L'Escola Politècnica Superior d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltrú, amb més de 100 anys d'història, i el Centre Tecnològic de Vilanova i la Geltrú, són el referent universitari de la comarca del Garraf. L'Escola imparteix estudis en l'àmbit de les enginyeries tècniques industrials, la informàtica i les telecomunicacions, i ha estat pionera en la implantació de l'educació en alternança, un nou sistema educatiu que permet compaginar períodes lectius amb estades en empreses. Una gran biblioteca i una residència completen l'oferta de serveis.
El contexto general de esta tesis está referenciada en el marco actual del Patrimonio Industrial y el tipo de acciones posibles siguiendo las pautas recomendadas por la Carta de Londres para actuar y gestionar toda la documentación e información, utilizadas en la investigación y desarrollo de este trabajo. Teniendo como componente importante o herramienta clave en todo el proceso de desarrollo, el uso de diferentes técnicas y metodologías existentes. Siendo los dos objetivos principales de esta tesis, la definición formal y funcional de un molino harinero de mar, como también el diseño de un prototipo mecánico, todo ello bajo el uso de las posibilidades que ofrecen las redes informáticas.De esta manera se ha procedido a recopilar toda la documentación e información existente, incluso el único plano que se dispone basado en un croquis realizado por el inventor y constructor del molino harinero de mar. Este plano ha sido, junto con la documentación e información del diario de Barcelona de la época (1808), las dos fuentes de datos más importantes para el análisis, evaluación y selección permitiendo inicialmente definir conceptos, basados en bocetos o croquis, del aspecto formal y funcional del molino para posteriormente realizar la reconstrucción virtual de dicho molino.Por otro lado los restos arqueológicos existentes en la playa del faro, únicamente los pertenecientes al llamado módulo central, que han sido el gran referente, no solo en el aspecto arquitectónico constructivo del molino, sino que también ha permitido realizar un análisis exhaustivo de estos restos con la finalidad de definir y justificar los otros dos módulos que integraban en su día la totalidad del molino, el llamado modulo del faro, donde se hallaban las ruedas hidráulicas verticales que accionaban las muelas ubicadas en la primera planta donde se hallaba el obrador; y el módulo de mar formado por el accionamiento de las péndulas al embate de las olas y el correspondiente bombeo de agua hacia el embalse en el módulo central.A partir de estos restos, se ha realizado la digitalización paramétrica tridimensional mediante la técnica de la fotogrametría y el escáner digital. Permitiendo documentar gráficamente toda la geometría tridimensional de los restos existentes, a partir de aquí se ha podido definir inicialmente el diseño conceptual de la totalidad de los tres módulos que integran el molino de mar, y posteriormente definir de forma paramétrica mediante programas específicos de modelado 3D la reconstrucción virtual de todos los módulos y componentes de un molino de estas características, bajo diferentes hipótesis de trabajo y definición, conjuntamente con la metodología aplicada. Finalmente también se contempla como objetivo principal, definir la viabilidad y el funcionamiento del conjunto del molino, y sobre todo la eficiencia en la fuente de energía utilizada. Para ello se ha hecho necesario realizar un estudio experimental basado en el diseño y construcción de un prototipo mecánico de ensayos mediante el uso de la galga extensiométrica, para medir la fuerza de las olas, el llamado PM-SEOM (Prototipo Mecánico de Simulación Energética para Olas de Mar) emplazado en el mar en playa del Faro o de Sant Cristòfol, obteniendo de esta manera la energía y potencia del oleaje en la costa mediterránea de Vilanova i la Geltrú, en la actualidad solo quedan los restos pertenecientes al módulo central de dicho molino. La energía de las olas, era la única fuente de energía utilizada para poder elevar el agua a una altura de aproximadamente ocho metros, mediante un sistema de bombeo, las bombas eran accionadas a través de un sistema mecánico articulado basado en una estructura de madera y unas palas o péndulas que eran movidas únicamente por el embate de las olas. En definitiva, un diseño que en su día fue innovador y que actualmente podría ser considerado como un ejemplo de ingeniería altamente eficiente, respetuoso con el medio ambiente.
This paper presents a variable structure control in natural frame for a three-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed control method is based on modifying the converter model in natural reference frame, preserving the low frequency state space variables dynamics. Using this model in a Kalman filter, the system state-space variables are estimated allowing to design three robust current sliding-mode controllers in natural frame. The main closed-loop features of the proposed method are: 1) robustness against grid inductance variations because the proposed model is independent of the grid inductance, 2) the power losses are reduced since physical damping resistors are avoided, and 3) the control bandwidth can be increased due to the combination of a variable hysteresis controller with a Kalman filter. To complete the control scheme, a theoretical stability analysis is developed. Finally, selected experimental results validate the proposed control strategy and permit illustrating all its appealing features.
Moradi, M.; Castilla, M.; Momeneh, A.; Tomas, J.; Garcia de Vicuña, J. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics Vol. 64, num. 7, p. 5392-5402 DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2017.2677321 Data de publicació: 2017-07-01 Article en revista
This paper proposes a frequency-modulation control scheme for a dc/dc current-source parallel-resonant converter with two possible configurations. The basic configuration comprises an external voltage loop, an internal current loop, and a frequency modulator: the voltage loop is responsible for regulating the output voltage, the current loop makes the system controllable and limits the input current, and the modulator provides robustness against variations in resonant component values. The enhanced configuration introduces the output inductor current as a feed-forward term and clearly improves the transient response to fast load changes. The theoretical design of these control schemes is performed systematically by first deriving their small-signal models and second using Bode diagram analysis. The actual performance of the proposed control schemes is experimentally validated by testing on a laboratory prototype.
The Research Institute for Sustainability Science and Technology under the Master degree in Sustainability Science and Technology organises the course Action Research Workshop on Science and Technology for Sustainability (5 ECTS). The authors have been coordinating the course during the academic years 13/14, 14/15 and 15/16. The purpose of the workshop is to put together civil society organisations, local administrations, students and educators to collaboratively undertake responsible research, performing transdisciplinary learning environments and by using an action-research framework, to answer questions such as: Who are we researching for? Who profits from our research? What are the impacts of our research? Which methodologies and tools should be used when dealing with sociotechnical sustainability challenges?
Students work on real projects, related to local sustainability problems, represented by a community entity (Service learning and Campus Lab). Action research methodology is used with a two-cycle approach. In each real-life project, students, faculty and stakeholders are asked to follow the action-reflexion process of action research projects: Action 1- Jointly defining: Project purpose; Customer and interest; Involved actors; Reflexion 1- Students define: research question, initial situation, needed additional information, action Strategy, Tasks planning and distribution: Action 2 - Items returning and discussing with stakeholders, Reflexion 2 - revising and reformulating.
Having now run the workshop three times, we can conclude that: First, students realized the significance of framing an investigation under a research methodological framework that allows bringing research to the community, enhancing transdisciplinarity in any initiative or action in sustainability science. They set out the importance of some topics and the difficulty to hold them. Second, the formulation of the problem became one of the most arduous tasks in the process; difficulties were mainly related to the perception of the problem from distinct community group motivations. Third, interaction and communication with stakeholders and the recognition of their role was problematic as engineering students are not usually trained to work in wicked problems nor accompany stakeholders during the whole process. Finally, it is relevant to highlight that during the process students faced conflict and frustrating situations both within their team and with stakeholders. To help tackle this problem, an Emotional Intelligence module was introduced in the workshop which proved useful in helping students to solve some paralyzing situations, which could otherwise have stopped the progress of the project. We suggest that engineering students need specific training in transdisciplinary research and in conflict resolution, to avoid collapsing in frustration when dealing with real transdisciplinary sustainability transitions.
Mientras que el estudio de la actividad sísmica global queda cubierto por redes de sismómetros focalizadas al riesgo sísmico derivado de terremotos, el estudio específico de la sismicidad volcánica está poco extendido, debido a que unvolcán puede presentar periodos de inactividad de miles de años. Con el objetivo de dar una estimación de la localización de las señales volcánicas surgen los arrays sísmicos y sus técnicas de procesado. La diferencia principal entre una array yuna red de sismómetros, son las técnicas de análisis aplicadas a las señales sísmicas registradas por los sismómetros individualmente. De las distintas técnicas que se utilizan en el procesado de arrays sísmicos se ha utilizado la técnica de formación del haz (beamforming). En los arrays sísmicos actuales las señales analógicas procedentes de cada sensor son llevadas por cable hasta el sistema de adquisición central, con la consiguiente merma en la calidad de la señal procesada.El nodo central debe realizar la adquisición de señal de todos los sensores, establecer un control del tiempo mediante el uso de un GPS, almacenar los datos, transmitirlos, etc. A lo que hay que añadir la posibilidad de que los equipos de monitorización vulcanológica sean destruidos, o que se le agote la fuente de energía, por tanto se hace evidente la necesidad de disponer de equipos de muy bajo coste y gran autonomía, que actualmente no existen. En esa línea en el trabajo de Tesis se ha diseñado una antena sísmica formada por redes de sensores inalámbricos que permitirá establecer cualquier topología de array, eliminando la necesidad de interconexión mediante cables. Esto representará un avance significativo respecto a los dispositivos existentes, tanto por la reducción de costes que implica, como por la autonomía que se obtiene que permite un despliegue rápido sin necesidad de realizar una gran inversión. Y su versatilidad que ha radicado en el uso de las últimas tecnologías tanto en hardware como en software. Sistema abierto de tipo embebido Linux donde todo el software utilizado es libre, que permite configurar y visualizar los datos que se están registrando en tiempo real a través de una página web, y de un software de mensajería instantánea. Pudiendo realizarse un seguimiento de laactividad en cualquier parte e instante. Las técnicas de localización con array se basan en la búsqueda de la máxima coherencia de las señales registradas por los distintos sensores del array mejorando la calidad de la señal sísmica mediante la suma de la señal de cada elemento de forma coherente. Esto implica que la parte más mportante en el tratamiento de estas señales sea obtener los retardos de cada señal de forma exacta. Pruebas experimentales muestran que para un milisegundo de retardo de sincronismo, tenemos un error en la determinación del ángulo de llegada por debajo de un grado. Para aumentar la precisión de sincronización de tiempo, se ha experimentado en el laboratorio con el estándar IEEE 1588 PTP empleando módulos comerciales inalámbricos Xbee PRO, consiguiendo sincronización del ordendel µs, tiempo superior a los requisitos del sistema. El resultado final del trabajo de tesis ha permitido la realización de un equipo de adquisición sísmica compacto de bajo consumo (515,24mW) y coste (inferior al 10% sistemas comerciales),inalámbrico, de bajo ruido (2 bits en A/D de 24) y ligero; facilitando la disposición de un número significativo de unidades. El equipo ha sido validado en el laboratorio mediante sistemas de medida automatizados y procedimientos de calibración. Yen diferentes campañas comparando, el array sísmico inalámbrico utilizando como sensor sísmico MARK L4 de 1Hz y el array de referencia cableado del IGN, siendo la relación señal/ruido de ambos equipos idéntica. Atendiendo a la toleranciadel reloj de los A/D de las diferentes estaciones del array se ha verificado que en el peor de los casos el error de sincronismo es de 650 us.
Sayago, S.; Sanchez Egea, Antonio J.; Gonzalez-Rojas, Hernan A.; Martí, M. J.; Compta, Y.; Valldeoriola, F.; Tolosa, E.; Valls-Solé, J. Congress of the European Academy of Neurology p. 119 Data de presentació: 2017-06-27 Presentació treball a congrés
Differential diagnosis of tremors are sometimes still challenging between Parkinson disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) patients. We examined whether real-time recording and analysis with smartphones built-in accelerometers could provide differential cues useful for clinical evaluation. This simple method could be of benefit to neurologists in environments where more sophisticated diagnostic techniques are unavailable.
A new framework for preference disaggregation in multiple criteria decision aiding is introduced. The proposed approach aims to infer non-monotonic additive preference models from a set of indirect pair wise comparisons. The preference model is presented as a set of marginal value functions and the discriminatory power of the inferred preference model is maximized against its complexity. To infer a value function that is compatible with the supplied preference information, the proposed methodology leads to a linear programming optimization problem that is easy to solve. The applicability and effectiveness of the new methodology is demonstrated in a thorough experimental analysis covering a broad range of decision problems.
This paper presents a new concept in active damping techniques using a reduced model of a LCL-filtered grid connected inverter. The presence of the LCL filter complicates the design of the inverter control scheme, particularly when uncertainties in the system parameters, especially in the grid inductance, are considered. The proposed control algorithm is addressed to overcome such difficulties using a reduced model of the inverter in a state observer. In this proposal, two of the three state variables of the system are obviated from the physical inverter model and only the inverter side current is considered. Therefore, the inverter side current can be estimated emulating the case of an inverter with only one inductor, thus eliminating the resonance problem produced by the LCL filter. Besides, in the case of a distorted grid, the method allows to estimate the voltages at the point of common coupling free of noise and distortion without using any PLL-based synchronization. To complete the control scheme, a theoretical stability analysis is developed considering the effect of the observer, the system discretization and the system parameters deviation. Experimental and comparative evaluation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme
Using data recorded with the ANTARES telescope from 2007 to 2015, a new search for dark matter annihilation in the Milky Way has been performed. Three halo models and five annihilation channels, View the MathML source and View the MathML source, with WIMP masses ranging from View the MathML source to View the MathML source, were considered. No excess over the expected background was found, and limits on the thermally averaged annihilation cross-section were set.
Coffee farming in Colombia is a significant agricultural activity, both economically and socially. First, more than half of its municipalities are coffee producers (590 out of 1122). Second, coffee institutions represent strategic social capital in rural areas of Colombia. Moreover, according to the National Coffee Growers Federation of Colombia FNC, coffee farming will play a crucial role in post-conflict.
Unfortunately coffee has diseases and pests. Within the latter, there is the drill (Hypoteneus Hampei Ferrari), the one which affects more in the world. Although it appeared in Colombia in 1988, it is currently present in all coffee producing countries. Its importance lies in the significant reduction of production and quality of the grain, as it attacks the fruit in the most optimal state to be harvested, causing large amounts of the product to be lost and making it more vulnerable to attack by other pests. Also, the same habits of the drill make it difficult to control, for example, once the drill reaches the endosperm of the grain, the insecticides are no longer effective.
Although the drill has several particular characteristics, we emphasize the ability to fly. Females have well-developed wings that allow them to fly with skill, while males have atrophied wings, which is why their function is clearly reproductive. Moreover, the male always remains inside the fruit and dies there. It is also important to mention that not all crops are favorable for the displacement of the drill. Research has shown that in addition to coffee plantations, grasslands are suitable for dispersal, while forests and crops of large plants, such as banana and citrus, become a natural barrier.
According to the above, we propose a population model based on a complex network, whose nodes are coffee farms. In each node dynamics will be considered, incorporating in each of them a system of ordinary nonlinear differential equations that describes the behavior of the female drills. We de not consider dynamics in the edges.
With the study of the model, it is intended to analyze the population behavior of the coffee borer beetle in a representative coffee zone of the region, formed mostly by farms dedicated to coffee cultivation, but where citrus, banana and livestock farms also exist.
In many countries, the movement of individuals searching for new places to live represents a situation that raises economic, social, political and environmental problems. There is the case of the United States with the latinamerican immigrants that cross the mexican border, arrive at the Florida coasts by boat or come in some other way. There is the case of big groups of people in the Middle East running away from the war in their countries. There is the case of Colombian displaced getting to departments capitals trying to survive. There is also the case of the ones who are just looking for a better place to live, a better life quality. Besides the amount of scientific studies developed on this matter, it is still impossible to predict the next massive migration or to control the effects or to prevent it. This document is focused on building a migration complex network modeled by a Filippov system. This network is constructed using the urban zones of the Valle del Cauca department, and an Indirect Influences methodology is applied. Also, a numerical solution for the system is obtained, and it is concluded that under certain conditions the cities with more population attract migrants if their load capacity is not exceeded. On the contrary, the neighbour cities of those bigger ones gain popularity when the former has no capacity.
Resources such as fishing and forests are indispensable for living beings, for example, trees purify the air, by absorbing the carbon dioxide generated by the exploitation of coal, oil, and others. Also, it refines water through photosynthesis, and some trees provide food and protection to fish as is the case of forests in the Amazon. On the other hand, fishing is involved in food security, and several people are living through this economic activity despite the fact that in recent years has decreased production, according to the director of the National Aquaculture and Fisheries Authority (ANAP). Such resources are disappearing due to wood harvest, intentional fires, the misuse of the soil, water pollution, and other activities, which are performed by humans to meet their needs. Therefore, sustainability seeks to satisfy the needs of a community in a way that resources do not disappear.
This paper proposes a mathematical model of nonlinear differential equations, which allows studying the dynamic interaction between human population, forest exploitation, fishing, and mining. The model follows the scheme proposed by D'Alessandro, that is "production - consumption," and in which the human population and the exploitation of the forest are studied. Here we take a quadratic approximation of the production function for the forest.
The values of the parameters are taken from bibliographic references. Numerical simulations are carried out using Matcont. Several specific situations (proportion of people dedicated to mining equal to zero) are further analyzed, and we check the stability of the equilibrium points. Also, there are initial conditions where we find sustainability in the population when parameters such as technology in certain sectors and the proportion of people in each area are varied. As for mining, this study reveals that when the human population reaches a break-even point, mining tends to disappear since it is a resource that is found on land and it is only an extractive activity. To determine if a community is sustainable or not, they must have several criteria that are defined by experts.
The dynamical interaction between population and natural resources in an isolated society has been extensively studied [1, 2, 3]. Main results suggest that the success or failure of a community depends on the way their natural resources are managed. Namely, management is directly related to the parameters of the system whose values allow the approaching to different sustainable levels in the long run. The aim of this work is to introduce and study the fact of cooperation between two similar societies in the sense that an economic exchange may exist between them. For this purpose, we assume that each society behaves according to the same set of two ODEs that represent a Ricardo-Malthus model where population changes according to the consumed calories and the natural caloric level needed to survive while renewable resources dynamics depends on the natural growth rate and the harvesting rate. In the absence of cooperation both societies independently evolve, but once the economical exchange is introduced into the system, flows of input and output appear and the two planar systems become a 4-dimensional one that describes the dynamics of economic cooperation between the two societies implicated.
We study the long-run effect of cooperation when it occurs not only constantly but also intermittently over time. In the first case, we define exchange rates as new parameters of the system. In the second case, these rates change depending on the available level of resources that each society has at any time. For this purpose, we state sets of thresholds of resources for each society which define different regions where different
exchange rates take place. Thus, the smooth 4-dimensional system becomes a Filippov system  with multiple boundaries.
Our results show that sustainability, i.e., positive values of resources and populations, in the long run, is possible under the appropriate economic cooperation either in the smooth system or the Filippov system. That is to say that, under certain parameter values and initial conditions isolated societies could be non-sustainable, but with the introduction of input and output flows the coupled system behaves as a sustainable one in the long- run. Different development paths are presented through numerical simulations and steady-state analysis by constructing bifurcation diagrams and phase portrait diagrams.
 James A. Brander and M. Scott Taylor, The Simple Economics of Easter Island: A Ricardo-Malthus Model of Renewable Resource Use. The American Economics Review, 88, 119-138, 1998.
 Simone D’Alessandro, Non-linear Dynamics of Population and Natural Resources: The Emergence of Different Patterns of Development. Ecological Economics, 62, 473-481, 2007.
 Jorge A. Amador, Fabiola Angulo and Gerar Olivar Smooth and Filippov Models of Sustainable Development: Bifurcations and Numerical Computations. Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems, 21, 173-184, 2013.
 A. F. Filippov, Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right-Hand Sides. Kluwer Academic. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
Freezing of gait (FoG) is one of the most disturbing and incapacitating symptoms in Parkinson's disease. It is defined as a sudden block in effective stepping, provoking anxiety, stress and falls. FoG is usually evaluated by means of different questionnaires; however, this method has shown to be not reliable, since it is subjective due to its dependence on patients’ and caregivers’ judgment. Several authors have analyzed the usage of MEMS inertial systems to detect FoG with the aim of objectively evaluating it. So far, specific methods based on accelerometer's frequency response has been employed in many works; nonetheless, since they have been developed and tested in laboratory conditions, their performance is commonly poor when being used at patients’ home. Therefore, this work proposes a new set of features that aims to detect FoG in real environments by using accelerometers. This set of features is compared with three previously reported approaches to detect FoG. The different feature sets are trained by means of several machine learning classifiers; furthermore, different window sizes are also evaluated. In addition, a greedy subset selection process is performed to reduce the computational load of the method and to enable a real-time implementation. Results show that the proposed method detects FoG at patients’ home with 91.7% and 87.4% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively, enhancing the results of former methods between a 5% and 11% and providing a more balanced rate of true positives and true negatives.
Flexibility and reliability of AC microgrids are enhanced by reducing the dependence on communications in multi-layer hierarchical control. In this sense, this paper presents a secondary control with no communications for islanded microgrids. It is based on a control scheme that switches between two configurations according to a time-dependent protocol. With this proposal, an excellent performance in terms of transient response and frequency restoration in steady-state is achieved. The paper also presents design considerations for the control parameters. In addition, the theoretical predictions are validated by experimental results from a laboratory microgrid.
Sama, A.; Perez, C.; Rodriguez-Martin, D.; Catala, A.; Moreno, J.; Cabestany, J.; De Mingo, E.; Rodríguez, A. Computers in biology and medicine Vol. 84, p. 114-123 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2017.03.020 Data de publicació: 2017-05-01 Article en revista
Bradykinesia is a cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) and describes the slowness of movement revealed in patients. Current PD therapies are based on dopamine replacement, and given that bradykinesia is the symptom that best correlates with the dopaminergic deficiency, the knowledge of its fluctuations may be useful in the diagnosis, treatment and better understanding of the disease progression. This paper evaluates a machine learning method that analyses the signals provided by a triaxial accelerometer placed on the waist of PD patients in order to automatically assess bradykinetic gait unobtrusively. This method employs Support Vector Machines to determine those parts of the signals corresponding to gait. The frequency content of strides is then used to determine bradykinetic walking bouts and to estimate bradykinesia severity based on an epsilon-Support Vector Regression model. The method is validated in 12 PD patients, which leads to two main conclusions. Firstly, the frequency content of the strides allows for the dichotomic detection of bradykinesia with an accuracy higher than 90%. This process requires the use of a patient-dependant threshold that is estimated based on a leave-one-patient-out regression model. Secondly, bradykinesia severity measured through UPDRS scores is approximated by means of a regression model with errors below 10%. Although the method has to be further validated in more patients, results obtained suggest that the presented approach can be successfully used to rate bradykinesia in the daily life of PD patients unobtrusively.
Martin, M.; Bejar, J.; Esposito, G.; Chávez , D.; Contreras-Hernández, E.; Glusman, S.; Cortes, C.; Rudomín, P. Frontiers in computational neuroscience Vol. 11, num. Article 32, p. 1-13 DOI: 10.1109/PDP.2017.52 Data de publicació: 2017-05-01 Article en revista
In a previous study we developed a Machine Learning procedure for the automatic identification and classification of spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). This study further supported the proposal that in the anesthetized cat, the spontaneous CDPs recorded from different lumbar spinal segments are generated by a distributed network of dorsal horn neurons with structured (non-random) patterns of functional connectivity and that these configurations can be changed to other non-random and stable configurations after the noceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in the anesthetized cat. Here we present a study showing that the sequence of identified forms of the spontaneous CDPs follows a Markov chain of at least order one. That is, the system has memory in the sense that the spontaneous activation of dorsal horn neuronal ensembles producing the CDPs is not independent of the most recent activity. We used this markovian property to build a procedure to identify portions of signals as belonging to a specific functional state of connectivity among the neuronal networks involved in the generation of the CDPs. We have tested this procedure during acute nociceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in intact as well as spinalized preparations. Altogether, our results indicate that CDP sequences cannot be generated by a renewal stochastic process. Moreover, it is possible to describe some functional features of activity in the cord dorsum by modeling the CDP sequences as generated by a Markov order one stochastic process. Finally, these Markov models make possible to determine the functional state which produced a CDP sequence. The proposed identification procedures appear to be useful for the analysis of the sequential behavior of the ongoing CDPs recorded from different spinal segments in response to a variety of experimental procedures including the changes produced by acute nociceptive stimulation. They are envisaged as a useful tool to examine alterations of the patterns of functional connectivity between dorsal horn neurons under normal and different pathological conditions, an issue of potential clinical concern.
Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit the obtainable resolution in both energy and direction in charged-current neutrino events in the ORCA detector are investigated. These processes include the composition of the hadronic fragmentation products, the subsequent particle propagation and the photon-sampling fraction of the detector. GEANT simulations of neutrino interactions in seawater produced by GENIE are used to study the effects in the 1-20 GeV range. It is found that fluctuations in the hadronic cascade in conjunction with the variation of the inelasticity y are most detrimental to the resolutions. The effect of limited photon sampling in the detector is of significantly less importance. These results will therefore also be applicable to similar detectors/media, such as those in ice.
The resin extracted from the species of the Pinus genus (Pinaceae family) is a widely used material. Primarily, resins are made up of two types of diterpenoids: abietanes and pimaranes. Their composition changes with aging, affecting their chemical and physical properties; however, the chemical changes that occur during aging are not yet fully known. Understanding the evolution of pimaranes and abietanes and the chemical composition of the aged resins is essential to make the most of this substance and of its derivatives. A systematic study of the aging of Pinus resin with Raman complemented with infrared (IR) spectroscopy was carried out. This study provided new information about the interactions among the constituting molecules in resins aged over many years. In particular the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in aged samples was detected for the first time, and the formation of acid anhydrides from the reaction between pimaranes was demonstrated. Furthermore, Raman and IR spectra band assignments are proposed, and the specific markers of the main compounds of the resin are tagged. This will facilitate the qualitative analysis of resin compounds.
Future IoT services execution may benefit from combining resources at cloud and at the edge. To that end, new architectures should be proposed to handle IoT services in a coordinated way at either the edge of the network, the cloud, or both. Reacting to that need, the Fog-to-Cloud concept has been recently proposed. A key aspect in the F2C design refers to security, since F2C raises security issues besides those yet unsolved in fog and cloud. Thus, we envision the need for new security strategies to handle all components in the F2C architecture. In this paper we propose an SDN-based (mater/slave) security architecture leveraging a centralized controller on the cloud, and distributed controllers at the edge of the network. We argue that the proposed architecture brings more security and privacy to the cloud users by reducing the distance between them and, therefore, reducing the risks of the so called man-in-the-middle attacks. The proposed security architecture is analyzed in some critical infrastructure scenarios in order to illustrate their potential benefits.
The Souriau massless Galilean particle of “colour” k and spin s is shown to be the Galilean limit of the Souriau tachyon of mass m = ik and spin s. We compare and contrast this result with the Galilean limit of the Nambu-Goto string and Green-Schwarz superstring.
Andre, M.; Caballe, A.; Van Der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houegnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A.; Castell, J.; Vila, F. Scientific reports Vol. 7 DOI: 10.1038/srep45517 Data de publicació: 2017-04-12 Article en revista
Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems.
Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios, J. Journal of cosmology and astroparticle physics Vol. 2017 DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/04/019 Data de publicació: 2017-04-11 Article en revista
ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the Northern Hemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and are thus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A time-dependent search has been applied to a list of 33 X-ray binaries undergoing high flaring activities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and during hardness transition states in the 2008–2012 period. The background originating from interactions of charged cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is drastically reduced by requiring a directional and temporal coincidence with astrophysical phenomena. The results of this search are presented together with comparisons between the neutrino flux upper limits and the neutrino flux predictions from astrophysical models. The neutrino flux upper limits resulting from this search limit the jet parameter space for some astrophysical models.
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are devices used, among other fields, in health applications, since they are light, small and effective. More concretely, IMUs have demonstrated to accurately monitor motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this sense, most of previous works have attempted to assess PD symptoms through IMUs in controlled environments or short tests. This paper presents the design of an IMU called 9x3 that aims to assess PD symptoms, enabling the possibility to perform a map of patients’ symptoms at their homes during long periods of time. The designed device is able to acquire and store raw inertial data for artificial intelligence algorithmic training purposes. Furthermore, the presented IMU also enables the real-time execution of the developed and embedded learning models. Results show the great flexibility of the 9x3, capable of storing inertial information and algorithm outputs, sending messages to external devices. This paper also presents the results of detecting freezing of gait and brad kinetic gait in 12 patients, with sensitivity and specificity above 80%. Additionally, the system enables working 23.09 days (at waking hours) with a 1200mAh battery sampling at 50 Hz, opening up the possibility to be employed at other applications like wellbeing and sports.
Recent findings on cephalopods in laboratory conditions showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the statocyst, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The question remained about the contribution of the consequent near-field particle motion influence from the tank walls, to the triggering of the trauma. Offshore noise controlled exposure experiments (CEE) on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), were conducted at three different depths and distances from the source and particle motion and sound pressure measurements were performed at each location. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in statocysts, which severity was quantified and found to be proportional to the distance to the transducer. These findings are the first evidence of cephalopods sensitivity to anthropogenic noise sources in their natural habitat. From the measured received power spectrum of the sweep, it was possible to determine that the animals were exposed at levels ranging from 139 to 142¿dB re 1¿µPa2 and from 139 to 141 dB re 1¿µPa2, at 1/3 octave bands centred at 315¿Hz and 400¿Hz, respectively. These results could therefore be considered a coherent threshold estimation of noise levels that can trigger acoustic trauma in cephalopods.
Animals play a profoundly important and intricate role in our lives today. Dogs have been human companions for thousands of years, but now they work to assist the disabled, and in combat and search and rescue situations. Farm animals are a critical part of sustainable agriculture today, and there is increasing consumer interest in humanely raised livestock, and how it impacts our health and environmental footprint. Wild animals are threatened with extinction by human induced factors, and shrinking and compromised habitats. There are many reasons, including societal and economic ones, to explore how new computing technologies can be used to ensure the welfare of animals in these settings. The goal of this review is to systematically survey the existing literature in smart computing and sensing technologies for domestic, farm, and wild animal welfare. We use a broad notion of animal welfare to refer to an assessment of whether animals are healthy, free of pain and suffering, and positively stimulated in their environment. Smart computing and sensing is also used in broad terms, to refer to systems that are not isolated but interconnected with communication networks, and capable of remote data collection, processing, exchange, and analysis. The findings of this review are expected to motivate future research in computer science and engineering, as well as contribute to data, information, and communication management for animal welfare.
Hosseini Asl, S.; Masomi, M.; Hosseini, M.; Javadian, H.; Ruiz, M.; Sastre, A. Process safety and environmental protection Vol. 107, p. 153-167 DOI: 10.1016/j.psep.2017.02.012 Data de publicació: 2017-04-01 Article en revista
The aim of this research was to estimate the possibility of using synthesized hydrous iron oxide/aluminium hydroxide composite loaded on coal fly ash (FA3) as an efficient sorbent for Cr(VI) sorption from aqueous solution. In this regard, dissolution and precipitation processes were performed to rearrange and load the intrinsic iron and aluminum on the surface of fly ash. Different characterization techniques including XRD, XRF, FT-IR, SEM, LPS and BET surface area were applied to analyze the sorbent properties. Moreover, sorption kinetics were studied using Morris–Weber intra-particle diffusion, Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The kinetic analyses indicated that pseudo-first-order model controlled the sorption process. In order to estimate the sorbent capacity, Langmuir, Freundlich and D–R models were applied. The thermodynamic parameters of Cr(VI) sorption were also studied. In addition, removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was predicted using the developed fuzzy logic model. The fuzzification of four input variables including pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Cr(VI) concentration versus removal efficiency as output was carried out using an artificial intelligence-based approach. A Mamdani-type fuzzy interface system was employed to fulfill a collection of 24 rules (If-Then format) using triangle membership functions (MFS) with seven levels in fuzzy sets. The proposed fuzzy logic model demonstrated high predictive performance with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.95 and acceptable deviation from the experimental data, confirming its suitability to predict Cr(VI) removal efficiency. Based on experimental data and statistical analysis, the synthetized sorbent was effective for treating wastewater containing Cr(VI).
Martin, M.; Bejar, J.; Esposito, G.; Chávez, D.; Contreras-Hernández, E.; Glusman, S.; Cortes, C.; Rudomín, P. Frontiers in computational neuroscience Vol. 32, num. 3, p. 1665-1677 DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2017.00032 Data de publicació: 2017-04 Article en revista
Automatic generation control (AGC) in multi-area interconnected power systems is experiencing several adaptions due to increasing level of power converter based components in the system. The concept of virtual synchronous power (VSP) to simulate the dynamic effects of virtual inertia emulations by HVDC links for higher level control applications is introduced and reflected in the multi-area AGC model. By using this proposed combination in the AGC model, the dynamic performance of the studied system shows a significant improvement. The proposed formulation is generalized for multi-area systems with multiple HVDC links. The active power loop control in VSP-based HVDC links has a second-order characteristic, which makes a simultaneous enabling of damping and inertia emulations into the system. Trajectory sensitivities are also used to analyze the effects of VSP's parameters on the system stability. The effectiveness of the proposed concept on dynamic improvements is tested through MATLAB simulation of a four-area system.
Considering that there are electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal constraints that determine the design of high-speed electrical machines, the criteria that lead to adequate selection of the machine are established in this work. Moreover, taking into account the current state of technology, the critical values in the ratio (output power)/(rotation speed), are presented. The paper focuses on the high-speed synchronous generators, especially in permanent magnet generators, inductor alternators and flux switching alternators, emphasizing their constructive fundamentals and their advantages and disadvantages. The analysis is completed with a critical assessment that classifies them according to previously defined requirements. Although the decision of the final choice is largely determined by the application of interest, it can be said that, in general, synchronous generators with permanent magnets in the rotor are the best option.
Kumar, A.; Cotterell, R.; Oliver, A.; Padro, L. Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics p. 217-222 Data de presentació: 2017-04 Presentació treball a congrés
The Dravidian family is one of the most widely spoken set of languages in the world, yet there are very few annotated resources available to NLP researchers. To remedy this, we create DravMorph, a corpus annotated for morphological segmentation and part-of-speech. Also, we exploit novel features and higher-order models to achieve promising results on these corpora on both tasks, beating techniques proposed in the literature by as much as 4 points in segmentation F1.
Sanchez, F.; Segalas, J.; Cabre, J.; Climent, J.; Lopez, D.; Martin, C.; Vidal, E. Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo p. 348-359 Data de presentació: 2017-03-29 Presentació treball a congrés
En esta comunicación se presenta un mapa de la competencia Sostenibilidad fácilmente adaptable a cualquier titulación de educación superior. El mapa ha sido desarrollado dentro del proyecto EDINSOST, cuyo objetivo es la formación de titulados capaces de liderar la resolución de los retos de nuestra sociedad mediante la integración de la formación en competencias en Sostenibilidad en el Sistema Universitario Español.
This communication presents a map of the competency Sustainability which is easily adaptable to any degree in higher education. The map has been developed within the EDINSOST project, whose objective is the training of graduates able of leading the resolution of the challenges of our society through the integration of the training in
competences in Sustainability in the Spanish University System.
Avec cette communication on présente une carte de la compétence Durabilité facilement adaptable à tout degré d’éducation supérieur. Cette carte a été développé au sein du projet EDINSOST et son but est la formation de diplômés capables de diriger la résolution des défis de notre société en intégrant la formation de compétences en matière de Durabilité dans le Système Universitaire Espagnol.
This work presents the control design guidelines of a passivity-based control of the active and the reactive power in single-phase PV inverters. The control ensures global asymptotic convergence of the tracking error to zero and the PV inverter shows robust current tracking with fast dynamics. The control is particularized in the cases of strong and weak grid operation. In the last case, the knowledge of the grid impedance and the injected active power allows to calculate the value of the required reactive power in order to set the amplitude of the voltage at the connection point to the ideal grid amplitude. The control is validated by means of numerical simulations when the power references are changed and when the PV irradiance varies.
In this paper, we present a study that analyses the effects of robot or human gaze hints on people's choices in a card game. We asked human participants to play a matching card game in the presence of a human or a robotic tutor. Our aim was to find out if gaze hints
provided by the tutor can direct the attention and influence the choices of the human participants. The results show that participants performed significantly better when they received gaze hints from a tutor than when they did not. Furthermore, we found that people identified the tutor hints more often in robot condition than in human condition and, as a result, performed significantly better.
Motivational and emotional disorders (i.e. apathy and depression) are very frequent in dementia and might greatly affect the positive psychological state experienced during social HRI. We conducted a six-weeks study in two nursing homes comparing the affective states that two playful activities, board cognitive games and social robot play (Pleo), were able to elicit in people with dementia. Results show that a significant increase in pleasure (positive affect) is present in the robot condition when participants are considered in their totality, but nce they are grouped based on the presence of motivational and emotional disorders, the pleasure experienced in the robot condition is significantly lower in the group with such disorders.
Montoya, L.; De Olaizola, I.; Ponsa, P.; Vilanova, R. International Technology, Education and Development Conference p. 314-321 DOI: 10.21125/inted.2017.0201 Data de presentació: 2017-03-06 Presentació treball a congrés
The paper presents the structure and development of the human centered based projects defined
within the PBL experience. Also, a detailed presentation and interpretation of the designed satisfaction
questionnaires is presented. Special emphasis is put on showing how it is intended to get the
information related to the collaborative aspects that raised within the project. Finally, the results of the
questionnaires are presented and interpreted. Suggestions on incorporation of collaborative ventures
within the learning activities is recommended as a positive way towards enhancement of the student
active role in the learning process. On that basis, the contributions of the present work are to show the
methodology used, the effort to generate questionnaires and metrics for the measurement of the
students collaboration. Main conclusion is related to the satisfaction of the students specially on the
collaborative aspects of the project.
Velasco, L.; Castro, A.; Asensio, A.; Ruiz, M.; Liu, G.; Qin, C.; Proietti, R.; Yoo, S. Journal of optical communications and networking Vol. 9, num. 3, p. B22-B32 DOI: 10.1364/JOCN.9.000B22 Data de publicació: 2017-03-01 Article en revista
Radio access network (RAN) cost savings are expected in future cloud RAN (C-RAN). In contrast to traditional distributed RAN architectures, in C-RAN, remote radio heads (RRHs) from different sites can share baseband processing resources from virtualized baseband unit pools placed in a few central locations (COs). Due to the stringent requirements of the several interfaces needed in C-RAN, optical networks have been proposed to support C-RAN. One of the key elements that needs to be considered are optical transponders. Specifically, sliceable bandwidth-variable transponders (SBVTs) have recently shown many advantages for core optical transport networks. In this paper, we study the connectivity requirements of C-RAN applications and conclude that dynamicity, fine granularity, and elasticity are needed. However, there is no SBVT implementation that supports those requirements, and thus, we propose and assess an SBVT architecture based on dynamic optical arbitrary generation/measurement. We consider different long-term evolution-advanced configurations and study the impact of the centralization level in terms of the capital expense and operating expense. An optimization problem is modeled to decide which COs should be equipped and which equipment, including transponders, needs to be installed. The results show noticeable cost savings from installing the proposed SBVTs compared to installing fixed transponders. Finally, compared to the maximum centralization level, remarkable cost savings are shown when a lower level of centralization is considered.
We consider two non-relativistic strings and their Galilean symmetries. These strings are obtained as the two possible non-relativistic (NR) limits of a relativistic string. One of them is non-vibrating and represents a continuum of non-relativistic massless particles, and the other one is a non-relativistic vibrating string. For both cases we write the generator of the most general point transformation and impose the condition of Noether symmetry. As a result we obtain two sets of non-relativistic Killing equations for the vector fields that generate the symmetry transformations. Solving these equations shows that NR strings exhibit two extended, infinite dimensional space-time symmetries which contain, as a subset, the Galilean symmetries. For each case, we compute the associated conserved charges and discuss the existence of non-central extensions.
Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4¿hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30¿hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events.