These are difficult times for urban public transport (UPT), in particular for the most developed economies. The financial crisis is still hurting many countries, but even in those showing signs of recovery, it has left a legacy of macroeconomic instability. Public finance difficulties are severely affecting the continuity of the funding models being currently used in urban and metropolitan areas both for new investment and to cover operational deficits.
Turro, M. A closer look at funding and financing innovation. "Public transport international", Març 2011, vol. 60, núm. 2, p. 20-24.