Experiments on single ionic channels have contributed to a large extent to our current view on the function of cell membrane. In these experiments the main observables are the physical quantities: ionic concentration, membrane electrostatic potential and ionic fluxes, all of them presenting large fluctuations. The classical theory of Goldman–Hodking–Katz assumes that an open channel can be well described by a physical pore where ions follow statistical physics. Nevertheless real molecular channels are active pores with open and close dynamical states. By skipping the molecular complexity of real channels, here we present the internal structure and calibration of two active pore models. These models present a minimum set of degrees of freedom, specifically ion positions and gate states, which follow Langevin equations constructed from a unique potential energy functional and by using standard rules of statistical physics. Numerical simulations of both models are implemented and the results show that they have dynamical properties very close to those observed in experiments of Na and K molecular channels. In particular a significant effect of the external ion concentration on gating dynamics is predicted, which is consistent with previous experimental observations. This approach can be extended to other channel types with more specific phenomenology.
We study the causes of anomalous dispersion in Darcy-scale porous media characterized by spatially heterogeneous hydraulic properties. Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity leads to spatial variability in the flow properties through Darcy’s law and thus impacts on solute and particle transport. We consider purely advective transport in heterogeneity scenarios characterized by broad distributions of heterogeneity length scales and point values. Particle transport is characterized in terms of the stochastic properties of equidistantly sampled Lagrangian velocities, which are determined by the flow and conductivity statistics. The persistence length scales of flow and transport velocities are imprinted in the spatial disorder and reflect the distribution of heterogeneity length scales. Particle transitions over the velocity length scales are kinematically coupled with the transition time through velocity. We show that the average particle motion follows a coupled continuous time random walk (CTRW), which is fully parameterized by the distribution of flow velocities and the medium geometry in terms of the heterogeneity length scales. The coupled CTRW provides a systematic framework for the investigation of the origins of anomalous dispersion in terms of heterogeneity correlation and the distribution of conductivity point values. We derive analytical expressions for the asymptotic scaling of the moments of the spatial particle distribution and first arrival time distribution (FATD), and perform numerical particle tracking simulations of the coupled CTRW to capture the full average transport behavior. Broad distributions of heterogeneity point values and lengths scales may lead to very similar dispersion behaviors in terms of the spatial variance. Their mechanisms, however are very different, which manifests in the distributions of particle positions and arrival times, which plays a central role for the prediction of the fate of dissolved substances in heterogeneous natural and engineered porous materials.
The static properties of the fundamental model for epidemics of diseases allowing immunity (susceptible-infected-removed model) are known to be derivable by an exact mapping to bond percolation. Yet when performing numerical simulations of these dynamics in a network a number of subtleties must be taken into account in order to correctly estimate the transition point and the associated critical properties. We expose these subtleties and identify the different quantities which play the role of criticality detector in the two dynamics.
We investigate the dynamic relaxation of random walks on temporal networks by focusing in the recently proposed activity driven model [N. Perra, B. Gon, calves, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani, Sci. Rep. 2, 469 (2012)]. For realistic activity distributions with a power-law form, we observe the presence of a very slow relaxation dynamics compatible with aging effects. A theoretical description of this processes in achieved by means of a mapping to Bouchaud's trap model. The mapping highlights the profound difference in the dynamics of the random walks according to the value of the exponent gamma in the activity distribution.
Many sociological networks, as well as biological and technological ones, can be represented in terms of complex networks with a heterogeneous connectivity pattern. Dynamical processes taking place on top of them can be very much influenced by this topological fact. In this paper we consider a paradigmatic model of non-equilibrium dynamics, namely the forest fire model, whose relevance lies in its capacity to represent several epidemic processes in a general parametrization. We study the behavior of this model in complex networks by developing the corresponding heterogeneous mean-field theory and solving it in its steady state. We provide exact and approximate expressions for homogeneous networks and several instances of heterogeneous networks. A comparison of our analytical results with extensive numerical simulations allows to draw the region of the parameter space in which heterogeneous mean-field theory provides an accurate description of the dynamics, and enlights the limits of validity of the mean-field theory in situations where dynamical correlations become important.
We show that Information Theory quantifiers are suitable tools for detecting and for quantifying noise-induced temporal correlations in stochastic resonance phenomena. We use the Bandt & Pompe (BP) method [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174102 (2002)] to define a probability distribution, P, that fully characterizes temporal correlations. The BP method is based on a comparison of neighboring values, and here is applied to the temporal sequence of residence-time intervals generated by the paradigmatic model of a Brownian particle in a sinusoidally modulated bistable potential. The probability distribution P generated via the BP method has associated a normalized Shannon entropy, H[P], and a statistical complexity measure, C[P], which is defined as proposed by Rosso et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 154102 (2007)]. The statistical complexity quantifies not only randomness but also the presence of correlational structures, the two extreme circumstances of maximum knowledge (“perfect order") and maximum ignorance (“complete randomness") being regarded an “trivial", and in consequence, having complexity C = 0. We show that both, H and C, display resonant features as a function of the noise intensity, i.e., for an optimal level of noise the entropy displays a minimum and the complexity, a maximum. This resonant behavior indicates noise-enhanced temporal correlations in the sequence of residence-time intervals. The methodology proposed here has great potential for the precise detection of subtle signatures of noise-induced temporal correlations in real-world complex signals.
We study a network of coupled logistic maps whose interactions occur with a certain distribution of delay times. The local dynamics is chaotic in the absence of coupling and thus the network is a paradigm of a complex system. There are two regimes of synchronization, depending on the distribution of delays: when the delays are sufficiently heterogeneous the network synchronizes on a steady-state (that is unstable for the uncoupled maps); when the delays are homogeneous, it synchronizes in a time-dependent state (that is either periodic or chaotic). Using two global indicators we quantify the synchronizability on the two regimes, focusing on the roles of the network connectivity and the topology. The connectivity is measured in terms of the average number of links per node, and we consider various topologies (scale-free, small-world, star, and nearest-neighbor with and without a central hub). With weak connectivity and weak coupling strength, the network displays an irregular oscillatory dynamics that is largely independent of the topology and of the delay distribution. With heterogeneous delays, we find a threshold connectivity level below which the network does not synchronize, regardless of the network size. This minimum average number of neighbors seems to be independent of the delay distribution. We also analyze the effect of self-feedback loops and find that they have an impact on the synchronizability of small networks with large coupling strengths. The influence of feedback, enhancing or degrading synchronization, depends on the topology and on the distribution of delays.
Words in humans follow the so-called Zipf's law. More precisely, the word frequency spectrum follows a power function, whose typical exponent is ß ˜ 2, but significant variations are found. We hypothesize that the full range of variation reflects our ability to balance the goal of communication, i.e. maximizing the information transfer and the cost of communication, imposed by the limitations of the human brain. We show that the higher the importance of satisfying the goal of communication, the higher the exponent. Here, assuming that words are used according to their meaning we explain why variation in ß should be limited to a particular domain. From the one hand, we explain a non-trivial lower bound at about ß = 1.6 for communication systems neglecting the goal of the communication. From the other hand, we find a sudden divergence of ß if a certain critical balance is crossed. At the same time a sharp transition to maximum information transfer and unfortunately, maximum communication cost, is found. Consistently with the upper bound of real exponents, the maximum finite value predicted is about ß = 2.4. It is convenient, for human language not to cross the transition and remain in a domain where maximum information transfer is high but at a reasonable cost. Therefore, only a particular range of exponents should be found in human speakers. The exponent ß contains information about the balance between cost and communicative efficiency.