Properties related with the charge storage capacity have been evaluated for three-layered films made with two sheets of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) separated by a sheet of poly(N-methylpyrrole) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-N-methylpyrrole) (3l-PEDOT/PNMPy or 3l-PEDOT/P(EDOT-co-NMPy), respectively). The most distinctive trend of the copolymer, which shows electrochemical properties intermediate between those of the two homopolymers, is the formation of a biphasic structure, EDOT- and NMPy-rich blocks organizing separately. The ability to exchange charge reversibly is higher for 3l-PEDOT/P(EDOT-co-NMPy) than for 3l-PEDOT/PNMPy, the electroactivity and electrostability of such two 3-layered films being significantly better than that of single-layered PEDOT. Advantages of 3l-PEDOT/P(EDOT-co-NMPy) are mainly based on the nanophase-segregated structure of the copolymer. Thus, the intermediate layer can be considered as random disposition of ultrathin dielectrics having nanometric length and width. In terms of charge storage, the intermediate layer of 3l-PEDOT/P(EDOT-co-NMPy) can be viewed as a thin reservoir filled of heterogeneously distributed nanometric supercapacitors that are connected in series among them and in parallel to the PEDOT layers. The superiority of 3l-PEDOT/P(EDOT-co-NMPy) as organic electrochemical supercapacitor compared to other 3-layered systems, has been proved by powering a red LED bulb.
Galindo , S.; Ahmadpour, M.; Guerling, L.; Marsal, A.; Voz, C.; Alcubilla, R.; Puigdollers, J. Organic electronics Vol. 15, num. 10, p. 2553-2560 DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2014.07.011 Data de publicació: 2014-10-01 Article en revista
Open-circuit voltages are strongly dependent on the density-of-states in solar cells based on disordered semiconductors. In this work, organic solar cells based on tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene and fullerene C-70 with a bilayer structure were fabricated to investigate the variation in the density-of-states with the substrate temperature during deposition of the donor. The maximum open circuit voltage was reached at a substrate temperature of 60 degrees C. Organic thin-film transistors were also fabricated to study their electrical properties, such as the mobility and the density-of-states. Finally, an organic solar cell with p-i-n structure was fabricated at the optimized substrate temperature, and a power conversion efficiency of almost 4% was obtained. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pfattner, R.; Moreno, C.; Voz, C.; Alcubilla, R.; Rovira, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Mas, M. Organic electronics Vol. 1199, num. 15, p. 211-215 DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2013.10.026 Data de publicació: 2014-01 Article en revista
The understanding of the charge carrier transport in electronic materials is of crucial interest for the design of efficient devices including especially the restraints that arise from device miniaturization. In this work the performance of organic thin-film and single crystal field-effect transistors with the same active material was studied in detail focusing on the high current density regime, where a pronounced non-hysteretic maximum in the transconductance was found. Interestingly, in this operation mode for both, thin films and single crystals, comparable densities of free and gate-induced charge carriers were estimated. Kelvin probe microscopy was used to measure the contact potential difference and the electrical field along the transistor channel during device operation exhibiting the formation of local space charges in the high current density regime.
Aradilla, D.; Pérez-Madrigal, M.M.; Estrany, F.; Azambuja, D.; Iribarren, J.; Aleman, C. Organic electronics Vol. 14, num. 6, p. 1483-1495 DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2013.03.010 Data de publicació: 2013-06 Article en revista
Symmetric ultracapacitors have been fabricated considering nanometric 3-layered films made of alternated layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (external and internal layers) and polypyrrole (intermediate layer) deposited on steel uncoated and coated with octanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The highest electrochemical and capacitance parameters (i.e. electroactivity, doping level, stored charge, specific capacitance, Coulomb efficiency, energy density and power density) correspond to the ultracapacitor derived from the assembly of 3-layered films deposited on pre-treated steel. Thus, the interface separating the octanethiol monolayer and the most internal layer of the 3-layered film produces a very favorable interaction, which promotes important electrochemical benefits similar to those found for the interfaces in conventional multilayered films. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the steel electrode enhances the roughness and porosity of the film deposited on it, transmitting this effect layer-by-layer. Structural and morphological characteristics, which have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, have been related with the electrochemical and capacitance properties of the ultracapacitors.
Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Asensi, J.M.; Galindo, S.; Cheylan, S.; Pacios, R.; Ortega, P.; Alcubilla, R. Organic electronics Vol. 14, num. 6, p. 1643-1648 DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2013.02.039 Data de publicació: 2013-06 Article en revista
This work studies the charge carrier collection efficiency in organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on polymer:fullerene blends. An equivalent circuit with a specific recombination term is proposed to describe the behavior of this type of devices. It is experimentally shown that this recombination term determines the slope of the current-voltage characteristic at the short-circuit condition. The variation of this dynamic resistance with the light intensity can be interpreted considering a dominant first-order recombination process. Finally, an analytical model under a constant electric field approximation is presented that can be used to calculate the charge carrier collection efficiency of the device. This model can be also used to estimate an effective mobility-lifetime product, which is characteristic of the quality of the active layer.
This work studies the charge carrier collection efficiency in organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on polymer:fullerene blends. An equivalent circuit with a specific recombination term is proposed to describe the behavior of this type of devices. It is experimentally shown that this recombination term determines the slope of the current–voltage characteristic at the short-circuit condition. The variation of this dynamic resistance with the light intensity can be interpreted considering a dominant first-order recombination process. Finally, an analytical model under a constant electric field approximation is presented that can be used to calculate the charge carrier collection efficiency of the device. This model can be also used to estimate an effective mobility–lifetime product, which is characteristic of the quality of the active layer.
Cheylan, S.; Bolink, H.; Fraleoni-Morgera, A.; Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Mencarelli, I.; Setti, L.; Alcubilla, R.; Badenes, G. Organic electronics Vol. 8, num. 6, p. 641-647 Data de publicació: 2007-12 Article en revista
Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Orpella, A.; Quidant, Romain; Martin, I.; Vetter, M.; Alcubilla, R. Organic electronics Vol. 5, num. 1-3, p. 67-71 DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2003.10.002 Data de publicació: 2004-06 Article en revista
Pentacene thin-film transistors have been obtained using polymethyl methacrylate as a gate dielectric. The maximum process temperature was 170 °C, which corresponds to the baking of the polymeric gate dielectric. These devices presented good electrical performances with field-effect mobilities of 0.01 cm2 V-1 s-1 and low threshold voltages (-15 V). Atomic force microscopy studies reveal that the microstructure of pentacene layers is strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the dielectric.