ICARUS es va constituir l’any 2005 per fer recerca en sistemes aeris sense pilot (UAS) i està integrat per Enginyers Aeronàutics, Informàtics i de Telecomunicació. L’activitat de recerca es desenvolupa al voltant de dos objectius principals:
Primer, l'automatització i el desenvolupament de l'aviònica de bord i els sistemes de terra. S’ha desenvolupat un sistema distribuït on els serveis s’agrupen en funció de la seva funcionalitat, proporcionant un alt nivell de flexibilitat i baixos costos de desenvolupament per la realització de missions civils.
Segon, la millora de l'eficiència del transport aeri, tenint en compte el seu impacte ambiental. En aquest àmbit, s’està treballant especialment en la gestió del trànsit aeri (ATM) i les operacions aèries.
Com a combinació dels dos objectius, s’està investigant en l'automatització d’ATM i la integració dels UAS en l'espai aeri civil. També són objecte d’investigació les aplicacions potencials dels UAS i la gestió de missions.
Based on the information available in databases from relevant national and international organizations from 1967 to 2010, an Aviation Weather Accidents Database (AWAD) was built. According to the AWAD, the weather is the
primary cause in a growing percentage of annual aircraft accidents: from about 40% in 1967 to almost 50% in 2010. While the absolute number of fatalities and injured people due to aircraft accidents has decreased significantly, the percentage of fatalities and injured people in accidents attributed to the weather shows a slight increase in the studied period. The influence of turbulence, clear air turbulence, wind shear, low visibility, rain, icing, snow and storms on aircraft accidents was analysed, considering the different phases of flight, the meteorological seasons of the year and the spatial distribution over four zones of the Earth. These zones were defined following meteorological and climatological criteria, instead of using the typical political criteria. A major part of the accidents and accidents attributed to the weather occur in latitudes between 12º and 38º in both hemispheres. It is concluded that actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with low visibility, rain and turbulence, in this order, should have priority to achieve the most significant improvements in air transport safety.
This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Mazon, J., Rojas, J. I., Lozano, M., Pino, D., Prats, X. and Miglietta, M. M. (2017), Influence of meteorological phenomena on worldwide aircraft accidents, 1967–2010. Met. Apps. doi:10.1002/met.1686, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/met.1686/abstract. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control is used to achieve different metering times). Based on previous works, an optimal control problem is formulated and numerically solved. The earliest and latest times of arrival at the initial approach fix have been computed for the descent of an Airbus A320 under different scenarios, considering the potential altitudes and distances to go when receiving the controlled time of arrival update. The effects of the aircraft mass, initial speed, longitudinal wind and position of the initial approach fix on the time window have been also investigated. Results show that time windows about three minutes could be achieved for certain conditions, and that there is a trade-off between robustness facing controlled time of arrival updates during the descent and fuel consumption. Interestingly, minimum fuel trajectories almost correspond to those of minimum time.
This paper describes the objectives and methodology
of the APACHE project, a SESAR Exploratory Research project
proposing a new framework to assess European air traffic
management (ATM) performance. This framework integrates an
ATM simulator prototype used to synthesise scenarios for preops
performance assessment, but also needed to compute some
novel performance indicators, which require from optimisation
or simulation capabilities. This simulator embeds a trajectory
planner; an airspace planner; a traffic and capacity planner; and
finally, a performance analyser module. An illustrative example
is given, showing the successful integration of all these modules,
where an initial performance assessment is done for a realistic
data set of 24h of traffic over the FABEC airspace.
The work presented in this paper was partially funded by the SESAR Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 699338, as part of the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme: APACHE project (http://apache-sesar.barcelonatech-upc.eu/en).
A compromise solution to increase flight efficiency in cruise, but without penalising capacity (or even safety), would be perhaps to remove (or relax) the minimum rate of climb (ROC) constraint and/or to reduce the height of the step climbs in cruise. In this paper, the benefits (in terms of total operating costs) and the associated impact on the air traffic management (ATM) of such “relaxed cruise” operations are quantified for a representative medium-haul aircraft under different scenarios, by means of an in-house trajectory optimisation software. Results show that by reducing the minimum ROC from 500 to 300 ftmin-1, whilst keeping the step climb height according to current reduced vertical separation minima (RVSM) standard would give a good compromise between cost savings and impact on the ATM.
This paper presents the simulation environment
developed within the framework of R-WAKE project, funded
by SESAR 2020 Exploratory Research. This project aims to
investigate the risks and hazards of potential wake vortex
encounters in the en-route airspace, under current and futuristic
operational scenarios, in order to support new separation
standards aimed at increasing airspace capacity. The R-WAKE
simulation environment integrates different components developed
by different partners of the R-WAKE consortium, including
simulators for weather, traffic, wake vortex phenomena, wake
vortex interactions and different tools and methodologies for
safety and risk assessment. A preliminary example is presented
in this paper, in which 200 historical trajectories were simulated
to show that the novel framework works properly. A WVE
encounter has been detected in such first scenario, however with
no significant safety effect on the follower aircraft. A second
controlled scenario has been then run to force the detection of a
severe wake encounter under realistic en-route conditions. Such
scenario has given evidences that confirm the safety relevance of
the underlying research concept.
The work presented in this paper was partially funded by the SESAR
Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 699247, as part of the European
Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme: R-WAKE project
(Wake Vortex Simulation and Analysis to Enhance En-route Separation Management
in Europe - http://www.rwake-sesar2020.eu/). T
The main objective of this report is to review the current KPIs and PIs used by the SESAR, Performance
Review Body (PRB) and other relevant institutions and to propose new PIs which could be measured
using the new framework proposed by the APACHE project. For this purpose, past reports and
guidance material is reviewed in order to determine which KPAs are covered and specific KPIs/PIs used
in Europe. Apart from that, relevant ICAO and CANSO documents are also reviewed, among others.
Special attention is given to SESAR Performance Framework which is quite specific in its purpose and
perspective as it aims to estimate the performance benefits of SESAR solutions before the execution
phase of operations, which is in line with the APACHE project as it focuses mainly on Pre-OPS ATM
performance assessment. Based on current KPIs/PIs review and objectives of ATM performance
assessment framework from WP2, a set of novel PIs which could be measured using new framework
introduced by the APACHE project are proposed in collaboration with the SJU and the PRB considering
their valuable feedback. From this assessment, the APACHE System will implement a total of 42 new
(or enhanced) performance indicators (25 main indicators and 17 variants).
This Report1 is part of a project that has received funding from the SESAR Joint Undertaking under
grant agreement No 699338 under European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation
Mattotti, M.; Álvarez, Z.; Delgado, L.; Mateos, M.; Aparicio, C.; Planell, J. A.; Alcántara, S.; Engel, E. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Vol. 158, p. 569-577 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.07.045 Data de publicació: 2017-10-01 Article en revista
Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polysaccharide that has been widely studied for regenerative purposes in the central nervous system. In this study we assessed the in vitro glial and neuronal cells response to chitosan either flat or patterned with grooves in the micrometric range. Chitosan demonstrated to be a good substrate for the attachment and growth of both neurons and glial cells. Chitosan micropatterns promoted glial cell maturation, suggesting astroglial activation. Nevertheless, those mature/reactive glial cells were permissive for axonal growth. Axons aligned and organized along the patterned grooves and the size of the linear topographic patterns is also affecting neurite and cell response. Patterns with 10 µm width induced fasciculation of axons, which can be useful for CNS tissue engineering substrates when precise orientation of the axonal outgrowth is desired.
Continuous Descent Operations with Controlled Times of Arrival (CTA) at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising capacity. This type of flight operation requires advanced on-board systems not only able to compute a plan satisfying Required Times of Arrival (RTAs), but also to safely and efficiently guide the aircraft during the execution of the descent such that RTAs are accurately accomplished. The primary aim of this paper is to compare the performance (in terms of environmental impact mitigation and ability to fulfill operational constraints) of four guidance strategies: tactical, strategic, hybrid and Model Predictive Control (MPC). A high fidelity flight simulator has been configured, and several descents to Barcelona-El Prat airport (Spain) have been simulated in presence of weather forecast and aircraft performance modeling errors. Results show that MPC is the most robust in terms of energy and time deviation, providing at the same time excellent environmental impact mitigation.
State-of-the-art weather data obtained from numerical weather predictions are unlikely to satisfy the requirements
of the future air traffic management system. A potential approach
to improve the resolution and accuracy of the weather predictions
could consist on using airborne aircraft as meteorological sensors,
which would provide up-to-date weather observations to the sur-
rounding aircraft and ground systems. This paper proposes to use
Kriging, a geostatistical interpolation technique, to create short-
term weather predictions from scattered weather observations
derived from surveillance data. Results show that this method
can accurately capture the spatio-temporal distribution of the
temperature and wind fields, allowing to obtain high-quality local,
short-term weather predictions and providing at the same time
a measure of the uncertainty associated with the prediction.
This paper presents the hardware design and integration process employed to develop an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) helicopter. The design process evolves from the bare airframe (without any electronics), to become a complete and advanced UAS platform for remote sensing applications. The improvements, design decisions and justifications are described throughout the paper. Two airframes have been used during the design and integration process: the AF25B model and the more advanced AF30 model, from the Copterworks company. The airframe engine reliability and fuel economy have been improved by adding an Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) and Capacitor Discharge Ignition (CDI), both managed by an Engine Control Unit (ECU). On-board power supply generation and regulation have also been designed and validated. Finally, the integration process incorporates on-board mission computation to improve the concept of operation in remote sensing applications. Several flight tests have been performed to verify the reliability of the whole system. The flight test results demonstrate the correct process of integration and the feasibility of the UAS.
With advancements in low-energy-consumption multi/many core embedded-computing devices, a logical transition for robotic systems is Supercomputing, formally known as high performance computing (HPC), a tool currently used for solving the most complex problems for humankind such as the origin of the universe, the finding of deceases’ cures, etc. As such, HPC has always been focused on scientific inquires. However, its scope can be widening up to include missions carried out with robots. Since a robot could be embedded with computing devices, a set of robots could be set as a cluster of computers, the most reliable HPC infrastructure. The advantages of setting up such an infrastructure are many, from speeding up on-board computation up to providing a multi-robot system with robustness, scalability, user transparency, etc., all key features in supercomputing. This chapter presents a middleware technology for the enabling of high performance computing in multi-robot systems, in particular for aerial robots. The technology can be used for the automatic deployment of cluster computing in multi-robot systems, the utilization of standard HPC technologies, and the development of HPC applications in multiple fields such as precision agriculture, military, civilian, search and rescue, etc.
Xu, Y.; Dalmau, R.; Prats, X. Transportation research. Part C, emerging technologies Vol. 81, num. August 2017, p. 137-152 DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.012 Data de publicació: 2017-08-01 Article en revista
This paper introduces a linear holding strategy based on prior works on cruise speed reduction, aimed at performing airborne delay at no extra fuel cost, as a complementary strategy to current ground and airborne holding strategies. Firstly, the equivalent speed concept is extended to climb and descent phases through an analysis of fuel consumption and speed from aircraft performance data. This gives an insight of the feasibility to implement the concept, differentiating the case where the cruise flight level initially requested is kept and the case where it can be changed before departure in order to maximize the linear holding time. Illustrative examples are given, where typical flights are simulated using an optimal trajectory generation tool where linear holding is maximized while keeping constant the initially planned fuel. Finally, the effects of linear holding are thoroughly assessed in terms of the vertical trajectory profiles, range of feasible speed intervals and trade-offs between fuel and time. Results show that the airborne delay increases significantly with nearly 3-fold time for short-haul flights and 2-fold for mid-hauls to the cases in prior works.
Sistema para el control a la adherencia de tratamientos médicos, así como un procedimiento realizado con dicho sistema, que comprende un envase configurado para la administración de medicamentos y para vincularse eléctricamente con al menos una base; presentando dicho envase una pista eléctrica principal conectable con la base de modo que dicha pista eléctrica principal es susceptible de ser alimentada eléctricamente desde la base, habiéndose provisto un servidor capaz de almacenar y procesar unos datos generados por la vinculación entre el envase y la base; siendo el presente sistema manejable sin dificultad por personas mayores, pacientes infantiles o con algún tipo de discapacidad.
Recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide new opportunities in remote sensing application. In contrast to satellite and conventional (manned) aerial tasks, UAS flights can be operated in a very short period of time. UAS can also be more specifically focused toward a given task such as crop reconnaissance or electric line tower inspection. For some applications, the delivery time of the remote sensing results is crucial. The current three-phase procedure of data acquisition, data downloading and data processing, performed sequentially in time, represents a drawback that reduces the benefits of using unmanned aerial systems. In this paper, we present a parallel processing strategy, based on queuing theory, in which the data processing phase is performed on board in parallel with data acquisition. The unmanned aerial system payload has been enlarged with low-cost, lightweight, multi-core boards to facilitate remote sensing data processing during flight. The storage of the raw sensing data is also done for possible further analysis; however, the ultimate decision support information can be seamless delivered to the customer upon landing. Furthermore, text alarms and limited imagery can also be provided during flight.
Dalmau, R.; Alenka, J.; Prats, X. AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference p. 1-12 DOI: doi.org/10.2514/6.2017-4260 Data de presentació: 2017-06-09 Presentació treball a congrés
Continuous descent operations (CDO) with required times of arrival (RTAs) have been
identified as a potential solution to reduce the environmental impact without compromising
capacity. However, in high traffic scenarios RTAs may not suffice to maintain safe separa-
tion, and air traffic controllers may still need to use "open-loop vectors", disabling CDOs
by depriving on-board flight management systems of required knowledge about the remain-
ing distance to go. This paper proposes to face peaks of traffic without using open-loop
vectors by combining the assignment of RTAs and pre-defined routes, taking advantage of
the flexibility that procedures such as the tromboning provide in the lateral domain. The
concept is illustrated by means of a practical example using the tromboning procedure of
the Frankfurt airport. For each possible shortcut of this tromboning, the feasible RTA
windows for engine-idle CDOs and powered descents have been computed using numerical
optimisation. Results show that time windows up to 10 minutes could be achieved with
engine-idle CDOs. These time windows could be widened up to 18 minutes by allowing the
use of thrust and speed-brakes, at the expense of burning more fuel and producing more
noise. Results also demonstrate that, for a given RTA, very distinct shortcuts could be
assigned such that the RTA fits into the associated feasible RTA window.
Continuous descent operations (CDO) with required times of arrival (RTAs) have been
identi ed as a potential solution to reduce the environmental impact without compromising
capacity. However, in high traffic scenarios RTAs may not suffice to maintain safe separa-
tion, and air traffic controllers may still need to use
Continuous descent operations (CDOs) with required times of arrival (RTAs) have been
identified as a potential solution to reduce fuel consumption and noise nuisance in the ma-
neuvering area and without compromising capacity. This paper assesses the feasibility of
replacing current air traffic control sequencing and merging techniques (mainly based on
radar vectoring) by a control based on RTAs over known and fixed arrival routes, aiming
to enable CDOs by ensuring flight management systems have an unerring knowledge about
the remaining distance to the runway threshold. The assessment has been performed for
Barcelona El Prat airport (Spain), using arrival traffic for several representative days gath-
ered from historical data. The earliest and latest trajectories at a metering fix for each
inbound aircraft have been computed assuming engine-idle CDOs. Given the attainable
RTA window for each aircraft, the feasibility of sequencing the arrival traffic with RTAs
has been assessed by solving an aircraft sequencing problem. Results show that low traf-
fic scenarios could be properly managed by only assigning RTAs. For certain scenarios,
however, with high traffic loads and late RTA assignments, radar vectoring would still be
necessary. The distance from the runway where inbound aircraft are expeced to receive
the RTA has been also subject of study, demonstrating that the assignment of RTAs well
before starting the descent would favor to remove radar vectoring and enable full CDOs.
TEMO (time and energy managed operations) is a
new concept that aims to optimise continuous descent operations,
while fulfilling with a very high accuracy controlled time of
arrival (CTA) constraints at different metering fixes. This paper
presents the results and main lessons learnt from two human-in-
the-loop experiments that aimed to validate the TEMO trajectory
planning and guidance algorithm: a full motion flight simulation
experiment and a flight testing campaign. Positive results were
obtained from the experiments, regarding the feasibility of the
concept and acceptance from the pilots. TEMO descents typically
showed lower fuel figures than conventional step-down descents.
Moreover, RTA adherence at the initial approach fix (IAF)
showed very good performance. Time accuracy at the runway
threshold, however, did not fulfil the (very challenging) time
target accuracies. Further work is needed to enhance the current
algorithm once the aircraft is established on the instrument
landing system glideslope.
This paper presents an approach to implement linear holding (LH) for flights initially subject to ground holding, in the context of Trajectory Based Operations. The aim is to neutralize additional delays raised from the lack of coordination between various traffic management initiatives (TMIs) and without incurring extra fuel consumption. Firstly, motivated from previous works on the features of LH to absorb delays airborne, a potential applicability of LH to compensate part of the fixed ground holding is proposed. Then, the dynamic adjustment of LH in response to TMIs-associated tactical delays is formulated as a multi-stage aircraft trajectory optimization problem, addressing both pre- and post-departure additional delays. Results suggest that additional delays of 25 mins in a typical case study can be totally recovered at no extra fuel cost. A notable extent of delay reduction observed from the computational experiments further supports the benefits of LH for reducing different combinations of additional delays without consuming extra fuel.
This paper introduces a strategy to include linear
holding into air traffic flow management (ATFM) initiatives,
together with the commonly used ground holding and airborne
holding measures. In this way, ATFM performance can be
improved when handling delay assignment with uncertainty.
Firstly, a trajectory generation method is presented, aiming at
computing, per flight, the maximum linear holding realizable
using the same fuel as the original nominal flight. This
information is assumed to be computed and shared by the
different airlines and it is then used to build a network
ATFM model to optimally assign ATFM delays, in the scope
of trajectory based operations. Hence, the best distribution
of delay is optimized at given positions along the flight
trajectory (combining the three holding practices together) and
taking into account the cost of delay, especially in the fuel
consumption. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer
linear programming and solved with a commercially-of-the-shelf
solver. An illustrative example is given, showing that under the
circumstance of capacity recovered ahead of schedule, including
linear holding contributes to a notable delay reduction compared
to the case where only ground and/or airborne holding apply.
This paper presents a method to implement linear holding (LH) for flights subject to ground holding in context of the upcoming Trajectory Based Operations in air transportation, aimed at reducing additional delays raised from the lack of coordination between various traffic management initiatives (TMIs) without incurring extra fuel consumption. Firstly, motivated from previous works on the features of LH to absorb delays airborne, a potential applicability of LH to compensate part of the fixed ground holding is proposed. Then, the dynamic adjustment of LH in response to TMIs associated tactical delays is formulated as a multi-stage aircraft trajectory optimization problem, addressing both pre- and post-departure additional delays. Finally, the effects of performing LH are investigated for a particular flight, discussing the changes of vertical trajectory, speed profile, fuel consumption and flight timeline, for each step of optimization. Results suggest that additional delays of 25mins in a typical case study can be totally recovered at no extra fuel cost. A notable extent of delay reduction observed from the simulation assessment further supports the benefits of LH for reducing different combinations of additional delays.
This paper presents a method to integrate a cost-based linear holding (LH) practice, with the commonly seen ground and airborne holding, for the network air traf¿c ¿ow management (ATFM) problem. In this method, the performance of dynamic ATFM delay assignment can be improved in a more cost-ef¿cient way. A brief comparison of the three holding manners is presented ¿rst, followed by illustrating one potential applicability of the proposed LH which inspires the motivation of this paper. Then,an etworkATFM model is built based on the classic Bertsimas and Stock Patterson model, with all the three types of holding accommodated. Under the model framework, a trajectory generation algorithm is introduced, aiming at computing, per ¿ight, the realizable linear holding(i.e., LHtimebound). This information is handled andsharedbythedifferent airlinesand it is then used as a constraint factor in the network ATFM model. The dynamic delay assignment problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming and solved with a commercially-of-the-shelfsolver. Computational experiments are givens howingthattheintegrationcontributestoa notable cost reduction when network capacity changes ahead of schedule, if compared to the case where only ground and/or airborne holding apply
BUDAPEST 2.0 project aimed at showing that SESAR solutions can improve operational efficiency at small and medium-sized airports. The solutions include Remote Tower Services (which aims at increasing ATCO’s situational awareness, improving capacity and cost effectiveness), Required Navigation Performance (RNP), use of on-board systems to define automated flight paths, and aiming to an enhanced performance in terms of environment, safety and costs; and CDO Enhancement Tool, which helps air traffic controllers to better sequence arrivals and departures, particularly for continuous descent operations, which will lower the costs related to fuel and, thus, an environmental impact. This document presents the results of the demonstrations performed in the framework of BUDAPEST 2.0.
Compared with common airliners, High/Medium
Altitude Long Endurance (HALE/MALE) RPAS are lighter and
have larger wingspan. Therefore RPAS will be extremely sensitive
to vortex interactions with larger airliners, not only during
departures and arrivals, but also at medium and high altitudes
during the en-route phase. The extent of this sensitivity shall
be investigated in order to determine safe levels of separation
and come up with feasible maneuvers to avoid the effect of
wake vortex under the assumption that the RPAS may become
unrecoverable by the autopilot. For this reason, the objective
of this paper is to model the generation of en-route vortex
and quantify its impact into the airworthiness of a potentially
conflicting RPAS. To accomplish this objective, a wake vortex
generation and encounter model will be created as a first step
to define the airliner-RPAS separation requirements due to the
airliner’s vortex. Then, vortex separation requirements will be
compared to those usually employed for separation assurance.
Conclusion will show that some current separation standards
are not conservative enough when the RPAS faces an airliner
From 9-26 October 2015 the Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) in
cooperation with Delft University of Technology (DUT) has executed Clean Sky flight
trials with the Cessna Citation II research aircraft. The trials consisted of several
descents and approaches at the Eelde airport near Groningen, demonstrating the
TEMO (Time and Energy Managed Operations) concept developed in the Clean Sky
Joint Technology Initiative research programme as part of the Systems for Green
Operations (SGO) Integrated Technology Demonstrator.
A TEMO descent aims to achieve an energy-managed idle-thrust
continuous descent operation (CDO) while satisfying ATC time constraints, to
maintain runway throughput. An optimal descent plan is calculated with an advanced
on-board real-time aircraft trajectory optimisation algorithm considering forecasted
weather and aircraft performance. The optimised descent plan was executed using
the speed-on-elevator mode of an experimental Fly-By-Wire (FBW) system connected
to the pitch servo motor of the Cessna Citation II aircraft. Several TEMO conceptual
variants have been flown. It has been demonstrated that the TEMO concept enables
arrival with timing errors below 10 seconds. The project was realised with the
support of CONCORDE partners Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) and
PildoLabs from Barcelona, and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute
Intelligent Transport Systems use
communication technologies to offer real-time traffic
information services to road users and government
managers. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks is an important
component of ITS where vehicles communicate
with other vehicles and road-side infrastructures,
analyze and process received information, and
make decisions according to that.
However, features like high vehicle speeds, constant
mobility, varying topology, traffic density, etc.
induce challenges that make conventional wireless
technologies unsuitable for vehicular networks. This
paper focuses on the process of designing efficient
vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to road-side infrastructure
This paper describes a set of flight simulation
experiments carried out with the DLR’s Generic Cockpit
Simulator (GECO). A new concept named time and energy
managed operations (TEMO), which aims to enable advanced
four dimensional (4D) continuous descent operations (CDO), was
evaluated after three full days of experiments with qualified
pilots. The experiment focused to investigate the possibility of
using a 4D-controller on a modern aircraft with unmodified or
only slightly modified avionic systems. This was achieved by
executing the controller in an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) and
using the pilot to “close the loop” by entering speed and other
advisories into the autopilot Flight Control Unit (FCU). The
outcome of the experiments include subjective (questionnaires
answered by pilots) and objective (trajectory logs) data. Data
analysis showed a very good acceptance (both in terms of safety
and operability of the procedure) from the participating crews,
only with minor suggestions to be improved in future versions of
the controller and the speed advisories update rates. Good time
accuracy all along the descent trajectory was also observed.
Continuous Descent Operations (CDO) with Con-
trolled Times of Arrival (CTA) at one or several metering fixes
could enable environmentally friendly procedures without com-
promising airspace capacity. Extending the current capabilities
of state-of-the-art Flight Management Systems (FMS), the Time
and Energy Managed Operations (TEMO) concept is able to
generate optimal descent trajectories with an improved planning
and guidance strategy to meet CTA. The primary aim of this
paper is to compare the performances of TEMO (in terms of fuel
consumption and time error) with respect to a typical FMS, that
is an FMS without re-planning mechanism during descent based
on time or altitude errors. The comparison is performed through
simulation, using an A320-alike simulation model and considering
several scenarios in presence of CTA and wind uncertainties.
Results show that TEMO is capable of guiding the aircraft
along a minimum fuel trajectory still complying with a CTA,
even if significant wind prediction errors are present. For a
same scenario, a typical FMS without re-planning capabilities or
tactical time-error nulling mechanism during the descent, would
miss the CTA in most cases.
In the context of the ERAINT project, a number of human-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to study the implications of integrating a remote piloted aircraft system (RPAS) into the managed airspace. For the purpose of this study, the RPAS was assumed to be involved in surveillance missions, flying a large-endurance scan pattern. The area of surveillance was selected such that it crossed an active airway for approaches. Furthermore, the simulations also included situations in which the RPAS was involved in an emergency situation such as lost links and engine failures. From previous work, the results obtained from these simulations showed that the air traffic controllers (ATCs) could successfully manage the required separations for airspace safety assurance. Nevertheless, the number of total commands issued increased, in particular the number of requirements for altitude changes, and especially those destined to commercial aircraft. Given an aircraft's flying altitude impact on performance, one question rapidly arose: Is there an increase in flight costs for airlines as a result of the increased number of ATC commands issued to provide the necessary separation with the RPAS? For this purpose two metrics relating to time and fuel are defined such that they are targeted on quantifying the economic impact for commercial air traffic resulting from the presence of a RPAS. Both metrics are computed from the ADS-B traces of all aircraft in the sector and the results of each simulation are compared with those of a baseline simulation, in which the RPAS is not present. To improve on the comparison between each simulation's results we complement this study with a statistical analysis of the available data samples using paired t-test analyses to determine if the observed differences are statistically significant or simply due to random variability.
Pervasive data sensing is a major issue that transverses various research areas and application domains. It allows identifying people’s behaviour and patterns without overwhelming the monitored persons. Although there are many pervasive data sensing applications, they are typically focused on addressing specific problems in a single application domain, making them difficult to generalize or reuse. On the other hand, the platforms for supporting pervasive data sensing impose restrictions to the devices and operational environments that make them unsuitable for monitoring loosely-coupled or fully distributed work. In order to help address this challenge this paper present a framework that supports distributed pervasive data sensing in a generic way. Developers can use this framework to facilitate the implementations of their applications, thus reducing complexity and effort in such an activity. The framework was evaluated using simulations and also through an empirical test, and the obtained results indicate that it is useful to support such a sensing activity in loosely-coupled or fully distributed work scenarios.
Continuous descent operations (CDO) with con-
trolled times of arrival (CTA) at one or several metering fixes
could enable environmentally friendly procedures at the same
time that terminal airspace capacity is not compromised. This
paper focuses on CTA updates once the descent has been already
initiated, assessing the feasible CTA window (and associated fuel
consumption) of CDO requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake
usage along the whole descent (i.e. energy modulation through
elevator control is used to achieve different times of arrival at
the metering fixes). A multiphase optimal control problem is
formulated and solved by means of numerical methods. The
minimum and maximum times of arrival at the initial approach
fix (IAF) and final approach point (FAP) of an hypothetical
scenario are computed for an Airbus A320 descent and starting
from a wide range of initial conditions. Results show CTA
windows up to 4 minutes at the IAF and 70 seconds at the FAP.
It has been also found that the feasible CTA window is affected
by many factors, such as a previous CTA or the position of
the top of descent. Moreover, minimum fuel trajectories almost
correspond to those trajectories that minimise the time of arrival
at the metering fix for the given initial condition
High performance computing (HPC), both at hardware and software level, has demonstrated significant improve-
ments in processing large datasets in a timely manner. However, HPC in the field of air traffic management (ATM) can be much more than only a time reducing tool. It could also be used to build an ATM simulator in which distributed scenarios where decentralized elements (airspace users) interact through a centralized manager in order to generate a trajectory-optimized conflict-free scenario. In this work, we introduce an early prototype of an ATM simulator, focusing on air traffic flow management at strategic, pre-tactical and tactical levels, which allows the calculation of safety and efficiency indicators for optimized trajectories, both at individual and network level. The software architecture of the simulator, relying on a HPC cluster of computers, has been preliminary tested with a set of flights whose trajectory vertical profiles have been optimized according to two different concepts of operations: conventional cruise operations (i.e. flying at constant altitudes and according to the flight levels scheme rules) and continuous climb cruise operations (i.e., optimizing the trajectories with no vertical constraints). The novel ATM simulator has been tested to show preliminary benchmarking results between these two concepts of operations. The simulator here presented can contribute as a testbed to evaluate the potential benefits of future Trajectory Based Operations and to understand the complex relationships among the different ATM key performance areas
Matamoros, I.; Prats, X.; López, J.; Casado, E.; Vilaplana, M.; Mouillet, V.; Nuic, A.; Cavadini, L. International Conference on Research in Air Transportation p. 1-8 Data de presentació: 2016-06 Presentació treball a congrés
Reduced thrust operations are of widespread use nowadays due to their inherit benefits for engine conservation. Therefore, in order to enable realistic simulation of air traffic management (ATM) scenarios for purposes such as noise and emissions assessment, a model for reduced thrust is required.
This paper proposes a methodology for modelling flexible thrust by combining an assumed temperature (AT) polynomial model identified from manufacturer take-off performance data and public thrust models taken from typical ATM performance databases. The advantage of the proposed AT model is that it only depends on the take-off conditions —runway length, airport altitude, temperature, wind, etc. The results derived from this
methodology were compared to simulation data obtained from manufacturer’s take-off performance tools and databases. This comparison revealed that the polynomial model provides AT estimations with sufficient accuracy for their use in ATM simulation. The Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) and the Aircraft Noise and Performance (ANP) database were chosen as representative of aircraft performance models commonly used in ATM simulation.
It was observed that there is no significant degradation of the overall accuracy of their thrust models when using AT, while there is a correct capture of the corresponding thrust reduction.
Speed reduction strategies have proved to be useful
to recover delay if air traffic flow management regulations are
cancelled before initially planned. Considering that for short-
haul flights the climb and descent phases usually account for
a considerable percentage of the total trip distance, this paper
extends previous works on speed reduction in cruise to the whole
flight. A trajectory optimization software is used to compute
the maximum airborne delay (or linear holding) that can be
performed without extra fuel consumption if compared with
the nominal flight. Three cases are studied: speed reduction
only in cruise; speed reduction in the whole flight, but keeping
the nominal cruise altitude; and speed reduction for the whole
flight while also optimizing the cruise altitude to maximize delay.
Three representative flights have been simulated, showing that
the airborne delay increases significantly in the two last cases
with nearly 3-fold time for short-haul flights and 2-fold for mid-
hauls with the first case. Results also show that fuel and time are
traded along different phases of flight in such a way the airborne
delay is maximized while the total fuel burn is kept constant.
The expected growth in air traffic combined with an increased public concern for the
environment, have forced legislators to rethink the current air traffic system design. The
current air traffic system operates at its capacity limits and is expected to lead to increased
delays if traffic levels grow even further. Both in the United States and Europe, research
projects have been initiated to develop the future Air Transportation System (ATS) to
address capacity, and environmental, safety and economic issues. To address the
environmental issues during descent and approach, a novel Continuous Descent Operations
(CDO) concept, named Time and Energy Managed Operations (TEMO), has been
developed co-sponsored by the Clean Sky Joint Undertaking. It uses energy principles to
reduce fuel burn, gaseous emissions and noise nuisance whilst maintaining runway capacity.
Different from other CDO concepts, TEMO optimizes the descent by using energy
management to achieve a continuous engine-idle descent, while satisfying time constraints
on both the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) and the runway threshold. As such, TEMO uses timemetering
at two control points to facilitate flow management and arrival spacing.
TEMO is in line with SESAR step 2 capabilities, since it proposes 4D trajectory
management and is aimed at providing significant environmental benefits in the arrival phase
without negatively affecting throughput, even in high density and peak-hour operations. In
particular, TEMO addresses SESAR operational improvement (OI) TS-103: Controlled Time
of Arrival (CTA) through use of datalink .
TEMO has been validated starting from initial performance batch studies at Technology
Readiness Level (TRL) 3, up to Human-in-the-Loop studies in realistic environments using a
moving base flight simulator at TRL 5 (-).
In this paper the definition, preparation, performance and analysis of a flight test
experiment is described with the objective to demonstrate the ability of the TEMO algorithm
to provide accurate and safe aircraft guidance toward the Initial Approach Fix (IAF), and
further down to the Stabilization Point (1000 ft AGL), to demonstrate the ability of the TEMO
algorithm to meet absolute time requirements at IAF and/or runway threshold and to evaluate
the performance of the system under test (e.g. fuel usage).
The APACHE project proposes a new framework to assess European ATM performance based on simulation, optimization and performance assessment tools that will be able to capture complex interdependencies between KPAs at different modelling scales (micro, meso and macro). In this context, the purpose of APACHE is threefold:
- to evolve the Performance Scheme towards new methodologies and metrics capable of capturing with proportional detail the performance drivers of ATM to foster a progressive and performance-driven introduction of new operational and technical ATM concepts in line with SESAR;
- to make an (initial) impact assessment of long-term ATM concepts with the new APACHE Performance Scheme, to measure the impact on ATM KPAs under different assumptions in line with the SESAR ConOps 2020\; and
- to analyse the interdependencies between the different KPAs at the Pareto-frontier of the ATM performance, by finding the theoretical optimal limits for each KPA and assessing how the promotion of one KPA may actually reduce the performance of the other KPAs
An initial performance assessment of new concepts of operations will be required, covering the new concepts t: free-routing in 2D (2DFR) and in 3D (3DFR) for airline operators; dynamic airspace configuration (DAC) for air navigation service providers (ANSPs); and dynamic demand and capacity balance (dDCB) for the Network Manager (NM). All these concepts will be analysed at EU-wide and/or functional airspace block (FAB) level combined under different scenarios and case studies.
The optimization tools will be used to model the ATM performance drivers underpinning each of the the stakeholder’s business models, in particular regarding the optimization of processes for aircraft trajectory planning, sectorization planning and network safety planning. Assessment tools will be used to measure the level of KPA performances in the simulations. Tools will be provided by partners and initial versions are already available.
La tecnología moderna tiene capacidad de dar apoyo a los paradigmas de aprendizaje emergentes. Estos paradigmas sugieren que las actividades de aprendizaje actuales, caracterizadas por la ubicuidad de entornos, son más dinámicas y complejas que los contextos de aprendizaje tradicionales. Por tanto, tenemos que reformular nuestro acercamiento al aprendizaje, consiguiendo que la tecnología sirva no solo como mero soporte de información, sino como medio para reforzar el conocimiento, fomentar la colaboración, estimular la creatividad y proporcionar experiencias de aprendizaje enriquecedoras. Esta tesis doctoral está motivada por el vertiginoso crecimiento de usuarios de smartphones y el hecho de que estos son cada vez más potentes en cuanto a tecnologías de comunicación, sensores, displays, autonomía energética, etc. Por tanto, esta tesis aprovecha la ubicuidad y el desarrollo de esta tecnología, con el objetivo de reducir la brecha entre los desafíos del aprendizaje moderno y las capacidades de la tecnología actual. Los sensores integrados en los smartphones pueden ser utilizados para reconocer diversos aspectos del comportamiento individual y social de los usuarios. Por ejemplo, a través del micrófono y el Bluetooth, es posible determinar patrones de conversación, encontrar usuarios cercanos y detectar reuniones presenciales. Este hecho abre un interesante abanico de posibilidades, pudiendo monitorizar aspectos del comportamiento del usuario y proveer un feedback significativo. Dicho feedback, puede ayudar a los usuarios a reflexionar sobre su comportamiento y los efectos que provoca, con el fin de tomar medidas necesarias para mejorarlo. Proponemos un sistema de monitorización generalizado que aproveche las capacidades de los smartphones para proporcionar información a los usuarios, ayudándolos a percibir y tomar conciencia sobre diversos aspectos de las actividades que se desarrollan en contextos de aprendizaje modernos. Este sistema ofrece: (i) una plataforma de detección autónoma, que captura información compleja sobre los procesos e interacciones de aprendizaje; (ii) una infraestructura de comunicación autogestionable y; (iii) un servicio de visualización que provee ¿información de percepción¿ a estudiantes y/o profesores.Para la elaboración de este sistema nos hemos centrado en tres áreas de investigación. Primero, la descripción de una infraestructura de detección generalizada, que facilita interacciones entre smartphones y otros dispositivos. Al permitir interacciones complejas para la captura de datos entre diversos sensores, dispositivos y fuentes de datos remotos, esta infraestructura consigue mejorar la calidad de la información y ahorrar energía en el dispositivo local. Segundo, la evaluación, a través de pruebas reales, de la idoneidad de las redes ad hoc como apoyo de los diversos procesos de comunicación requeridos en la monitorización generalizada. Este área incluye un método que incrementa la escalabilidad y reduce el coste de estas redes. Tercero, el diseño de dos mecanismos de percepción que permiten la provisión flexible de información en contextos de aprendizaje dinámicos y heterogéneos. Estos mecanismos descansan en la versatilidad de los smartphones, que pueden ser utilizados directamente como displays de percepción o como puentes de comunicación que habilitan la interacción con otros displays remotos del entorno. Diferentes aspectos del sistema propuesto han sido evaluados a través de simulaciones, experimentos reales, estudios de usuarios y evaluaciones de prototipos. La evaluación experimental proporcionó evidencia empírica de la idoneidad del sistema para apoyar el desarrollo de soluciones de monitorización generalizadas. Además, las pruebas de concepto realizadas tanto en entornos de aprendizajes reales como en el laboratorio, aportaron indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos de que estos mecanismos mejoran la calidad de la información de percepción y la experiencia del usuario.
It is within the capabilities of current technology to support the emerging learning paradigms. These paradigms suggest that today’s learning activities and environments are pervas ive and require a higher level of dynamism than the traditional learning contexts. Therefore, we have to rethink our approach to learning and use technology not only as a digital information support, but also as an instrument to reinforce knowledge, foster collaboration, promote creativity and provide richer learning experiences.
Particularly, this thesis was motivated by the rapidly growing number of smartphone users and the fact that these devices are increasingly becoming more and more resource-rich, in terms of their communication and sensing technologies, display capabilities battery autonomy, etc. Hence, this dissertation benefits from the ubiquity and development of mobile technology, aiming to bridge the gap between the challenges posed by modern learning requirements and the capabilities of current technology.
The sensors embedded in smartphones can be used to capture diverse behavioural and social aspects of the users. For example, using microphone and Bluetooth is possible to identify conversation patterns, discover users in proximity and detect face-to-face meetings. This fact opens up exciting possibilities to monitor the behaviour of the user and to provide meaningful feedback. This feedback offers useful information that can help people be aware of and reflect on their behaviour and its effects, and take the necessary actions to improve them.
Consequently, we propose a pervasive monitoring system that take advantage of the capabilities of modern smartphones, us ing them to s upport the awarenes s provis ion about as pects of the activities that take place in today’s pervas ive learning environments. This pervasive monitoring system provides (i) an autonomous sensing platform to capture complex information about processes and interactions that take place across multiple learning environments, (ii) an on-demand and s elf-m anaged communication infras tructure, and (ii) a dis play facility to provide “awarenes s inform ation” to the s tudents and/or lecturers.
For the proposed system, we followed a research approach that have three main components. First, the description of a generalized framework for pervasive sensing that enables collaborative sensing interactions between smartphones and other types of devices. By allowing complex data capture interactions with diverse remote sensors, devices and data sources, this framework allows to improve the information quality while saving energy in the local device. Second, the evaluation, through a real-world deployment, of the suitability of ad hoc networks to support the diverse communication processes required for pervasive monitoring. This component also includes a method to improve the scalability and reduce the costs of these networks. Third, the design of two awareness mechanisms to allow flexible provision of information in dynamic and heterogeneous learning contexts. These mechanisms rely on the use of smartphones as adaptable devices that can be used directly as awareness displays or as communication bridges to enable interaction with other remote displays available in the environment.
Diverse aspects of the proposed system were evaluated through a number of simulations, real-world experiments, user studies and prototype evaluations. The experimental evaluation of the data capture and communication aspects of the system provided empirical evidence of the usefulness and suitability of the proposed approach to support the development of pervasive monitoring solutions. In addition, the proof-of-concept deployments of the proposed awareness mechanisms, performed in both laboratory and real-world learning environments, provided quantitative and qualitative indicators that such mechanisms improve the quality of the awareness information and the user experience
La tecnología moderna tiene capacidad de dar apoyo a los paradigmas de aprendizaje emergentes. Estos paradigmas sugieren que las actividades de aprendizaje actuales, caracterizadas por la ubicuidad de entornos, son más dinámicas y complejas que los contextos de aprendizaje tradicionales. Por tanto, tenemos que reformular nuestro acercamiento al aprendizaje, consiguiendo que la tecnología sirva no solo como mero soporte de información, sino como medio para reforzar el conocimiento, fomentar la colaboración, estimular la creatividad y proporcionar experiencias de aprendizaje enriquecedoras.
Esta tesis doctoral está motivada por el vertiginoso crecimiento de usuarios de smartphones y el hecho de que estos son cada vez más potentes en cuanto a tecnologías de comunicación, sensores, displays, autonomía energética, etc. Por tanto, esta tesis aprovecha la ubicuidad y el desarrollo de esta tecnología, con el objetivo de reducir la brecha entre los desafíos del aprendizaje moderno y las capacidades de la tecnología actual.
Los sensores integrados en los smartphones pueden ser utilizados para reconocer diversos aspectos del comportamiento individual y social de los usuarios. Por ejemplo, a través del micrófono y el Bluetooth, es posible determinar patrones de conversación, encontrar usuarios cercanos y detectar reuniones presenciales. Este hecho abre un interesante abanico de posibilidades, pudiendo monitorizar aspectos del comportamiento del usuario y proveer un feedback significativo. Dicho feedback, puede ayudar a los usuarios a reflexionar sobre su comportamiento y los efectos que provoca, con el fin de tomar medidas necesarias para mejorarlo.
Proponemos un sistema de monitorización generalizado que aproveche las capacidades de los smartphones para proporcionar información a los usuarios, ayudándolos a percibir y tomar conciencia sobre diversos aspectos de las actividades que se desarrollan en contextos de aprendizaje modernos. Este sistema ofrece: (i) una plataforma de detección autónoma, que captura información compleja sobre los procesos e interacciones de aprendizaje; (ii) una infraestructura de comunicación autogestionable y; (iii) un servicio de visualización que provee “información de percepción” a estudiantes y/o profesores.
Para la elaboración de este sistema nos hemos centrado en tres áreas de investigación. Primero, la descripción de una infraestructura de detección generalizada, que facilita interacciones entre smartphones y otros dispositivos. Al permitir interacciones complejas para la captura de datos entre diversos sensores, dispositivos y fuentes de datos remotos, esta infraestructura consigue mejorar la calidad de la información y ahorrar energía en el dispositivo local. Segundo, la evaluación, a través de pruebas reales, de la idoneidad de las redes ad hoc como apoyo de los diversos procesos de comunicación requeridos en la monitorización generalizada. Este área incluye un método que incrementa la escalabilidad y
reduce el coste de estas redes. Tercero, el diseño de dos mecanismos de percepción que permiten la provisión flexible de información en contextos de aprendizaje dinámicos y heterogéneos. Estos mecanismos descansan en la versatilidad de los smartphones, que pueden ser utilizados directamente como displays de percepción o como puentes de comunicación que habilitan la interacción con otros displays remotos del entorno.
Diferentes aspectos del sistema propuesto han sido evaluados a través de simulaciones, experimentos reales, estudios de usuarios y evaluaciones de prototipos. La evaluación experimental proporcionó evidencia empírica de la idoneidad del sistema para apoyar el desarrollo de soluciones de monitorización generalizadas. Además, las pruebas de concepto realizadas tanto en entornos de aprendizajes reales como en el laboratorio, aportaron indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos de que estos mecanismos mejoran la calidad de la información de percepción y la experiencia del usuario.