IEEE User-facing services deployed in data centers must respond quickly to user actions. The measurement of network latencies is of paramount importance. Recently, a new family of compact data structures has been proposed to estimate one-way latencies. In order to achieve scalability, these new methods rely on timestamp aggregation. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from serious accuracy problems in the presence of packet loss and reordering, given that a single lost or out-of-order packet may invalidate a huge number of aggregated samples. In this paper, we unify the problem to detect lost and reordered packets within the set reconciliation framework. Although the set reconciliation approach and the data structures for aggregating packet timestamps are previously known, the combination of these two principles is novel. We present a space-efficient synopsis called reconcilable difference aggregator (RDA). RDA maximizes the percentage of useful packets for latency measurement by mapping packets to multiple banks and repairing aggregated samples that have been damaged by lost and reordered packets. RDA simultaneously obtains the average and the standard deviation of the latency. We provide a formal guarantee of the performance and derive optimized parameters. We further design and implement a user-space passive latency measurement system that addresses practical issues of integrating RDA into the network stack. Our extensive evaluation shows that compared with existing methods, our approach improves the relative error of the average latency estimation in 10-15 orders of magnitude, and the relative error of the standard deviation in 0.5-6 orders of magnitude.
An important challenge of modern data centers is to reduce energy consumption, of which a substantial proportion is due to the network. Switches and NICs supporting the recent energy efficient Ethernet (EEE) standard are now available, but current practice is to disable EEE in production use, since its effect on real world application performance is poorly understood. This paper contributes to this discussion by analyzing the impact of EEE on MapReduce workloads, in terms of performance overheads and energy savings. MapReduce is the central programming model of Apache Hadoop, one of the most widely used application frameworks in modern data centers. We find that, while 1GbE links (edge links) achieve good energy savings using the standard EEE implementation, optimum energy savings in the 10 GbE links (aggregation and core links) are only possible, if these links employ packet coalescing. Packet coalescing must, however, be carefully configured in order to avoid excessive performance degradation. With our new analysis of how the static parameters of packet coalescing perform under different cluster loads, we were able to cover both idle and heavy load periods that can exist on this type of environment. Finally, we evaluate our recommendation for packet coalescing for 10 GbE links using the energy-delay metric. This paper is an extension of our previous work , which was published in the Proceedings of the 40th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2015).
Shafigh, A.; Lorenzo, B.; Glisic, S.; Perez-Romero, J.; DaSilva, L.; MacKenzie, A.; Röning, J. IEEE-ACM transactions on networking Vol. 24, num. 2, p. 717-730 DOI: 10.1109/TNET.2014.2383437 Data de publicació: 2016-04 Article en revista
A new paradigm in wireless network access is presented and analyzed. In this concept, certain classes of wireless terminals can be turned temporarily into an access point (AP) anytime while connected to the Internet. This creates a dynamic network architecture (DNA) since the number and location of these APs vary in time. In this paper, we present a framework to optimize different aspects of this architecture. First, the dynamic AP association problem is addressed with the aim to optimize the network by choosing the most convenient APs to provide the quality-of-service (QoS) levels demanded by the users with the minimum cost. Then, an economic model is developed to compensate the users for serving as APs and, thus, augmenting the network resources. The users' security investment is also taken into account in the AP selection. A preclustering process of the DNA is proposed to keep the optimization process feasible in a high dense network. To dynamically reconfigure the optimum topology and adjust it to the traffic variations, a new specific encoding of genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. Numerical results show that GA can provide the optimum topology up to two orders of magnitude faster than exhaustive search for network clusters, and the improvement significantly increases with the cluster size.
Oller, J.; Demirkol, I.; Casademont, J.; Paradells, J.; Gamm, G.U.; Reindl, L. IEEE-ACM transactions on networking Vol. 24, num. 2, p. 674-687 DOI: 10.1109/TNET.2014.2387314 Data de publicació: 2016-04-01 Article en revista
Duty-cycled Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols certainly improve the energy efficiency of wireless networks. However, most of these protocols still suffer from severe degrees of overhearing and idle listening. These two issues prevent optimum energy usage, a crucial aspect in energy-constrained wireless networks such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wake-up radio (WuR) systems drastically reduce these problems by completely switching off the nodes' microcontroller unit (MCU) and main radio transceiver until a secondary, extremely low-power receiver is triggered by a particular wireless transmission, the so called wake-up call. Unfortunately, most WuR studies focus on theoretical platforms and/or custom-built simulators. Both these factors reduce the associated usefulness of the obtained results. In this paper, we model and simulate a real, recent, and promising WuR hardware platform developed by the authors. The simulation model uses time and energy consumption values obtained in the laboratory and does not rely on custom-built simulation engines, but rather on the OMNET++ simulator. The performance of the WuR platform is compared to four of the most well-known and widely employed MAC protocols for WSN under three real-world network deployments. The paper demonstrates how the use of our WuR platform presents numerous benefits in several areas, from energy efficiency and latency to packet delivery ratio and applicability, and provides the essential information for serious consideration of switching duty-cycled MAC-based networks to WuR.
Coras, F.; Domingo, J.; Lewis, D.; Albert Cabellos-Aparicio IEEE-ACM transactions on networking Vol. 24, num. 1, p. 506-516 DOI: 10.1109/TNET.2014.2373398 Data de publicació: 2016-02 Article en revista
Concerns regarding the scalability of the interdomain routing have encouraged researchers to start elaborating a more robust Internet architecture. While consensus on the exact form of the solution is yet to be found, the need for a semantic decoupling of a node's location and identity is generally accepted as a promising way forward. However, this typically requires the use of caches that store temporal bindings between the two namespaces, to avoid hampering router packet forwarding speeds. In this article, we propose a methodology for an analytical analysis of cache performance that relies on the working-set theory. We first identify the conditions that network traffic must comply with for the theory to be applicable and then develop a model that predicts average cache miss rates relying on easily measurable traffic parameters. We validate the result by emulation, using real packet traces collected at the egress points of a campus and an academic network. To prove its versatility, we extend the model to consider cache polluting user traffic and observe that simple, low intensity attacks drastically reduce performance, whereby manufacturers should either overprovision router memory or implement more complex cache eviction policies.
Abadal, S.; Iannazzo, M.; Nemirovsky, M.; Albert Cabellos-Aparicio; Lee, H.; Alarcon, E. IEEE-ACM transactions on networking Vol. 23, num. 5 DOI: 10.1109/TNET.2014.2332271 Data de publicació: 2014-07-02 Article en revista
Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) are emerging as the way
to interconnect the processing cores and the memory within
a chip multiprocessor. As recent years have seen a significant
increase in the number of cores per chip, it is crucial to guarantee
the scalability of NoCs in order to avoid communication to
become the next performance bottleneck in multicore processors.
Among other alternatives, the concept of Wireless Network-on-
Chip (WNoC) has been proposed, wherein on-chip antennas
would provide native broadcast capabilities leading to enhanced
network performance. Since energy consumption and chip area
are the two primary constraints, this work is aimed to explore
the area and energy implications of scaling a WNoC in terms of
(a) the number of cores within the chip, and (b) the capacity of
each link in the network. To this end, an integral design space
exploration is performed, covering implementation aspects (area
and energy), communication aspects (link capacity) and networklevel
considerations (number of cores and network architecture).
The study is entirely based upon analytical models, which will
allow to benchmark the WNoC scalability against a baseline
NoC. Eventually, this investigation will provide qualitative and
quantitative guidelines for the design of future transceivers for
wireless on-chip communication.
Immediate reservation (IR) and advance reservation (AR) are the two main reservation mechanisms currently implemented on large-scale scientific optical networks. They can be used to satisfy both provisioning delay and low blocking for delay-tolerant applications. Therefore, it seems reasonable that future optical network provisioning systems will provide both mechanisms in hybrid IR/AR scenarios. Nonetheless, such scenarios can increase the blocking of IR if no quality-of-service (QoS) policies are implemented. A solution could be to quantify such blocking performance based on the current network load and implement mechanisms that would act accordingly. However, current blocking analytical models are not able to deal with both IR and AR. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to
compute the network-wide blocking performance of different IR/AR classes within the scope of a multiservice framework for optical wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks. Specifically, we calculate the blocking on two common optical network scenarios using the fixed-point approximation analysis: on wavelength conversion capable and wavelength-continuity constrained networks. Performance results show that our model provides good accuracy compared to simulation results, even in a scenario with multiple reservation classes defined by different book-ahead times.