Gordun, E.; del Valle, LJ.; Ginovart, M.; Carbó, R. Food science and technology international Vol. 21, num. 6, p. 428-439 DOI: 10.1177/1082013214543033 Data de publicació: 2015-09-01 Article en revista
The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid. In all sourdoughs, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased during processing and were the dominant microorganisms (>1E+8 CFU/g). GS, as well as AS, had high diversity of LAB species. In ripe YS, Pediococcus pentosaceus was the only species identified; in GS and AS, several Lactobacilli were also found, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis, and Lb. sakei; in addition, in GS Weisella cibaria also appeared. Regarding the yeast population, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from GS and AS showed a very high specific population (>1E+7 CFU/g), but this was reduced in ripe sourdough (<1E+4 CFU/g). Finally, the Saccharomyces group dominated in all sourdoughs. Starting ingredients or raw material provided microbiological specificity to sourdoughs, and grape could be considered one of them.
The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid
Gulfo, R.; Auleda, J.; Moreno, F.; Ruiz, Y.; Hernandez, E.; Raventos, M. Food science and technology international Vol. 20, num. 6, p. 405-419 DOI: 10.1177/1082013213489127 Data de publicació: 2014-09-01 Article en revista
The retention of solutes in the ice formed in a falling-film freeze concentrator (multi-plate freeze-concentrator) was analysed. Solutions of fructose, glucose and sucrose and a simulated juice with initial concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees Brix were freeze concentrated. The ice produced in the four steps of the process retains solutes at levels of 1.0-8.8 degrees Brix (expressed as solute mass fraction in the ice). The recovery of these solutes during thawing can increase overall system efficiency. All thawing steps were carried out dividing the sample in 10 fractions at 20 degrees C. The first thawed fractions showed solute concentrations that were 1.9-3.3 times higher than the mean solute mass fraction in the ice, while the last fractions of ice showed very low levels of retained solutes, less than 0.2 times the mean solute mass fraction in the ice. It was found that fractionated thawing can recover most of the solute content in the ice. The procedure presented in the present study allows the determination of the solute concentration achieved in the various thawing fractions and predicts the thawing time required for a given form factor, melting temperature and initial solute mass fraction in the ice.
Sanchez, J.; Ruiz, Y.; Auleda, J.; Hernandez, E.; Raventos, M. Food science and technology international Vol. 15, num. 4, p. 303-315 DOI: 10.1177/1082013209344267 Data de publicació: 2009-08 Article en revista