Verborgh, R.; Arndt, D.; Van Hoecke, S.; De Roo, J.; Mels, G.; Steiner, T.; Gabarro, J. Theory and practice of logic programming Vol. 17, num. 1, p. 1-48 DOI: 10.1017/S1471068416000016 Data de publicació: 2017-01-01 Article en revista
Machine clients are increasingly making use of the Web to perform tasks. While Web services traditionally mimic remote procedure calling interfaces, a new generation of so-called hypermedia APIs works through hyperlinks and forms, in a way similar to how people browse the Web. This means that existing composition techniques, which determine a procedural plan upfront, are not sufficient to consume hypermedia APIs, which need to be navigated at runtime. Clients instead need a more dynamic plan that allows them to follow hyperlinks and use forms with a preset goal. Therefore, in this paper, we show how compositions of hypermedia APIs can be created by generic Semantic Web reasoners. This is achieved through the generation of a proof based on semantic descriptions of the APIs' functionality. To pragmatically verify the applicability of compositions, we introduce the notion of pre-execution and post-execution proofs. The runtime interaction between a client and a server is guided by proofs but driven by hypermedia, allowing the client to react to the application's actual state indicated by the server's response. We describe how to generate compositions from descriptions, discuss a computer-assisted process to generate descriptions, and verify reasoner performance on various composition tasks using a benchmark suite. The experimental results lead to the conclusion that proof-based consumption of hypermedia APIs is a feasible strategy at Web scale.
In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete, and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses, which are able to capture incomplete information and states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answer sets and the proof theory of possibilistic logic is defined. It shows that this possibilistic semantics for disjunctive logic programs can be characterized by a fixed-point operator. It is also shown that the suggested possibilistic semantics can be computed by a resolution algorithm and the consideration of optimal refutations from a possibilistic logic theory. In order to manage inconsistent possibilistic logic programs, a preference criterion between inconsistent possibilistic models is defined. In addition, the approach of cuts for restoring consistency of an inconsistent possibilistic knowledge base is adopted. The approach is illustrated in a medical scenario.
Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF.
In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by working on representing the defeated arguments. Then we show how to infer the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by using UNSAT algorithms and disjunctive stable model solvers. The relevance of this result is that we define a direct relationship between one of the most satisfactory argumentation semantics and one of the most successful approach of nonmonotonic reasoning i.e., logic programming with the stable model semantics.