This paper aims to address the numerical simulation of additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The numerical results are compared with the experimental campaign carried out at State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing laboratories, where a laser solid forming machine, also referred to as laser engineered net shaping, is used to fabricate metal parts directly from computer-aided design models. Ti-6Al-4V metal powder is injected into the molten pool created by a focused, high-energy laser beam and a layer of added material is sinterized according to the laser scanning pattern specified by the user.
The numerical model adopts an apropos finite element (FE) activation technology, which reproduces the same scanning pattern set for the numerical control system of the AM machine. This consists of a complex sequence of polylines, used to define the contour of the component, and hatches patterns to fill the inner section. The full sequence is given through the common layer interface format, a standard format for different manufacturing processes such as rapid prototyping, shape metal deposition or machining processes, among others. The result is a layer-by-layer metal deposition which can be used to build-up complex structures for components such as turbine blades, aircraft stiffeners, cooling systems or medical implants, among others.
Ad hoc FE framework for the numerical simulation of the AM process by metal deposition is introduced. Description of the calibration procedure adopted is presented.
The objectives of this paper are twofold: firstly, this work is intended to calibrate the software for the numerical simulation of the AM process, to achieve high accuracy. Secondly, the sensitivity of the numerical model to the process parameters and modeling data is analyzed.
This paper aims to present a new methodology to manufacture micro-channels suitable for high operating pressures and micro particle image velocimetry (µPIV) measurements using a rapid-prototyping high-resolution 3D printer. This methodology can fabricate channels down to 250 µm and withstand pressures of up to 5 ± 0.2 MPa. The manufacturing times are much shorter than in soft lithography processes.
The novel manufacturing method developed takes advantage of the recently improved resolution in 3D printers to manufacture an rapid prototyping technique part that contains the hose connections and a micro-channel useful for microfluidics. A method to assemble one wall of the micro-channel using UV curable glue with a glass slide is presented – an operation required to prepare the channel for µPIV measurements. Once built, the micro-channel has been evaluated when working under pressure and the grease flow behavior in it has been measured using µPIV. Furthermore, the minimum achievable channels have been defined using a confocal microscopy study.
This technique is much faster than previous micro-manufacturing techniques where different steps were needed to obtain the micro-machined parts. However, due to current 3D printers ' resolutions (around 50 µm) and according to the experimental results, channels smaller than 250-µm2 cross-section should not be used to characterize fluid flow behaviors, as inaccuracies in the channel boundaries can deeply affect the fluid flow behavior.
The present methodology is developed due to the need to validate micro-channels using µPIV to lubricate critical components (bearings and gears) in wind turbines.
This novel micro-manufacturing technique overcomes current techniques, as it requires less manufacturing steps and therefore it is faster and with less associated costs to manufacture micro-channels down to 250-µm2 cross-section that can withstand pressures higher than 5 MPa that can be used to characterize microfluidic flow behavior using µPIV.