This paper investigates the effects of surface roughness on the flow past a circular cylinder at subcritical to transcritical Reynolds numbers. Large eddy simulations of the flow for sand grain roughness of size k/D = 0.02 are performed (D is the cylinder diameter). Results show that surface roughness triggers the transition to turbulence in the boundary layer at all Reynolds numbers, thus leading to an early separation caused by the increased momentum deficit, especially at transcritical Reynolds numbers. Even at subcritical Reynolds numbers, boundary layer instabilities are triggered in the roughness sublayer and eventually lead to the transition to turbulence. The early separation at transcritical Reynolds numbers leads to a wake topology similar to that of the subcritical regime, resulting in an increased drag coefficient and lower Strouhal number. Turbulent statistics in the wake are also affected by roughness; the Reynolds stresses are larger due to the increased turbulent kinetic energy production in the boundary layer and separated shear layers close to the cylinder shoulders.
In the context of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solely for the momentum
transport equation there may be found several models for the turbulent subgrid fluxes. Furthermore, among those relying on the eddy diffusivity approach, each model may be based on different invariants of the strain rate. Besides, when heat and mass transfer are also considered, closures for the subgrid turbulent scalar fluxes are also required. Hence, different model combinations may be considered. Additionally, when other physical phenomena are included, such as combustion, further subgrid modelling is involved. Therefore, in the present study a LES simulation of a turbulent diffusion flame is performed and different combination of subgrid models are used in order to analyse the numerical effects in the simulations. Several models for the turbulent momentum subgrid fluxes are considered, both constant and dynamically evaluated Schmidt numbers. Regarding combustion, in the context of the Flamelet/Progress-Variable (FPV) model, with an assumed probability density function for the turbulent-chemistry interactions and four different closures for the subgrid mixture fraction variance are considered. Hence, a large number of model combinations are possible. The present study highlights the need for a consistent closure of subgrid effects. It is shown that, in the context of an FPV modelling, incorrect capture of subgrid mixing results in a flame lift-off for the studied flame (DLR A diffusion flame), even though experimentally an attached flame was reported. It is found that a consistent formulation is required, that is, all subgrid closures should become active in the same regions of the domain to avoid modelling inconsistencies. In contrast, when the classical flamelet approach is used, no lift-off is observed. The reason is that the classical flamelet includes only a limited subset of the possible flame states, i.e. only includes burning flamelets and extinguished flamelets for scalar dissipation rates past the extinction one.
This is a copy of the author 's final draft version of an article published in the journal Flow turbulence and combustion. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10494-017-9813-2