Chicken feathers waste from poultry industry was incorporated in poly(lactic acid) matrix to obtain an environmental friendly biocomposite taking advantage of the unique properties of chicken feathers, such as low density, biodegradability and good thermal and acoustic properties, and of the biodegradability of the poly(lactic acid). The effect of manufacturing conditions on the final properties of the composite and on the matrix–fiber compatibility was studied. Optimal manufacturing conditions, in order to obtain the best mechanical results, were found at a temperature of 170–180¿ for a processing time of 5¿min and a speed of mixing of 50¿r/min. Young’s modulus was not very affected by the chicken feather’s content showing a maximal variation of less than 8%, indicating that is possible to include chicken feathers in a composite maintaining its stiffness. However, tensile strength and elongation decreased up to 58 and 12%, respectively, when chicken feather content was 25% because of the restraining effect of the fibers. Moreover, dimensional stability was negatively affected with the inclusion of chicken feathers. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies show that fiber–matrix interaction exists but it is weak
The feasibility of using Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS)/ethanol mixtures as a benign solvent to electrospin three types of gelatin was studied. Gelatins with different chemical properties, such as Bloom, were selected and the effect of the gelatin nature and its concentration on the electrospinnability of the dope solution and on the fiber diameter of the electrospun mats were studied. Viscosity of the gelatin solution, which follows a power law relationship with the gelatin concentration, was found to significantly influence the morphology of the mats and the fiber diameter. It was demonstrated that the PBS/ethanol solvent interacted with the gelatins as a good solvent with a Flory exponent of 0.65. In addition, the effect of the solvent composition on the fiber formation process was evaluated corroborating that the ionic strength of the medium and the PBS/ethanol ratio significantly affected the morphology and the diameter of the electrospun fibers. Chemical structure and thermal stability of the electrospun gelatin mats were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, cytotoxicity of the electrospun mats was analyzed by the Alamar Blue assay, using human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-5ta), resulting in a high cell viability (80-90%) regardless the type of gelatin
Chicken feathers are cheap, available and a ubiquitous renewable waste material resulting from the massive production of chicken meat from the aviary industry which is estimated in 925.000 ton/year in EU. Consequently, its abundance and properties suggest that this waste can be re-used as an alternative material versus those natural fibres utilized nowadays such as cellulose based fibres. For these reasons, chicken feathers can be used in some cases in order to develop more environmentally friendly composite materials. The present work proposes a preliminar study regarding the re-valorization of chicken feathers waste (Plu) for the preparation of thermoplastic microcomposite materials with matrixes of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polypropylene (PP) and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA). Specifically, the effect of the particle size of the fibrous keratinic waste on mechanical, physical, morphological and thermal properties was studied in composite materials including a 20%v/v of chicken feathers in random distribution. The waste, once clean and disinfected, was ground and sieved in order to obtain five fractions with different particle size (<100 µm, 100-250 µm, 250-500 µm, 500-1000 µm and 1000 µm). These fractions were used to prepare sheets of composite materials of (160 x 160 x 2 mm3) at pre-established conditions of temperature, time, mixing speed and pressure. Obtained results show that production of composite materials by this process is feasible for all the sizes. On the other hand, mechanical properties of the composite materials HDPE/Plu, PP/Plu y EVA/Plu decrease significantly compared with the values of the neat matrixes. Only Young’s Modulus increases slightly, especially for EVA/Plu composites with a particle size of 100 µm because they present the best adhesion at feather-matrix interface as it has been corroborated by Scanning Electronic Microscopy images. Anyway, in general terms, the study shows a low compatibility between the components what is consistent with the physic-chemical properties of the residue. However, this compatibility could be improved by using proper coupling agents. The composite materials are lightweight materials; their density has not increased, being similar to that of the matrices. Dimensional stability decreases with the size of the feather particles especially for EVA/Plu composites, which show higher water absorption
Les plomes de pollastre son un material de rebuig biogènic, molt abundants, ubico i de baix cost que provenen de l’alta producció de carn de pollastre per part de la indústria avícola que s’estima és a la UE de 950.000 tones/any. Degut a aquesta alta producció s’ha pensat en la possibilitat de reutilzar aquest residus per el desenvolupament de materials compòsits respectuosos amb el medi ambient, com alternativa a d’altres fibres naturals com poden ser les cel·lulòsiques. Aquest treball de recerca planteja una proposta preliminar de revalorització dels residus de ploma de pollastre per a la preparació de materials microcompòsits termoplàstics amb matrius de polietilè d’alta densitat (HDPE), polipropilè (PP), i etilè acetat de vinil (EVA). Concretament s’ha estudiat l’efecte de la grandària del residu queratínic en les propietats mecàniques, físiques, morfològiques i tèrmiques dels materials compòsits obtingudes amb un 20% v/v amb distribució aleatòria. El residu, una vegada rentat i desinfectat, ha esta molturat i garbellat per obtenir cinc fraccions de diferent grandària ((<100μm, 100-250 μm, 250-500 μm, 500-1000 μm y 1000 μm), amb les que s’han preparat plaques de material compòsit de 160 x 160 x 2 mm3 en condicions de temperatura, temps i velocitat de barreja i pressió preestablertes. Els resultats obtinguts han demostrat que es factible tècnicament aconseguir materials compòsits incorporant plomes de diferents grandàries. Tot i això les propietats mecàniques obtingudes en tots el materials analitzats decreixen significativament si les comparem amb les pròpies de les respectives matrius pures. Tan sols el mòdul de Young millora lleugerament, sobretot per el compòsit EVA/Plu amb una grandària de partícula de 100 μm atès que aquest mostra una millor adhesió entre components tal com s’ha corroborat mitjançant SEM (Microscòpia electrònica d’Escombrat). Cal assenyalar que l’estudi mostra una baixa compatibilitat entre els components que és coherent amb les característiques físico-químiques del residu però que podria millorar-se mitjançant la selecció d’agents d’acoblament adequats. La densitat dels materials compòsits és manté en valors semblants a les pròpies de les matrius, per tant es poden aconseguir compòsits lleugers. Tanmateix l’estabilitat dimensional dels compòsits decreix al augmentar la grandària de les partícules de ploma, principalment en els compòsits EVA/Plu que son els que absorbeixen major quantitat d’aigua
The development of reusable dual-purpose nanocomposite foams for catalytic and bactericidal water treatment is reported. Small non-aggregated silver nanoparticles were made using Intermatrix Synthesis inside a polyurethane foam, which was chosen as a suitable polymeric matrix due to its high chemical and mechanical stability and industrial applicability. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposites was evaluated against suspensions of Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), showing ideal bactericidal features for being applied to water disinfection. The catalytic activity of nanocomposites was also evaluated through a model reaction carried out under flow conditions. The possibility of reusing the catalytic material was evaluated in 3 consecutive cycles and, for all of them, no significant loss of efficiency was found. Moreover, the leakage of the active species to the media was evaluated under accelerated ageing conditions (3 h in an ultrasonic bath) and a negligible amount of silver was found outside the matrix. The chemical stability of the as-prepared nanoparticles was also evaluated by XANES and any modification in the chemical structure of silver nanoparticles was detected, even after storing the samples for two years under dry conditions
Domènech, B.; Romero, V.; Vázquez, M.I.; Ávila, M.; Benavente, J.; Muñoz, M.; Macanás, J. RSC advances Vol. 6, num. 12, p. 9923-9931 DOI: 10.1039/C5RA22838G Date of publication: 2016-01-01 Journal article
The particular chemical structure of Nafion with nanostructured and segregated hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains enables its use as a model structure for the manufacture of polymer–Metal nanocomposites. Among such nanocomposites, samples of Nafion-117 containing Ag-NPs of ca.10 nm prepared by Intermatrix Synthesis exhibited a particular distribution in the form of stripes, a regularpattern that could reveal the real morphology of the polymer. To evaluate the potential application of this engineered material (e.g.in electrochemical devices), these new nanocomposite membranes were characterized by different techniques: microscopic, surface chemical analysis, mechanical and electrical/electrochemical. X-ray (XRD and XPS) analyses combined with synchrotron experiments (XANES) were used to determine the chemical speciation of Ag in the membrane. Membrane potential and impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that such Ag-NPs did not hinder the diffusive transport of protons in the membrane bulk, moreover, they slightly reduced the electrical resistance in fully hydrated state samples. The mechanical evaluation of the nanocomposite evidenced a reduction of the elastic character when compared with the unmodified Nafion-117 sample
Nafion is a well-known polymeric material widely used in commercial applications, being the most common material for polymer exchange membranes (PEMs), which can be used in both proton-exchange fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity as well as its good mechanical, chemical and thermal stability. This book studies the properties, structure and applications of Nafion. Chapter one reviews the state-of-the-art of the several models describing Nafion's morphology and provides a wide overview of their implication in the synthesis of NPs. Chapter two discusses separated electrode solutions as a tool to reach closer steady state in isoelectric focusing. Chapter three examines a study on the kinetics of neutralization and exchange reactions of Nafion. Chapter four discusses surface modification of a Nafion membrane due to phenyltrimethylammonium cation doping. Chapter five describes the positioning control method of Au-Nafion IPMC. The last chapter analyzes the progress of multifunctional spin crossover complex film based on Nafion
Nafion is the first and the most well-known and commonly used ionomer membrane, applied nowadays in a broad variety of applications. This wide suitableness comes up in last instance from its chemical structure: a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene backbone containing regularly spaced long perfluorovinyl ether pendant side chains ended by a sulfonic group. It is widely accepted that Nafion self-organizes in a membrane to form hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains in a way that is not yet perfectly understood. Despite there have been several models under debate, the pioneering cluster-network model (in which the polymer chains form reverse micelles with sulfonic groups lined in the wall and encapsulating water cavities) proposed by Gierke et al. is frequently reported in the literature. With the rise of Nanotechnology, a brilliant idea carne up less than two decades ago: the use of hydrated clusters as reactive vessels for the synthesis of a myriad of nanoparticles (NPs). Nevertheless, most of the works ascribed the formation of NPs to the cluster network model although most of the obtained NPs usually displayed diameters above the theoretical size of clusters and channels and that the local distribution of NPs seemed not to follow the original model. Lately, some authors, while studying the formation of NPs inside Nafion matrix, claim that all these disparities suggest that the role played by the flexible morphology of the polymer as well as the role of the solvent swelling the polymer have been oversimplified. Accordingly, this chapter will review the state-of-the-art of the several models describing Nafion's morphology and will provide a wide overview of their implication in the synthesis of NPs
Lahitte, J-F.; Emin, C.; Macanás, J.; Gu, Y.; Remigy, J.; Favier, I.; Gómez, M.; Noble, R.D.; Muñoz, M.; Domènech, B. Euromembrane Conference p. 116 Presentation's date: 2015-09-08 Presentation of work at congresses
Gu, Y.; Emin, C.; Remigy, J.; Favier, I.; Gómez, M.; Noble, R.D.; Gin, D.L.; Macanás, J.; Domènech, B.; Lahitte, J-F. International Conference on Advances in Functional Materials Presentation's date: 2015-06-29 Presentation of work at congresses
The aim of this work is the synthesis of polymer-stabilized Pd nanoparticles inside a functionalized polymeric porous
membrane and to test them in metal-catalyzed organic reactions. A polymeric membrane support (Polyethersulfone)
was functionalized with an ionogen polymer capable of retaining metallic nanoparticles (MNP) or MNP precursors
using a UV photo-grafting method. Membranes were also obtained by casting sulfonated polyethersulfone (Cardotype).
The reactions were carried out by filtering solutions containing the reactants leading to full conversions within
seconds. The amount of PdNP included in the materials and the catalytic activity were influenced by the properties of
the grafted network.
Bin Musidin, A.; Cañavate, J.; Carrillo, F.; Macanás, J.; Lis, M.; Colom, X. Mediterranean Conference on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis p. 177-178 Presentation's date: 2015-06-16 Presentation of work at congresses
In this work the phenomena involved with the microwave devulcanization of ground tyre rubber (GTR) were investigated. During studies three types of GTR characterized by different content of organic compounds (elastomers, plasticizers, etc..), carbon black and ash have been analyzed. The chemical structure of GTR before and after microwave devulcanization process was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, efficiency of microwave devulcanization conducted at different time was evaluated based on the crosslinking density and sol fraction content values. FTIR spectroscopy results shown that devulcanization of GTR causes a decrease in carbon black with generation of CO2 due to its thermo oxidation, a decrease in structural groups of elastomeric components (mainly methylene and methine) and a breaking of C-S groups and S-S bridges. The presented results indicate the strong correlation between content of SiO2 in GTR and its degree of devulcanization. It was observed that GTR with a high content of SiO2 are easier devulcanized than samples with low content of SiO2, which suggest the presence of silica fillers improve microwave devulcanization efficiency
Gelatin fibers were prepared by electrospinning of gelatin/acetic acid/water ternary mixtures with the aim of studying the feasibility of fabricating gelatin nanofiber mats at room temperature using an alternative benign solvent by significantly reducing the acetic acid concentration. The results showed that gelatin nanofibers can be optimally electrospun with low acetic acid concentration (25% v/v) combined with gelatin concentrations higher than 300 mg/ml. Both gelatin solutions and electrospun gelatin mats (prepared with different acetic acid aqueous solutions) were analyzed by FTIR and DSC techniques in order to determine the chemical and structure changes
of the polymer. The electrospun gelatin mats fabricated from solutions with low acetic acid content showed some advantages as the maintenance of the decomposition temperature of the pure gelatin (~230ºC) and the reduction of the acid content on electrospun mats, which allowed to reach a cell viability upper than 90% (analyzed by
cell viability test using human dermal fibroblast and embryonic kidney cells). This study has also analyzed the influence of gelatin and acetic acid concentration both on the solution viscosity and the electrospun fiber diameter, obtaining a clear relationship between these parameters
Domènech, B.; Ziegler, K.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Vigués, N.; Mas, J.; Macanás, J. Dissemination workshop of the Nano4water cluster p. P22-P23 Presentation's date: 2015-01-20 Presentation of work at congresses
Domènech, B.; Ziegler, K.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Vigués, N.; Mas, J.; Macanás, J. Dissemination workshop of the Nano4water cluster p. P100-P101 Presentation's date: 2015-01-20 Presentation of work at congresses
The aim of this work is the synthesis of polymer-stabilized Pd nanoparticles inside a functionalized polymeric porous membrane and to test them in metal-catalyzed organic reactions. A polymeric membrane support (Polyethersulfone) was functionalized with an ionogen polymer capable of retaining metallic nanoparticles (MNP) or MNP precursors using a UV photo-grafting method. Membranes were also obtained by casting sulfonated polyethersulfone (Cardo-type). The reactions were carried out by filtering solutions containing the reactants leading to full conversions within seconds. The amount of PdNP included in the materials and the catalytic activity were influenced by the properties of the grafted network
Vázquez, M.I.; Romero, V.; Benavente, J.; Domènech, B.; Muñoz, M.; Macanás, J. Congreso Iberoamericano de Hidrógeno y Pilas de Combustible p. 115-119 Presentation's date: 2014-10-15 Presentation of work at congresses
La particular estructura química de la matriz perfluorosulfónica del Nafion, con dominios hidrofílicos e hidrofóbicos segregados formando canales nanoscópicos, ha dado pie a su uso como modelo de estructura para la fabricación de nanocompuestos polímero-metal mediante el crecimiento de nanopartículas metálicas en su interior. En particular, mediante la técnica de síntesis intermatrical se ha conseguido el crecimiento de nanopartículas de plata (de un tamaño medio próximo a los 10 nm), las cuales presentan una distribución particular en forma de líneas casi paralelas, que difiere de la distribución más habitual de mayor concentración en la superficie. Para evaluar posibles aplicaciones de este nuevo material se ha realizado su caracterización mediante diferentes técnicas: microscop1ca, análisis químico superficial, mecánica, eléctrica/electroquímica. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la presencia de nanopartículas no parece afectar significativamente al transporte de protones en la membrana, pero sí modifican la superficie de la misma. Además, la resistencia mecánica del nuevo material es inferior a la del Nafion no modificado debido a la interacción de las partículas con las cadenas de polímero. También se ha observado que algunas de estas propiedades varían de forma importante en/unción del grado de hidratación de la muestra. The particular chemical structure of Nafion, a perfluorosulfonic matrix with segregated hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains forming nanoscale channels, has led to its use as a model structure for the manufacture of polymer-metal nanocomposites by growing in it metal nanoparticles. in particular, using the technique of intermatrix synthesis, the growth of silver nanoparticles (with an average diameter close to 10 nm) has been achieved Moreover, samples exhibit a particular distribution of such nanoparticles in the form of nearly para/le/ fines, what differs from the usual major distribution on the membrane surface. To evaluate the potential application of this new material in electrochemical applications, we proceeded to their characterization by different techniques: microscopic, surface chemical analysis, mechanical and electrical/electrochemical. These results show that the presence of nanoparticles does not seem to significantly affect the transport of protons in the membrane bulk, but it modifies its surface. Furthermore, the mechanical strength of the new material is lower than the unmodified Nafion due to the high interaction between nanoparticles and polymer chains. Moreover, it was a/so observed that some of the mentioned properties significantly varied depending on the degree of hydration of the sample
Colom, X.; Cañavate, J.; Rahhali, A.; Macanás, J.; Carrillo, F. Annual International Conference on Composites/Nano Enginnering p. 75-77 Presentation's date: 2014-07-17 Presentation of work at congresses
Macanás, J.; Domènech, B.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Remigy, J.; Lahitte, J-F. Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology p. 357-358 Presentation's date: 2014-05-28 Presentation of work at congresses
The development of suitable biomimetic scaffolds is a fundamental requirement of tissue engineering. Although electrospinning has emerged as an effective method for producing such scaffolds of nanometer-sized fibers, the influence of solution characteristics on the morphology of the resulting nanofibers depends on each polymer solution system. In this study, gelatin nanofibers and microfibers were prepared via electrospinning using mixtures of water and acetic acid at different ratios as solvents. The viscosities of gelatin solutions before electrospinning were analyzed and two different behaviors were found as a function of the solvent composition, taking into account classic models of polymer science. A power law relationship between viscosity and gelatin concentration was found for each solvent system, and an empirical model including the influence of acetic acid was obtained for aqueous systems. Moreover, a ternary diagram considering gelatin, water, and acetic acid mass fractions was constructed as a tool to establish the electrospinnability domains in terms of fiber occurrence and morphology. Also, the isodiametric curves were defined in the fibers region. Finally, in order to correlate the diameter of electrospun nanofibers and the electrospinnability zones, the Berry number was used. However, as its only allows the range of electrospinnability to be established for a fixed solvent composition, a new dimensionless parameter (Bemod) was suggested to take into account all the acetic acid aqueous solutions as a single solvent
Macanás, J.; Domènech, B.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Carrillo, F.; Lahitte, J-F.; Remigy, J. Intégration des membranes dans les procédés p. 176 Presentation's date: 2014-04-09 Presentation of work at congresses
Domènech, B.; Vigués, N.; Mas, J.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Macanás, J. Solvent extraction and ion exchange Vol. 32, num. 3, p. 301-315 DOI: 10.1080/07366299.2013.839192 Date of publication: 2014-04-03 Journal article
This work reports the results obtained by the development of two types of nanocomposite membranes containing metal nanoparticles prepared by applying the Intermatrix Synthesis technique for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the ion-exchange matrices of sulfonated polyethersulfone-Cardo and Nafion membranes. The stability (in terms of silver nanoparticles loss) of the polymer-metal nanocomposites was evaluated by using both ultrasonic and thermostatic baths and appeared to be appropriate for their practical applications. The dual-function nanocomposites were characterized in batch tests, first, by monitoring their catalytic activity in the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol and second, by evaluating their antibacterial efficiency towards E. coli. The results of the catalytic tests have shown that polymer-silver nanocomposites demonstrate remarkably better activity in comparison with their polymer-palladium nanocomposite analogues. The same nanocomposites have been shown to permit the complete disinfection of E. coli containing water within a short period of time.
Nafion has been frequently used for the synthesis of nanoparticles by taking advantage of its so-called cluster-network structure. Unexpectedly, the synthesis of AgNPs inside Nafion 117 was found to produce NPs organization, resulting in a regular pattern that could reveal the real morphology of the polymer.
Plastic composites are made of polymers and different reinforcements that originally were synthetic and non-biodegradable. Since 1990’s, many biodegradable composites, formed by a biodegradable matrix and natural fibers, have been proposed. In spite of the advantages of biocomposites, it is important to ponder the technical drawbacks of these natural fibers, mainly from a vegetable origin, and their environmental impacts (EIs). Vegetable fibers imply a land use that can compete with food production. Chicken feathers (CFs), made of keratin fibers, are a potential alternative as they are a waste material, produced in large quantities (800,000 ton/year in EU-27), do not compete with human food production and have been scarcely used up to now. Taking on board these premises, a biocomposite made of PLA and CFs was fabricated at lab-scale as new material. However, before using CFs as reinforcement, sanitizing pretreatments have been envisaged before, due to their quick decay. The EIs of these treatments were experimentally quantified and a cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate altogether the impacts of manufacturing a technical panel with different content of CFs (up to 35% v/v). As main results, the avoided burdens of the CF waste treatment and the energy consumption for the drying step must be optimized to achieve lower EIs for the preparation of CFs/PLA composites
Over the last years, the demand of textile products with enhanced functionalities, such as antibacterial, antistatic, stain resistant, or UV protective has grown considerably. These materials must satisfy not only the final costumer needs, yet the manufacturer economic aspects, but also the growing ecological concerns. In this sense, intensive development of Nanotechnology in the field of the nano-structures generation has contributed with a new interesting insight. With the application of the nanotechnology to textile fibers, new products with totally new or far improved functions with protective properties for humans and the environment can be easily obtained, without modifying the intrinsic textile properties.
In this work we present the Inter-Matrix Synthesis (IMS) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in different polymeric textile fibers such as polyacrylonitrile and polyamide fibers.
Cation exchange polymeric matrices are widely used in water treatment protocols to reduce the mineral content of hard waters, even for human consumption. However, they are not antibacterial and flowing bacteria can be trapped in their structures and proliferate, thus acting as microbial contamination sources. Here, Ag@Co-nanoparticles (Ag@Co-NPs) with a low-cost superparamagnetic Co0-core and an antibacterial Ag-shell are synthesized on granulated cation exchange polymeric matrices under soft reaction conditions. The presence of these NPs provides the final nanocomposite (NC) with additional functionalities (superparamagnetism and antibacterial activity) making it ideal for water purification applications. Ag@Co-NPs are synthesized in situ on four cation exchange polymeric matrices containing either strong (sulfonic) or weak (carboxylic) acid functional groups homogeneously distributed (C-type) or concentrated on an external shell (SST-type) by the intermatrix synthesis (IMS) method. The NCs are characterized (metal content, NP size and distribution, metal oxidative state, and metal release) and evaluated for water purification applications.
Domènech, B.; Ziegler, K.; Carrillo, F.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Macanás, J. Nanoscale research letters Vol. 8, num. 1, p. 238-243 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-238 Date of publication: 2013 Journal article
In this paper, we report the intermatrix synthesis of Ag nanoparticles in different polymeric matrices such as polyurethane foams and polyacrylonitrile or polyamide fibers. To apply this technique, the polymer must bear functional groups able to bind and retain the nanoparticle ion precursors while ions should diffuse through the matrix. Taking into account the nature of some of the chosen matrices, it was essential to try to activate the support material to obtain an acceptable value of ion exchange capacity. To evaluate the catalytic activity of the developed nanocomposites, a model catalytic reaction was carried out in batch experiments: the reduction of pnitrophenol by sodium borohydride
Carrillo, F.; Macanás, J.; Colom, X.; Cañavate, J.; Molins, G.; M.D. Alvarez; Garrido, N. European Conference on Composite Materials p. 1-8 Presentation's date: 2012-06-26 Presentation of work at congresses
Chicken feathers (CFs), mainly discarded nowadays, are an alternative reinforcement to be applied in the preparation of composite materials (CMs). The effect of different sanitizing methods on the properties of both CFs and the corresponding CMs has been studied. Some characteristic parameters such as density have been found to be dependent on the treatment that CFs endure, whereas the mechanical properties of the CMs made of thermoplastics matrices (e.g. polypropylene and high density polyethylene) were only slightly affected by the treatment. The introduction of CFs decreased the tensile strength of the CMs compared with the neat polymers while other parameters (e.g. Young’s modulus) were essentially unaffected
Chicken feathers (CFs) are a waste material generated from poultry industry
in large quantities. A composite material constituted of poly lactide and CFs
is proposed in order to prepare a biodegradable composite with low environmental impact.
In order to evaluate its environmental impact, a Life Cycle Assessment
(LCA) is performed. The results show that, from the environmental point of view, the more chicken feathers in the material, the greater is its impact. This is mainly due to the non - inclusion of the impact data regarding CFs current waste management treatments required in accordance with the European Directive CE 1069/2009 (in study) and to the high energy consumption of the pre - treatment stages (cleaning and sanitizing) required to transform CFs waste into a CFs technical material that can be used for the preparation of CFs/PLA composites material, which needs to be optimized.
In this communication, the synthesis of nanoparticles on anionic exchange polymers by the Intermatrix Synthesis method is reported. Monometallic (Ag) and core–shell metal/metal oxide (Ag@Fe3O4) nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. Their magnetic and bactericidal activities were evaluated