing the interlayer distance, for a fixed value of the strength of the dipolar interaction, the system undergoes a quantum phase transition from an atomic to a pair superfluid. We investigate the excitation spectrum on both sides of this transition by using two microscopic approaches. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are employed to obtain the static structure factors and intermediate scattering functions in imaginary time. The dynamic response is calculated using both the correlated basis functions (CBF) method and the approximate inversion of the Laplace transform of the quantum Monte Carlo imaginary time data. In the atomic phase, both the density and spin excitations are gapless. However, in the pair-superfluid phase a gap opens in the excitation energy of the spin mode. For small separation between layers, the minimal spin excitation energy equals the binding energy of a dimer and is twice the gap value.
The dynamic localization of a two-level atom in a periodic potential under the action of spin-orbit coupling and a weak harmonically varying linear force is studied. We consider optical and Zeeman potentials that are either in phase or out of phase in two spinor components, respectively. The expectation value for the position of the atom after one oscillation period of the linear force is recovered in authentic resonances or in pseudoresonances. The frequencies of the linear force corresponding to authentic resonances are determined by the band structure of the periodic potential and are affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The width or dispersion of the wave packet in authentic resonances is usually minimal. The frequencies corresponding to pseudoresonances do not depend on the type of potential and on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, while the evolution of excitations at the corresponding frequencies is usually accompanied by significant dispersion. Pseudoresonances are determined by the initial phase of the linear force and by the quasimomentum of the wave packet. Due to the spinor nature of the system, the motion of the atom is accompanied by periodic, but not harmonic, spin oscillations. Under the action of spin-orbit coupling the oscillations of the wave packet can be nearly completely suppressed in optical lattices. Dynamic localization in Zeeman lattices is characterized by doubling of the resonant oscillation periods due to band crossing at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. We also show that higher harmonics in the Fourier expansion of the energy band lead to effective dispersion, which can be strong enough to prevent dynamic localization of the Bloch wave packet.
We introduce a class of systems holding parity-time (PT) symmetry locally, whereas being globally P symmetric. The potential, U = U(vertical bar r vertical bar), fulfills PT symmetry with respect to periodically distributed points r(0) : U(vertical bar r(0) + r vertical bar) = U*(vertical bar r(0) - r vertical bar) being r(0) not equal 0. We show that such systems hold unusual properties arising from the merging of the two different symmetries, leading to a strong field localization and enhancement at the double-symmetry center, r = 0, when the coupling of outward to inward propagating waves is favored. We explore such general potentials in one and two dimensions, which could have actual realizations combining gain-loss and index modulations in nanophotonic structures. In particular, we show how to render a broad aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser into a bright and narrow beam source, as a direct application.
We demonstrate strong-field-driven impulsive XUV-x-ray parametric amplification (IXPA) processes in high-order harmonic generation at the single-atom level by using ab initio calculations. We consider the example of Li+ ions exposed simultaneously to an intense IR pulse and a weak 200-as XUV-x-ray pulse with central photon energies varying from 90 to 400 eV. We determine optimal parameter ranges and the precise delays between the IR and the XUV-x-ray pulses for IXPA to occur. The present results might be a guide to achieve exponential growth of the XUV-x-ray signal in tabletop XUV-x-ray lasers.
One-dimensional Bose gas with contact interaction in optical lattices at zero temperature is investigated by means of the exact diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm. The results obtained from the fundamental continuous model are compared with those obtained from the lattice (discrete) Bose-Hubbard model, using exact diagonalization, and from the quantum sine-Gordon model. We map out the complete phase diagram of the continuous model and determine the regions of applicability of the Bose-Hubbard model. Various physical quantities characterizing the systems are calculated, and it is demonstrated that the sine-Gordon model used for shallow lattices is inaccurate.
We address the propagation of light beams in longitudinally modulated PT-symmetric lattices, built as arrays of couplers with periodically varying separation between their channels, and show a number of possibilities for efficient diffraction control available in such nonconservative structures. The dynamics of light in such lattices crucially depends on the ratio of the switching length for the straight segments of each coupler and the longitudinal lattice period. Depending on the longitudinal period, one can achieve either beam rectification when the input light propagates at a fixed angle across the structure without diffractive broadening or dynamic localization when the initial intensity distribution is periodically restored after each longitudinal period. Importantly, the transition between these two different propagation regimes can be achieved by tuning only gain and losses acting in the system, provided that the PT symmetry remains unbroken. The impact of Kerr nonlinearity is also discussed.
We describe the results of the two methods we developed to calculate the stationary nonlinear solutions in one-dimensional plasmonic slot waveguides made of a finite-thickness nonlinear dielectric core surrounded by metal regions. These two methods are described in detail in the preceding article [Walasik and Renversez, preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 93, 013825 (2016)]. For symmetric waveguides, we provide the nonlinear dispersion curves obtained using the two methods and compare them. We describe the well-known low-order modes and higher modes that were not described before. All the modes are classiffied into two families: modes with or without nodes. We also compare nonlinear modes with nodes with the linear modes in similar linear slot waveguides with a homogeneous core. We recover the symmetry breaking Hopf bifurcation of the first symmetric nonlinear mode toward an asymmetric mode and we show that some of the higher modes also exhibit a bifurcation. We study the behavior of the bifurcation of the fundamental mode as a function of the permittivities of the metal cladding and of the nonlinear core. We demonstrate that the bifurcation can be obtained at low power levels in structures with optimized parameters. Moreover, we provide the dispersion curves for asymmetric nonlinear slot waveguides. Finally, we give results concerning the stability of the fundamental symmetric mode and the asymmetric mode that bifurcates from it using both theoretical argument and numerical propagation simulations from two different full-vector methods. We also investigate the stability properties of the first antisymmetric mode using our two numerical propagation methods.
We present two complementary models to study stationary nonlinear solutions in one-dimensional plasmonic slot waveguides made of a finite-thickness nonlinear dielectric core surrounded by metal regions. The considered nonlinearity is of focusing Kerr type. In the first model, it is assumed that the nonlinear term depends only on the transverse component of the electric field and that the nonlinear refractive index change is small compared to the linear part of the refractive index. This first model allows us to describe analytically the field profiles in the whole waveguide using Jacobi elliptic special functions. It also provides a closed analytical formula for the nonlinear dispersion relation. In the second model, the full dependency of the Kerr nonlinearity on the electric-field components is taken into account and no assumption is required on the amplitude of the nonlinear term. The disadvantage of this approach is that the field profiles must be computed numerically. Nevertheless, analytical constraints are obtained to reduce the parameter space where the solutions of the nonlinear dispersion relations are sought.
Martinez, R.; Esteban Martin, Adolfo; Roldan, E.; Staliunas, K.; VALCARCEL, G.; Silva, F. Physical review A Vol. 92, num. 5, p. 1-4 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.053858 Data de publicació: 2015-11-30 Article en revista
We demonstrate experimentally that a broad-area laserlike optical oscillator (a nondegenerate photorefractive oscillator) with structured injected signal displays two-phase patterns. The technique [de Valcarcel and Staliunas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 054101 (2010)] consists in spatially modulating the injection, so that its phase alternates periodically between two opposite values, i.e., differing by pi.
The recent analysis, based on the mean-field approximation (MFA), has predicted that the critical quantum collapse of the bosonic wave function, pulled to the center by the inverse-square potential in the three-dimensional space, is suppressed by the repulsive cubic nonlinearity in the bosonic gas, the collapsing ground state being replaced by a regular one. We demonstrate that a similar stabilization acts in a quantum many-body system, beyond the MFA. While the collapse remains possible, repulsive two-particle interactions give rise to a metastable gaseous state, which is separated by a potential barrier from the collapsing regime. The stability of this state improves with the increase of the number of particles. The results are produced by calculations of the variational energy, with the help of the Monte Carlo method.
We propose and demonstrate theoretically that vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) with external flat mirrors can be stabilized by applying a periodic spatiotemporal modulation of the pump current. Such pump modulation is shown to suppress the pattern-forming instabilities (modulation instabilities), which eventually results in stable beam emission. A modified Floquet linear stability analysis is used to characterize the dynamics of the modulated system and to evaluate its stabilization performance. Stability maps identify the regions in parameter space for complete and partial stabilization of VECSELs operating in different regimes depending on the external-cavity length. In particular, the stabilization method is shown to operate most efficiently in Class-A laser limit (for relatively long VECSEL resonators), while it becomes ineffective in Class-B laser limit (for relatively short resonators). The stabilization effect is further confirmed through direct integration of the dynamical equations.
Exciting temporal oscillations of the density distribution is a high-precision method for probing ultracold trapped atomic gases. Interaction effects in their many-body dynamics are particularly puzzling and counter-intuitive in one spatial dimension (1D) due to enhanced quantum correlations. We consider 1D quantum Bose gas in a parabolic trap at zero temperature and explain, analytically and numerically, how oscillation frequency depends on the number of particles, their repulsion, and the trap strength. We identify the frequency with the energy difference between the ground state and a particular excited state. This way we avoided resolving the dynamical evolution of the system, simplifying the problem immensely. We find an excellent quantitative agreement of our results with the data from the Innsbruck experiment [Science 325, 1224 (2009)].
We address the interplay between two fundamentally different wave-packet localization mechanisms, namely, resonant dynamic localization due to collapse of quasienergy bands in periodic media and disorder-induced Anderson localization. Specifically, we consider light propagation in periodically curved waveguide arrays on-resonance and off-resonance, and show that inclusion of disorder leads to a gradual transition from dynamic localization to Anderson localization, which eventually is found to strongly dominate. While in the absence of disorder the degree of localization depends critically on the bending amplitude of the waveguide array, when the Anderson regime takes over the impact of resonant effects becomes negligible.
We propose a simple realistic two-dimensional complex parity-time-symmetric photonic structure that is described by a non-Hermitian potential but possesses real-valued eigenvalues. The concept is developed from basic physical considerations to provide asymmetric coupling between harmonic wave components of the electromagnetic field. The structure results in a nonreciprocal chirality and asymmetric transmission between in- and out-coupling channels into the structure. The analytical results are supported by a numerical study of the Bloch-like mode formations and calculations of a realistic planar semiconductor structure.
Spin-orbit (SO) coupling can be introduced in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as a gauge potential acting only in a localized spatial domain. The effect of such a SO "defect" can be understood by transforming the system to the integrable vector model. The properties of the SO BEC change drastically if the SO defect is accompanied by the Zeeman splitting. In such a nonintegrable system, the SO defect qualitatively changes the character of soliton interactions and allows for formation of stable nearly scalar soliton complexes with almost all atoms concentrated in only one dark state. These solitons exist only if the number of particles exceeds a threshold value. We also report on the possibility of transmission and reflection of a soliton upon its scattering on the SO defect. Scattering strongly affects the pseudospin polarization and can induce pseudospin precession. The scattering can also result in almost complete atomic transfer between the dark states.
Spin-orbit (SO) coupling can be introduced in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) as a gauge potential acting only in a localized spatial domain. The effect of such a SO “defect” can be understood by transforming the system
to the integrable vector model. The properties of the SO BEC change drastically if the SO defect is accompanied by the Zeeman splitting. In such a nonintegrable system, the SO defect qualitatively changes the character of soliton interactions and allows for formation of stable nearly scalar soliton complexes with almost all atoms concentrated in only one dark state. These solitons exist only if the number of particles exceeds a threshold value. We also report on the possibility of transmission and reflection of a soliton upon its scattering on the SO defect. Scattering strongly affects the pseudospin polarization and can induce pseudospin precession. The scattering can
also result in almost complete atomic transfer between the dark states
We study a system of two bosons of one species and a third atom of a second species in a one-dimensional parabolic trap at zero temperature. We assume contact repulsive inter- and intraspecies interactions. By means of an exact diagonalization method we calculate the ground and excited states for the whole range of interactions. We use discrete group theory to classify the eigenstates according to the symmetry of the interaction potential. We also propose and validate analytical Ansatze gaining physical insight over the numerically obtained wave functions. We show that, for both approaches, it is crucial to take into account that the distinguishability of the third atom implies the absence of any restriction over the wave function when interchanging this boson with any of the other two. We find that there are degeneracies in the spectra in some limiting regimes, that is, when the interspecies and/or the intraspecies interactions tend to infinity. This is in contrast with the three-identical boson system, where no degeneracy occurs in these limits. We show that, when tuning both types of interactions through a protocol that keeps them equal while they are increased towards infinity, the systems's ground state resembles that of three indistinguishable bosons. Contrarily, the systems's ground state is different from that of three-identical bosons when both types of interactions are increased towards infinity through protocols that do not restrict them to be equal. We study the coherence and correlations of the system as the interactions are tuned through different protocols, which permit us to build up different correlations in the system and lead to different spatial distributions of the three atoms.
We analyze the ground state of a system of dipolar bosons moving in the XY plane and such that their dipolar moments are all aligned in a fixed direction in space. We focus on the general case where the polarization field forms a generic angle a with respect to the Z axis. We use the path-integral ground-state method to analyze the static properties of the system as both a and the density n vary over a wide range where the system is stable. We use the maximum of the static structure function as an order parameter to characterize the different phases and the transition lines among them. We find that, in addition to a superfluid gas and a solid phase, the system reaches a stripe phase at large tilting angles that is entirely induced by the anisotropic character of the interaction. We also show that the quantum phase transition from the gas to the stripe phase is of second order and report approximate values for the critical exponents.
We consider the ground state of a bilayer system of dipolar bosons, where dipoles are oriented by an external field in the direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used to calculate the ground-state energy, the one-body and two-body density matrix, and the superfluid response as a function of the separation between layers. We find that by decreasing the interlayer distance for fixed value of the strength of the dipolar interaction, the system undergoes a quantum phase transition from a single-particle to a pair superfluid. The single-particle superfluid is characterized by a finite value of both the atomic condensate and the super-counterfluid density. The pair superfluid phase is found to be stable against formation of many-body cluster states and features a gap in the spectrum of elementary excitations.
The study of spatial dispersion of two-dimensional complex crystals, with periodic modulations of both gain-loss and the refractive index, reveals simultaneous nondiffractive-nondiffusive light propagation. Narrow light beams and light patterns propagate without dispersion while amplified through the complex material. We determine and explore nondiffractive-nondiffusive regimes for collinear and noncollinear propagation.
We predict that narrow beams, reflecting from flat subwavelength diffraction gratings, can focus. The effect is shown for the beams of electromagnetic radiation; however, it should be observable for beams of waves of arbitrary nature (microwaves, surface plasmons, and acoustic and mechanical waves). We present analytical estimations of the focusing performance obtained by multiple scattering calculations and demonstrate the focusing effect numerically for an optical system (reflections from an array of dielectric cylinders), using the finite-difference time-domain calculations.
Extreme and rare events are nowadays the object of intensive research. Rogue waves are extreme waves that appear suddenly in many natural systems, even in apparently calm situations. Here we study numerically the rogue wave dynamics in an optically injected semiconductor laser with external periodic forcing that is implemented via direct modulation of the laser pump current. In the region of optical injection parameters where the laser intensity is chaotic and occasional ultrahigh pulses occur, our aim is to control the system by applying a weak modulation. We find that for an adequate range of frequency and amplitude parameters, the modulation can completely suppress the extreme pulses. We also show that the interplay between modulation and an external source of noise can significantly modify their probability of occurrence. These results can motivate a range of experimental and theoretical investigations in other natural systems.
Kang, D.; Helt, L.; Zhukovsky, S.; Juan P. Torres; Sipe, J.; Helmy, A.S. Physical review A Vol. 89, num. 2, p. 023833-1-023833-8 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.023833 Data de publicació: 2014-02-19 Article en revista
We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering which allows for simultaneous modal phase matching with the pump beam in a higher-order mode. Paired photons generated in each process are cross polarized and guided by different guiding mechanisms, which produces entanglement in both polarization and spatial mode. Theoretical analysis shows that the output quantum state has a high quality of hyperentanglement by spectral filtering with a bandwidth of a few nanometers, while off-chip compensation is not needed. This technique offers a path to realize an electrically pumped hyperentangled photon source.
Salazar-Serrano, L.; Janner, D.; Brunner, N.; Pruneri, V.; Juan P. Torres Physical review A Vol. 89, num. 1, p. 012126-1-012126-5 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.012126 Data de publicació: 2014-01-27 Article en revista
We demonstrate experimentally a scheme to measure small temporal delays, much smaller than the pulse width, between optical pulses. Specifically, we observe an interference effect, based on the concepts of quantum weak measurements and weak value amplification, through which a sub-pulse-width temporal delay between two femtosecond pulses induces ameasurable shift of the central frequency of the pulse. The amount of frequency shift, and the accompanying losses of the measurement, can be tailored by postselecting different states of polarization. Our scheme requires only spectrum measurements and linear optics elements, hence greatly facilitating its implementation. Thus it appears to be a promising technique for measuring small and rapidly varying temporal delays.
We demonstrate experimentally a scheme to measure small temporal delays, much smaller than the pulse width, between optical pulses. Specifically, we observe an interference effect, based on the concepts of quantum weak measurements and weak value amplification, through which a sub-pulse-width temporal delay between two femtosecond pulses induces a measurable shift of the central frequency of the pulse. The amount of frequency shift, and the accompanying losses of the measurement, can be tailored by postselecting different states of polarization. Our scheme requires only spectrum measurements and linear optics elements, hence greatly facilitating its implementation. Thus it appears to be a promising technique for measuring small and rapidly varying temporal delays.
Garcia, M.; Julia, B.; Astrakharchik, G.; Busch, T.; Boronat, J.; Rios, A. Physical review A Vol. 88, num. 6, p. 063604-1-063604-5 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.063604 Data de publicació: 2013-12-03 Article en revista
We show that a two-component mixture of a few repulsively interacting ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional trap possesses very diverse quantum regimes and that the crossover between them can be induced by tuning the interactions in one of the species. Starting from the composite fermionization regime, in which the interactions between both components are large and neither gas is phase coherent, our results show that a phase-separated state can be reached by increasing the interaction in one of the species. In this regime, the weakly interacting component stays at the center of the trap and becomes almost fully phase coherent, while the strongly interacting one is expelled to the edges of the trap. The crossover is sharp, as can be witnessed in the system's energy and in the occupation of the lowest natural orbital of the weakly interacting species. We show that such a transition is a few-atom effect which disappears for a large population imbalance.
We predict Anderson localization of light with nested screw topological dislocations propagating in disordered two-dimensional arrays of hollow waveguides illuminated by vortex beams. The phenomenon manifests itself in the statistical presence of topological dislocations in ensemble-averaged output distributions accompanying standard disorder-induced localization of light spots. Remarkably, screw dislocations are captured by the light spots despite the fast and irregular transverse displacements and topological charge flipping undertaken by the dislocations due to the disorder. The statistical averaged modulus of the output local topological charge depends on the initial vorticity carried by the beam.
We have studied the phase diagram of a quasi-two-dimensional interacting Bose gas at zero temperature in the presence of random potential created by laser speckles. The superfluid fraction and the fraction of particles with zero momentum are obtained within the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii theory and in diffusion Monte Carlo simulations. We find a transition from the superfluid to the insulating state when the strength of the disorder grows. Estimations of the critical parameters are compared with the predictions of the percolation theory in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. Analytical expressions for the zero-momentum fraction and the superfluid fraction are derived in the limit of weak disorder and weak interactions within the framework of the Bogoliubov theory. Limits of validity of various approximations are discussed.
Cheng, Y.; Peckus, M.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K. Physical review A Vol. 87, num. 4, p. 1-4 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.045802 Data de publicació: 2013-04-15 Article en revista
We propose and show by proof-of-principle calculations and experiments that beam focusing and imaging can be obtained in reflection from a flat interface of a micromodulated dielectric structure. We show, in particular, that a one-dimensionally modulated and chirped structure can focus a beam, performing an imaging of a light pattern, i.e., can act as a transversely invariant flat focusing mirror. 2013 American Physical Society.
We study pattern formation in a passive nonlinear optical cavity on the basis of the classic Lugiato-Lefever model with a periodically modulated injection. When the injection amplitude sign alternates, e.g., following a
sinusoidal modulation in time or in space, a phase-bistable response emerges, which is at the root of the spatial pattern formation in the system.
Purlys, V.; Maigyte, L.; Gailevicius, D.; Peckus, M.; Malinauskas, M.; Staliunas, K. Physical review A Vol. 87, num. 3, p. 033805-033810 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.033805 Data de publicació: 2013-03-11 Article en revista
Zamora-Munt, J.; Garbin, B.; Barland, S.; Giudici, M.; Rios Leite, J.; Masoller, C.; Tredicce, J. Physical review A Vol. 87, num. 3, p. 035802- DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.035802 Data de publicació: 2013-03-07 Article en revista
Rogue waves are devastating extreme events that occur in many natural systems, and a lot of work has focused on predicting and understanding their origin. In optically injected semiconductor lasers rogue waves are rare ultra-high pulses that sporadically occur in the laser chaotic output intensity. Here we show that these optical rogue waves can be predicted with long anticipation time, that they are generated by a crisis-like process, and that noise can be employed to either enhance or suppress their probability of occurrence. By providing a good understanding of the mechanisms triggering and controlling the rogue waves, our results can contribute to improve the performance of injected lasers and can also enable new experiments to test if these mechanisms are also involved in other natural systems where rogue waves have been observed.
We theoretically investigate how phase-only spatial light modulation can enable controlling and focusing the second-harmonic light generated in transparent nonlinear random structures. The studied structures are composed of domains with random sizes and antiparallel polarization, which accurately model widely used ferroelectric crystals such as strontium barium niobate. Using a first-principles Green-function formalism, we account for the effect that spatial light modulation of the fundamental beam introduces into the second-order nonlinear frequency conversion occurring in the considered class of structures. This approach provides a complete description of the physical origin of the second-harmonic light generation in the system, as well as the optimization of the light intensity in any arbitrary direction. Our numerical results show how the second-harmonic light is influenced by both the disorder in the structure and the boundaries of the crystal. Particularly, we find that the net result from the interplay between disorder and boundary effects is strongly dependent on the dimensions of the crystal and the observation direction. Remarkably, our calculations also show that although in general the maximum possible enhancement of the second-order light is the same as the one corresponding to linear light scattering in turbid media, in the Cerenkov phase matching direction the enhancement can exceed the linear limit. The theoretical analysis presented in this work expands the current understanding of light control in complex media and could contribute to the development of a new class of imaging and focusing techniques based on nonlinear frequency mixing in random optical materials.
We put forward a versatile and highly scalable experimental setup for the realization of discrete two-dimensional quantum random walks with a single-qubit coin and tunable degree of decoherence. The proposed scheme makes use of a small number of simple optical components arranged in a multipath Mach-Zehnder-like configuration, where a weak coherent state is injected. Environmental effects (decoherence) are generated by a spatial light modulator, which introduces pure dephasing in the transverse spatial plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the light beam. By controlling the characteristics of this dephasing, one can explore a great variety of scenarios of quantum random walks: pure quantum evolution (ballistic spread), fast fluctuating environment leading to a diffusive classical random walk, and static disorder resulting in the observation of Anderson localization.
We put forward a versatile and highly scalable experimental setup for the realization of discrete two-dimensional quantum random walks with a single-qubit coin and tunable degree of decoherence. The proposed scheme makes use of a small number of simple optical components arranged in a multipath Mach-Zehnder-like configuration, where a weak coherent state is injected. Environmental effects (decoherence) are generated by a spatial light modulator, which introduces pure dephasing in the transverse spatial plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the light beam. By controlling the characteristics of this dephasing, one can explore a great variety of scenarios of quantum random walks: pure quantum evolution (ballistic spread), fast fluctuating environment leading to a diffusive classical random walk, and static disorder resulting in the observation of Anderson localization
By making use of the spatial shape of paired photons, parametric down-conversion allows the generation of
two-photon entanglement in a multidimensional Hilbert space. How much entanglement can be generated in
this way? In principle, the infinite-dimensional nature of the spatial degree of freedom renders unbounded the
amount of entanglement available. However, in practice, the specific configuration used, namely, its geometry,
the length of the nonlinear crystal, and the size of the pump beam, can severely limit the value that could be
achieved. Here we show that the use of quasi-phase-matching engineering allows one to increase the amount of
entanglement generated, reaching values of tens of ebits of entropy of entanglement under different conditions.
Our work thus opens a way to fulfill the promise of generating massive spatial entanglement under a diverse
variety of circumstances, some more favorable for its experimental implementation
By making use of the spatial shape of paired photons, parametric down-conversion allows the generation of two-photon entanglement in a multidimensional Hilbert space. How much entanglement can be generated in this way? In principle, the infinite-dimensional nature of the spatial degree of freedom renders unbounded the amount of entanglement available. However, in practice, the specific configuration used, namely, its geometry, the length of the nonlinear crystal, and the size of the pump beam, can severely limit the value that could be achieved. Here we show that the use of quasi-phase-matching engineering allows one to increase the amount of entanglement generated, reaching values of tens of ebits of entropy of entanglement under different conditions. Our work thus opens a way to fulfill the promise of generating massive spatial entanglement under a diverse variety of circumstances, some more favorable for its experimental implementation.
We study experimentally the dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with polarization-rotated (PR) optical feedback, such that the natural lasing polarization of a VCSEL is rotated by 90 deg and then is reinjected into the laser. We observe noisy, square-wave-like polarization switchings with periodicity slightly longer than twice the delay time, which degrade to (or alternate with) bursts of irregular oscillations. We present results of simulations that are in good agreement with the observations. The simulations demonstrate that close to threshold the regular switching is very sensitive to noise, while well above threshold is less affected by the noise strength. The frequency splitting between the two polarizations plays a key role in the switching regularity, and we identify wide parameter regions where deterministic and robust switching can be observed.
We use microscopic many-body theory to analyze the problem of itinerant ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas of hard spheres. Using simple arguments we show that the available theoretical predictions for the onset of the ferromagnetic transition predict a transition point at a density (kF a ∼ 1) that is too large to be compatible with the universal low-density expansion of the energy. We present variational calculations for the hard-sphere Fermi gas, in the framework of Fermi hypernetted chain theory, that shift the transition to higher densities (kF a ∼ 1.8). Backflow correlations, which are mainly active in the unpolarized system, are essential for this shift.
We unveil the relationship existing between the temperature of an ensemble of three-level atoms in a
configuration, and the width of the emission cone of Stokes photons that are spontaneously emitted when atoms
are excited by an optical pulse. This relationship, which is based on the amount of which-way information available
about where the Stokes photon originated during the interaction, allows us to put forward a scheme to determine
the temperature of atomic clouds by measuring the width of the emission cone. Unlike the commonly used
time-of-flight measurements, with this technique, the atomic cloud is not destroyed during each measurement.
We reveal that the competition among diffraction, cubic nonlinearity, two-photon absorption, and gain localized in both space and time results in arrest of collapse, suppression of azimuthal modulation instabilities for spatiotemporal wave packets, and formation of stable three-dimensional light bullets. We show that Gaussian spatiotemporal gain landscapes support bright, fundamental light bullets, while gain landscapes featuring a ringlike spatial and a Gaussian temporal shapes may support stable vortex bullets carrying topological phase dislocations.
We report experimental evidence of bistable phase locking in nonlinear optics, in particular, in a photorefractive
oscillator emitting in few transverse modes. Bistable phase locking is a recently proposed method for converting
a laserlike system, which is phase invariant, into a phase-bistable one by injecting a suitable spatially modulated
monochromatic beam, resonant with the laser emission, into the optical cavity. We experimentally demonstrate
that the emission on the fundamental TEM00 mode becomes phase bistable by injection of a beam with the shape
of the TEM10 mode with appropriate frequency, in accordance with recent theoretical predictions [K. Staliunas
et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 025801 (2009)]. The experimental observations are supported by an analytical study of a
few-transverse-mode photorefractive oscillator model.
We show the existence of stable two- and three-dimensional vortex solitons carrying multiple, spatially separated, single-charge topological dislocations nested in a common vortex-ring core. Such nonlinear states are supported by elliptical gain landscapes in focusing nonlinear media with two-photon absorption. The separation between the phase dislocations is dictated mostly by the geometry of the gain landscape, and it only slightly changes upon variation of the gain or absorption strength.
We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of bosons interacting via screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential
by means of the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The Yukawa potential is used as a model interaction in the
neutron matter, dusty plasmas, and charged colloids. As shown by Petrov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 130407
(2007)], interactions between weakly bound molecules of heavy and light fermionic atoms are described by
an effective Yukawa potential with a strength related to the heavy-light mass ratio M/m, which might lead to
crystallization in a two-dimensional geometry if the mass ratio of heavy-light fermions exceeds a certain critical
value. In the present work we do a thorough study of the quantum three-dimensional Yukawa system. For strong
interactions (equivalently, large mass ratios) the system experiences several phase transitions as the density is
increased, passing from gas to solid and to gas phase again.Weakly interacting Yukawa particles do not crystallize
at any density. We find the minimal interaction strength at which the crystallization happens. In terms of the
two-component fermionic system, this strength corresponds to a heavy-light mass ratio of M/m ∼ 180, so that
it is impossible to realize the gas-crystal transition in a conventional bulk system. For the Yukawa model of
fermionic mixtures we also analyze the possibility of building molecular systems with very large effective mass
ratios by confining the heavy component to a sufficiently deep optical lattice. We show how the effective mass
of the heavy component can be made arbitrarily large by increasing the lattice depth, thus leading to a tunable
effective mass ratio that can be used to realize a molecular superlattice.
A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of
the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of
the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.