General finite mixture models are powerful tools for the density-based grouping of multivariate i.i.d. data, but they lack data visualization capabilities, which reduces their practical applicability to real-world problems. Generative topographic mapping (GTM) was originally formulated as a constrained mixture of distributions in order to provide simultaneous visualization and clustering of multivariate data. In its inception, the adaptive parameters were determined by maximum likelihood (ML), using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The original GTM is, therefore, prone to data overfitting unless a regularization mechanism is included. In this paper, we define an alternative variational formulation of GTM that provides a full Bayesian treatment to a Gaussian process (GP)-based variation of the model. The generalization capabilities of the proposed Variational Bayesian GTM are assessed in some detail and compared with those of alternative GTM regularization approaches in terms of test log-likelihood, using several artificial and real datasets.
Computational grids are an important emerging paradigm for large-scale distributed computing. As grid systems become more wide-spread, techniques for efficiently exploiting the large amount of grid computing resources become increasingly indispensable. A key aspect in order to benefit from these resources is the scheduling of jobs to grid resources. Due to the complex nature of grid systems, the design of efficient grid schedulers becomes challenging since such schedulers have to be able to optimize many conflicting criteria in very short periods of time. In this work we exploit the capabilities of cellular memetic algorithms (cMAs) for obtaining efficient batch schedulers for grid systems. A careful design of the cMA methods and operators for the problem yielded to an efficient and robust implementation. Our experimental study, based on a known static benchmark for the problem, shows that this heuristic approach is able to deliver very high quality planning of jobs to grid nodes and thus it can be used to design efficient dynamic schedulers for real grid systems. Such dynamic schedulers can be obtained by running the cMA-based scheduler in batch mode for a very short time to schedule jobs arriving to the system since the last activation of the cMA scheduler.
Hurtado, F.; Meijer, H.; Ramaswami, S.; Rappaport, D.; Sacristán, V.; Shermer, T.; Toussaint, G. Journal of mathematical modeling and algorithms Vol. 1, num. 1, p. 3-16 Data de publicació: 2002-02 Article en revista