The use of guided wave-based approaches presents some advantages in the structural inspection and damage identification processes. It is driven by the fact that these waves can propagate over relatively long distances and are able to interact sensitively with and uniquely with different types of defects, however, its use in Structural Health Monitoring requires the development of efficient SHM methodologies to analyse and provide confident results. To do that, signal processing techniques for the correct interpretation of the complex ultrasonic waves are a need. In this sense, it is necessary to still work on the
continuous search of methodologies for performing each one of the steps in the damage identification. As contribution, this paper presents a damage classification methodology which includes the use of data collected from a structure under different structural states by means of a piezoelectric sensor network. The document presents the description of the methodology including a description of the data reduction and the use of non-linear analysis of the information with hierarchical non-linear principal component analysis and some non-linear damage indices. The methodology is preliminary evaluated with a CFRP sandwich structure with some damages on the multi-layered composite sandwich structure which were intentionally produced to simulate different damage mechanisms, i.e. delamination and cracking of the skin. Finally, results are presented and discussed to remark the advantages and disadvantages of this methodology.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are well-known by its advantages in several applications such as surveillance and monitoring for instance in agricultural applications or fire control among others. These missions can be associated to the robotics area due to the smart applications and tasks that can be performed by these systems autonomously.
Although its designs and developments are in most of the cases joined to the applications, currently it is possible to design or acquire a UAV for specific applications by defining features about the task to perform. One of the problems with the use of UAV is attached to the variations of the operational conditions which can produce some damages during
operation, landing and de-landing tasks. Since several damages can affect the structural state of these vehicles, the use of a Structural Health Monitoring system is a necessity to provide an automatic monitoring system. This work includes a description of a preliminary
damage detection and classification system for a UAV. The system includes the description of the data analysis from a piezoelectric sensor network with independent component analysis and machine learning approaches. Some tests are available to validate the system with data from a wing of the UAV called VANT Solvendus from the
Fundación Universitaria Los Libertadores. Tests and the application of the methodology for detecting and classifying damage are performed to a part of the UAV wing skin and results show the advantage of the methodology.
Reset controllers are commonly used to smooth the transient response of systems. We use this technique to improve a standard baseline pitch controller for offshore wind turbines (WTs). The introduction of this strategy enhances the overall performance of the WT. In particular, the fore-aft and side-to-side accelerations of the WT tower are significantly reduced, whilst a steadier power output is obtained, in comparison to the standard baseline pitch controller. Furthermore, our designed pitch control’s main advantage, with respect to the baseline, is its ease of implementation and reduced complexity as it does not require a gain-scheduling technique, nor pitch position measurement (thus, it is insensitive to pitch sensor faults). The proposed approach has been simulated on the NREL 5-MW prototype offshore turbine model, mounted on a jacket support. The simulations are carried out using the aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulator FAST, and key observations are thoroughly discussed.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a very important area in a wide spectrum of fields and engineering applications. With an SHM system, it is possible to reduce the number of non-necessary inspection tasks, the associated risk and the maintenance cost in a wide range of structures during their lifetime. One of the problems in the detection and classification of damage are the constant changes in the operational and environmental conditions. Small changes of these conditions can be considered by the SHM system as damage even though the structure is healthy. Several applications for monitoring of structures have been developed and reported in the literature, and some of them include temperature compensation techniques. In real applications, however, digital processing technologies have proven their value by: (i) offering a very interesting way to acquire information from the structures under test; (ii) applying methodologies to provide a robust analysis; and (iii) performing a damage identification with a practical useful accuracy. This work shows the implementation of an SHM system based on the use of piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for inspecting a structure subjected to temperature changes. The methodology includes the use of multivariate analysis, sensor data fusion and machine learning approaches. The methodology is tested and evaluated with aluminum and composite structures that are subjected to temperature variations. Results show that damage can be detected and classified in all of the cases in spite of the temperature changes
An important goal for students in engineering education is the ability to present and defend a project in front of a technical audience. We have designed an activity for helping students to work the independent learning and communication skills, while they are introduced in the dynamics of a conference. In this activity, students prepare and present a poster at a popular physics conference on relativity. This activity is shown to provide them with communication skills, related to generic skills at the core of Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) degrees, and which are relevant in most of the duties of an engineer.
Sanchez, F.; Segalas, J.; Cabre, J.; Climent, J.; Lopez, D.; Martin, C.; Vidal, E. Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo p. 348-359 Data de presentació: 2017-03-29 Presentació treball a congrés
En esta comunicación se presenta un mapa de la competencia Sostenibilidad fácilmente adaptable a cualquier titulación de educación superior. El mapa ha sido desarrollado dentro del proyecto EDINSOST, cuyo objetivo es la formación de titulados capaces de liderar la resolución de los retos de nuestra sociedad mediante la integración de la formación en competencias en Sostenibilidad en el Sistema Universitario Español.
This communication presents a map of the competency Sustainability which is easily adaptable to any degree in higher education. The map has been developed within the EDINSOST project, whose objective is the training of graduates able of leading the resolution of the challenges of our society through the integration of the training in
competences in Sustainability in the Spanish University System.
Avec cette communication on présente une carte de la compétence Durabilité facilement adaptable à tout degré d’éducation supérieur. Cette carte a été développé au sein du projet EDINSOST et son but est la formation de diplômés capables de diriger la résolution des défis de notre société en intégrant la formation de compétences en matière de Durabilité dans le Système Universitaire Espagnol.
Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora.
This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.
Civil and military structures are susceptible and vulnerable to damage due to the environmental and operational conditions. Therefore, the implementation of technology to provide robust solutions in damage identification (by using signals acquired directly from the structure) is a requirement to reduce operational and maintenance costs. In this sense, the use of sensors permanently attached to the structures has demonstrated a great versatility and benefit since the inspection system can be automated. This automation is carried out with signal processing tasks with the aim of a pattern recognition analysis. This work presents the detailed description of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on the use of a piezoelectric (PZT) active system. The SHM system includes: (i) the use of a piezoelectric sensor network to excite the structure and collect the measured dynamic response, in several actuation phases; (ii) data organization; (iii) advanced signal processing techniques to define the feature vectors; and finally; (iv) the nearest neighbor algorithm as a machine learning approach to classify different kinds of damage. A description of the experimental setup, the experimental validation and a discussion of the results from two different structures are included and analyzed.
El Diccionari de química ofereix a la consulta pública més de vuit-cents termes dels àmbits de la química orgànica i la química inorgànica. Es tracta d’un subconjunt de termes que forma part d’un projecte més ampli de sistematització de terminologia química en català que s’anirà completant amb la publicació progressiva de terminologia de més branques d’aquesta ciència. L'obra es complementa amb una infografia interactiva de la taula periòdica dels elements.
Among all the elements that are integrated into a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, methods or strategies for damage detection and classification are nowadays playing a key role in enhancing the operational reliability of critical structures in several industrial sectors. The main contribution of this paper is the application of a new methodology to detect and classify structural changes. The methodology is based on: 1) an artificial immune system (AIS) and the notion of affinity is used for the sake of damage detection; 2) a fuzzy c-means algorithm is used for damage classification. One of the advantages of the proposed methodology is the fact that to develop and validate the strategy, a model is not needed. Additionally, and in contrast to standard Lamb waves-based methods, there is no need to directly analyse the complex time-domain traces containing overlapping, multimodal and frequency dispersive wave propagation that distorts the signals and difficult the analysis. The proposed methodology is applied to data coming from two sections of an aircraft skin panel. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is able to accurately detect damage as well as classify those damages.
Calm, R.; Masià, R.; Olivé, C.; Pares, N.; Pozo, F.; Ripoll, J.; Sancho-Vinuesa, T. Journal of technology and science education Vol. 7, num. 2, p. 221-230 DOI: 10.3926/jotse.253 Data de publicació: 2017 Article en revista
Calculus courses often present a large number of difficulties to undergraduate students of scientific studies, especially in engineering degrees. These difficulties are sometimes related to teaching and assessment strategies. In this paper, a teaching innovation experience is presented within the framework of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. This teaching experience is focused on a continuous assessment through a systematic use of the so-called WIRIS quizzes. Academic outcomes are very positive from both quantitative and qualitative viewpoints.
The aim of this paper is to analyze what generic competencies at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC·BarcelonaTech) are most evaluated by the teaching staff belonging to the first curricular block of industrial engineering degree courses at the Barcelona Escola Universitaria d’Enginyeria Tècnica Industrial (EUETIB), and also to relate these competencies to the assessment tools and the types of session most frequently used in the evaluation of the said competencies.
Furthermore, it is intended to determine the level of acquisition of the generic competencies (related to their profession) as perceived by the students themselves during their course of study and their completion of the Final Year Degree Project (TFG).
To that end, a group of 140 university teachers and a population of 145 students was each the object of an anonymous online survey while they were performing on the Final Year Degree Project (TFG).
The results of this survey show that the competencies most evaluated by the university teaching staff, in order of importance, are as follows: Autonomous learning, the effective use of information resources, teamwork, and good oral and written communication, while the most frequently used tools of assessment are the rubrics. Autonomous learning is the generic competence perceived by the students as being the one most acquired during their completion of the TFG.
The research-work (RW) is part of an official high school curriculum in Catalonia. The relevance of the proposal focuses on the fact that it complements the traditional tutoring project and is open to all educational levels with the same methodology. The main goal is that the students enter into the world of research and experience this as a bridge between school and university. It
emphasises the methodology of teaching and learning in the development of research and combines two aspects of investigation: written work and oral presentation. It uses different free services platforms of Google and Google Classroom, a suite of free productivity tools for classroom collaboration. This method enables the educational community to approach to the world of research and allows them certain freedom to organise the development of the RW under the supervision of a tutor, and follow the schedule of presentations defined in the calendar. It allows students to create a trajectory of learning that begins at school and continues throughout life.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an important research area, which interest is the damage identification process. Different information about the state of the structure can be obtained in the process, among them, detection, localization and classification of damages are mainly studied in order to avoid unnecessary maintenance procedures in civilian and military structures in several applications. To carry out SHM in practice, two different approaches are used, the first is based on modelling which requires to build a very detailed model of the structure, while the second is by means of data-driven approaches which use information collected from the structure under different structural states and perform an analysis by means of data analysis . For the latter, statistical analysis and pattern recognition have demonstrated its effectiveness in the damage identification process because real information is obtained from the structure through sensors installed permanently to the observed object allowing a real-time monitoring. This chapter describes a damage detection and classification methodology, which makes use of a piezoelectric active system which works in several actuation phases and that is attached to the structure under evaluation, principal component analysis, and machine learning algorithms working as a pattern recognition methodology. In the chapter, the description of the developed approach and the results when it is tested in one aluminum plate are also included.
En el presente artículo se revisan sucintamente las posibilidades y capacidades educativas de la ciencia ficción en los libros de texto, y se presentan ejemplos de cómo plantear la ciencia ficción en actividades introductorias a los contenidos curriculares, a la vez que introducir al alumnado en la ciencia ficción. A tal efecto, se muestra como ejemplo el enfoque de algunas actividades, publicadas recientemente para nuevos libros de texto de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria, bajo las directrices de la LOMCE.
This work addresses the problem of online fault detection of an advanced wind turbine benchmark under actuators (pitch and torque) and sensors (pitch angle measurement) faults of different type. The fault detection scheme starts by computing the baseline principal component analysis (PCA) model from the healthy wind turbine. Subsequently, when the structure is inspected or supervised, new measurements are obtained and projected into the baseline PCA model. When both sets of data are compared, a statistical hypothesis testing is used to make a decision on whether or not the wind turbine presents some fault. The effectiveness of the proposed fault-detection scheme is illustrated by numerical simulations on a well-known large wind turbine in the presence of wind turbulence and realistic fault scenarios.
Hernandez Fernandez, A.; Casas, B.; Ferrer-i-Cancho, R.; Baixeries, J. International Conference on Statistical Language and Speech Processing p. 19-29 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45925-7_2 Data de presentació: 2016-10-12 Presentació treball a congrés
The pioneering research of G.K. Zipf on the relationship between word frequency and other word features led to the formulation of various linguistic laws. Here we focus on a couple of them: the meaning-frequency law, i.e. the tendency of more frequent words to be more polysemous, and the law of abbreviation, i.e. the tendency of more frequent words to be shorter. Here we evaluate the robustness of these laws in contexts where they have not been explored yet to our knowledge. The recovery of the laws again in new conditions provides support for the hypothesis that they originate from abstract mechanisms.
Teaching fundamentals of programming is a complex task that involves the students’ acquisition of diverse knowledge and skills. It is also well known that programming often requires a certain degree of creativity. There are some studies on how to foster creativity with programming, but few studies have analyzed the influence of students creativity on their performance as programmers. In this paper we present the results of a study, with a sample of 89 freshmen engineering students. Our results suggest (p<0.01) that a high level of creativity is correlated with achieving excellence in programming. Creativity is a generic competence which is not currently covered with in most engineering curricula, and we conclude it should be taken into account. Females, diverse thinking student and some disadvantage groups may benefit from a free-thinking environment in the classroom, in particular at their first-year in college.
A survey we conducted a few years ago concluded
that higher education teachers should have the following
competences: interpersonal, methodological, communicative, planning and management, teamwork and innovation. The authors of this work belong to the Institute in charge of the lecturer-training program at our university, which is basically a
technical one. In order to improve our training program, we pose the following research questions: What are the competences that lecturers perceive as less important. Do our university teachers (engineering teachers) have a different perception of the importance of the different lecturer competences compared to that of other teachers? The results we present in this paper come from a survey that was sent to a total of 15,209 teachers belonging to public universities in our community, and we received a total of 2,347 valid answers. As a result of this study,
we found which competences are those with a significantly bad rating by lecturers in general, and our lecturers in particular. We analyze what measures should be introduce into our teacher training program.
Sanchez, F.; Cabre, J.; Alier, M.; Vidal, E.; Lopez, D.; Martin, C.; Garcia, J. IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference p. 1-9 DOI: 10.1109/FIE.2016.7757468 Data de presentació: 2016-10 Presentació treball a congrés
This paper presents a tool developed to help engineers to design and develop sustainable projects. The tool has been designed to introduce and evaluate the sustainability of engineering projects in general, but here we show its application to assess the final project of an engineering degree. This tool is a guide for students to introduce and estimate the sustainability of their projects, but it also helps teachers to assess them. The tool is based on the Socratic Methodology and consists of a matrix where each cell contains several questions that students must consider during the project development and which they must answer in their project report. A positive or negative mark is assigned to every cell, and the sum of all marks states the project sustainability. However, the result is not as simplistic as a final
number, but a descriptive sustainability analysis where questions are answered and every mark justified. A pilot test with some students has obtained good results, but the first Final Degree Project using this methodology will be read in July 2016.
Se ha discutido mucho sobre los inconvenientes de los exámenes, siendo criticados en ocasiones por fomentar el aprendizaje superficial. Aunque muchos profesores estemos de acuerdo, nos preguntamos ¿por qué actividades se pueden sustituir? Existen experiencias para eliminar el uso de exámenes, pero la mayoría son criticadas por realizarse sobre grupos pequeños con muchas actividades evaluadoras. Este trabajo presenta diversas estrategias y actividades realizadas en una asignatura del grado de Informática para poder eliminar los exámenes consiguiendo al mismo tiempo un alto nivel de aprendizaje. La experiencia se ha realizado sobre un grupo pequeño, pero ante la presión de nuestro centro por aumentar la matrícula, se están diseñando las actividades para seguir garantizando una buena experiencia educativa sin incrementar el trabajo del profesor.
Ruiz, X.; Dubert, D.; Gavalda, F.; Perez-Poch, A.; Domènech-Vadillo, E.; Pascual, V. International journal of psychophysiology Vol. 108, p. 77 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.07.248 Data de publicació: 2016-09 Article en revista
In the last years, increased attention directed towards the effect
of the hyper/hypogravity on human body was reported, due to the
great interest in raising the spatial mission. To understand the effect
of short weightlessness periods (6-8 s) on psychophysiological
changes in human brain activity of healthy subjects, and how these
changes may affect psychologically the person, present work reports
the results obtained during a parabolic flight campaign effected using
a small single-engine aerobatic plane. Six healthy volunteers
attended this campaign. The parabolic flight was characterized by
gravity variations from 1 g to approximately 3 g, so called hypergravity
phase, followed by reduced gravity down to 0.05 g, so called
hypogravity phase and ending with second hypergravity period,
reaching 2 g. During the flight, the plain performed 12 parabolas in
total, describing two types of experiments: the first six parabolas the
individuals had their eyes open followed immediately by last six
ones, with the eyes closed. Electroencephalogram (EEG), has been
continuously recorded during the entire flight for all volunteers. EEG
recorded data were first filtered by using band pass filter (fc =8–
40 Hz) discarding much of the muscle artifacts and then two
Independent Component Analysis algorithms were applied with the
aim of removing the remaining artifacts (eye blinks, muscle
artifacts). Only, clean parabolas were considered for this study.
Intracranial bioelectrical activity was evaluated by applying Standardized
Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography
(sLORETA). In earlier work [Dubert et al. 2015] we discovered that
changes of brain activity involving the visual cortex (open eyes
experiment) and the temporal lobe (closed eyes experiment) were
detected. The global intracranial activity, by lobes, was for the first
time presented as a temporal evolution along the parabola. Same
temporal evolution of physiological and phychological changes in
human brain under hypo/hypergravity conditions, respectively and
for different healthy subjects is proposed within present report, as
general objective. Expected results could differentiate some kind of
patterns of human adaptability/inadaptability to extreme gravity
conditions. Though, the emotional implications of each of the
subjects, due to the specific conditions of the flight, could have an
effect on one´s brain responses, so that these changes may not be
directly related to hyper/hypogravity conditions.
The race to put a person on the Moon motivated and captivated the imagination of USA society and the community worldwide. This led to an unprecedented investment in science, technology and the space program, which eventually resulted in a successful Moon landing in 1969. Current estimations state that, for every dollar invested in space technology, there is a return of more than five dollars for the country's GDP. However, public opinion worldwide does not perceive this investment as a benefit for the society. The moonshot was a challenge, an idea, a dream that aligned a whole society towards progress. To change society's vision about space, our proposal is to promote an outrageously ambitious, exciting and motivating Engineering project. While this project may be extremely difficult to implement, it can be envisioned, brainstormed, analyzed, and even brought to the attention of policy makers.
It would involve the design of the greatest Engineering work in space, even greater than the International Space Station (ISS). This endeavor would also help to raise awareness in our society about the Earth's sustainability. To that end, the project would drive a circular economy requiring the development of technologies that in the mid-term would reverse climate change. We believe that involving students from different backgrounds in this project would be vital to attract the interest of future generations in Aeronautics and Space research. In order to do this, we propose a number of outreach activities at all different teaching levels. We also propose the organization of an international contest for different ages, in which student groups would submit innovative proposals for different technologies that
would be developed throughout the project. Furthermore, in order to raise awareness in our society, the project should generate a debate.
The project would consist of the design and construction of a Space Station similar to that of the Star Wars “Death Star”, but without its weaponry and making the most of the publicity around and the revived interest in the Star Wars movies. Its construction would be feasible within a reasonable period of time, and the design would involve international, intercultural and multidisciplinary student teams. This paper outlines the principles that underpin the viability of this project. It also proposes a communication plan for universities as well as an outreach plan for the public at large. Finally, it defines a strategy for developing sustainable projects and assessing the students' learning outcomes.
The race to put a person on the Moon motivated and captivated the imagination of USA society and the community
worldwide. This led to an unprecedented investment in science, technology and the space program, which eventually
resulted in a successful Moon landing in 1969. Current estimations state that, for every dollar invested in space
technology, there is a return of more than five dollars for the country's GDP. However, public opinion worldwide
does not perceive this investment as a benefit for the society. The moonshot was a challenge, an idea, a dream that
aligned a whole society towards progress. To change society's vision about space, our proposal is to promote an
outrageously ambitious, exciting and motivating Engineering project. While this project may be extremely difficult
to implement, it can be envisioned, brainstormed, analyzed, and even brought to the attention of policy makers.
It would involve the design of the greatest Engineering work in space, even greater than the International Space
Station (ISS). This endeavor would also help to raise awareness in our society about the Earth's sustainability. To
that end, the project would drive a circular economy requiring the development of technologies that in the mid-term
would reverse climate change. We believe that involving students from different backgrounds in this project would
be vital to attract the interest of future generations in Aeronautics and Space research. In order to do this, we propose
a number of outreach activities at all different teaching levels. We also propose the organization of an international
contest for different ages, in which student groups would submit innovative proposals for different technologies that
would be developed throughout the project. Furthermore, in order to raise awareness in our society, the project
should generate a debate.
The project would consist of the design and construction of a Space Station similar to that of the Star Wars “Death
Star”, but without its weaponry and making the most of the publicity around and the revived interest in the Star Wars
movies. Its construction would be feasible within a reasonable period of time, and the design would involve
international, intercultural and multidisciplinary student teams. This paper outlines the principles that underpin the
viability of this project. It also proposes a communication plan for universities as well as an outreach plan for the
public at large. Finally, it defines a strategy for developing sustainable projects and assessing the students' learning
We propose a new software architecture based on the stakeholder analysis of a space endeavour. The information system architectures currently in consideration in the space area are mostly atomized and do not take into account the relevant role of the stakeholders that create value and momentum to the space activities. We first propose that the value chain vector should be considered, in order to identify which stakeholders are most relevant to any space endeavor. We state that from a strategic point of view, the identification and analysis of stakeholders adding value to the process should be the core of the design process.
Exploration missions require that people involved in these areas make flow the benefit, tangible or intangible that emerges from the space activity. In the process of creating a value flow model framework, a number of decisions have to be made in order to simplify the value loops, and make the model easily understood. Value loops are defined as value chains that return to the starting stakeholder. Simplification of this map is a non-standard procedure, and is dependent on the level of detail needed in the reengineering. The overall system is then redesigned in order to help the value chain grow, and to lessen interferences and expenditure of resources on to areas that do not really add value in the process. Some metrics can be defined and characterized within the model: individuals, companies, Gross Domestic Product created, public awareness, capital flow, etc. The software is able then to simulate the process of industry development and growth, providing clues on which are the optimal stakeholders’ architecture for maximizing the overall benefits for all partners. .The implementation of such simulation is done via a neural network that is integrated in the software, with an easy user-friendly interface. Results from different scenarios simulation show consistent findings with what are the recent developments in the space sectors due to the appearance of more private companies in the space exploration field. Results are provided in the paper for different space mission scenarios, private and public ones, with conclusions and recommendations, regarding the optimal organization of the different stakeholders involved. In conclusion, our system shows to be capable of predicting the optimal way to efficiently process knowledge through a complex information system, including a stakeholders’ diversity, as we usually find in an international public-private space endeavour.
This paper reports on different innovative research and educational activities related to parabolic flights conducted in Barcelona, based at Sabadell Airport and operated by Aeroclub Barcelona-Sabadell, since 2006. A CAP10B single-engine aerobatic aircraft is used, operating in Visual Flight conditions (VFR). Results from test flights have shown that these aircraft provide an environment of hypogravity for small experiments with a gravity quality of at least 0.01 g0 for as long as 8.5 seconds. An experimenter may operate her or his own experiment in parabolic flight from within the aircraft cockpit.
A specific flight simulator based on SolidWorks was developed to optimize the maneuvres. This software was used to later train the pilots and get less residual accelerations during the hypogravity period. Results from recent test flights show that these advancements have significally improved the gravity quality of the platform. Sensitivity to wind gusts have been analyzed. According to our analysis, acceptable wind conditions are a maximum of 15 knots of horizontal gusts, whereas thermal and vertical gusts should be avoided.
Research campaigns and student campaigns have since 2008 been conducted. A student campaign consists of between 2 and 6 local flights, where the student conducts her or his experiment on board during every flight. A local flight provides up to 12 parabolas for each subject. These educational campaigns are known as the ”Barcelona Zero-G Challenge”, an international contest aimed at motivating students to conduct research in this field. A total of 12 students have flown their experiments on board the aircraft in 3 different educational campaigns (2010, 2011 and 2014), having published their results in relevant symposiums and scientific journals. These campaigns have attracted media attention and have promoted public awareness on aeronautical and space studies. The projects have been carefully peer- reviewed and selected by members of ELGRA (European Low Gravity Research Association) and ESA Education. A new edition of this contest is underway, with the winners expected to fly their experiment in 2017. Furthermore, students from our own University, UPC, have the opportunity of designing and testing their experiments within the framework of this parabolic flights platform. Further information on the contest ”Barcelona Zero-G Challenge” can be found at: window2theuniverse.org. In conclusion, this platform has shown to be excellent for educational and outreach campaigns, and also as a testbed for a proof-of-concept, before accessing other microgravity platforms.
In Catalonia (Spain), each university is required by law to offer lecturers a learning framework. This requirement is met by specialized centers: at our technical university, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) this center is the Institute for Education Sciences (ICE), to which the authors of this article belong. This institute offers training to both new and senior lecturers. This training is voluntary because no specific teacher training background is required for teaching at the university, other than knowledge of the subject to be taught.
UPC only offers degrees in architecture, mathematics and engineering. We do not have schools and departments of psychology or education, or a tradition of social science methods among our faculty. Our lecturers do have the technical competences required for teaching, but not necessarily the professional competences required for good teaching practice. This is particularly problematic in university of engineering studies, which traditionally have one of the highest dropout rates in higher education.
The opinions of lecturers on their own teaching depend on the students they have had, the subject they teach, their previous experience and the beliefs that guide their work. These beliefs are consistent with and depend on the teaching style of each lecturer, so they are fairly stable and resistant to change. It is difficult for a lecturer to Change her or his beliefs, particularly if they are intuitively reasonable. For such a change to occur, the lecturer has to feel somewhat dissatisfied. In addition, the lecturer must be offered an intelligible and apparently useful alternative; and finally, the lecturer has to find a way to connect these new beliefs with their previous ones. Lecturer training in Engineering has been studied in recent years. The studies focus on the methods and tools required for quality teaching practice. However, a paradigm shift in learning is taking place. In the European Higher Education Area we are moving from content-based to competence-based learning. We therefore believe that lecturer training should also be based on competences such as communication capability, and syllabus planning and management.
To conduct experiments under abrupt changes in g-levels, a single-engine aerobatic aircraft has been used, providing 6-8 seconds of reduced gravity, preceded and followed by 5-7 seconds of hypergravity periods. Due to the specific conditions of the flight and previous findings , the hypothesis of the present work lies on the idea that some sensory inputs could have a notorious effect on brain final responses when gravity is altered. Therefore, this study focuses on the evaluation of such hypothesis, based on the analysis of the evolution in time of intracranial activity of limbic, visual and auditory cortices. Five subjects (N=5, age 41¿14 years) have flown in parabolic flight with their eyes both open and closed. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded with an Emotive Epoc headset, synchronized with a triaxial accelerometer. The intracranial brain bioelectric activity (standardized current density) throughout the parabola, was calculated by applying Standard Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography, and it was analyzed for the limbic, visual and auditory cortices. Intracranial activity of the Temporal, Parietal and Occipital lobes were carried out as well in order to compare the different periods/phases of the flight. Results detected a lower brain activity during the hypogravity phase in all lobes and cortices, only in the case of open eyes. The bioelectrical brain activity along the parabola showed similar patterns in all lobes and cortices, when visual inputs are highlighted. Suppressing the sight, two major behaviors were detected in brain activity: one for temporal lobe and auditory cortex, and second one for the rest of the lobes and visual cortex. It Seemed that, flying with closed eyes, other sensory stimuli were enhanced, in this case the auditory cortex. To confirm the validity of the results two-way ANOVA (factors lobe/phases) and Fisher post hoc test have been applied on mean intracranial activity values in all cases. Spectral entropy evolution in time has been considered as a fast indicator of the sudden extracranial brain activity variation during short g-changes. For open eyes, spectral entropy values indicated a slight decrease at the onset of the hypogravity phase, whereas in case of closed eyes, this change was detected in the last seconds of the parabola, even though these fluctuations were statistically non-significant. Results suggest that some of the sensory inputs can indeed have an impact on brain final response, when gravity conditions are altered.
Numerical simulations of the cardiovascular system are particularly important in scenarios where it is difficult to experiment different weightlessness exposure conditions. Technological advances in terms of computational power in the last years, and improvement of algorithms have recently made these techniques more reliable. We report in this paper results from extensive simulations undertaken in a computing facility in our University (UPC BarcelonaTech) aimed at evaluate the risks involved in a long-term exposure to reduced gravity loads for a very extensive range of possible mission scenarios. The simulation allows to introduce different levels of exposure to hypo or hypergravity, and analyze the consequences on relevant figures of cardiovascular deconditioning, such as heart rate, mean stroke volume or vascular resistance. Neurological or thermic stress or aerobic exercise can also be applied in order to better emulate a realistic long-term space mission comprising, for example, Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) or physical exercise as countermeasures. Gender differences have also been studied, with significant different recommendations given as outcomes of the simulation, for both men and female astronauts. Our model is based on the previous works form Melchier et al. or Heldt et al. who described in analytical terms the process of orthostatic intolerance due to gravity alterations being applied on a human subject. We incorporated these Runge-Kutta equations by using Matlab® and Simulink® software. Results from these models were validated in parabolic flight. We later developed this model to take into account all control system parts involved in the human cardiovascular system, and we finally achieved an electrical-like control model in which we could easily measure the output of the system (vascular resistance, blood volume etc.) as a means to assess the level of cardiovascular deconditioning. Step-by-step changes of gravity and thermal stress were later applied, as well as other real-like mission inputs. Different scenarios of Moon and Mars exploration missions are considered, and their associated risks are quantified. The more relevant results are provided, including the finding that the vascular resistance deconditioning appears to be alike in both microgravity and the reduced gravity at the level of the Moon; which raises concerns for a successful manned Mars mission scenario. This work may contribute to a better understanding of the underlying processes involved for both women in man adaptation to long-term microgravity, and shows the potential of such numerical simulations for designing manned mission scenarios.
El Aprendizaje-Servicio (ApS) ha demostrado ser una de las metodologías de aprendizaje más efectivas al combinar el
desarrollo de las competencias técnicas de los estudiantes con su aplicación a un proyecto real y útil para la comunidad. Cuando dicho proyecto se enmarca en una actividad de cooperación, ya sea con una entidad local o en un país del sur, los estudiantes descubren un mundo nuevo y desconocido para la mayoría de ellos.
El programa UPC-ReuTIlitza es una forma de canalizar el ApS a través de actividades de cooperación. El programa consiste,
fundamentalmente, en poner a punto ordenadores procedentes de donaciones de empresas para ser donados a entidades que tienen fines sociales. Se consigue así dar una nueva vida a ordenadores que de otra forma serían reciclados, en el mejor de los casos, se fomenta la economía circular y se contribuye a la formación de los estudiantes en la competencia Sostenibilidad y compromiso social.
Desde que el programa comenzó su andadura se han entregado más de 1600 ordenadores a 181 entidades en 28 países, y han participado casi 3000 estudiantes.
We report on different research and educational activities related to parabolic flights conducted in Barcelona since 2008. We use a CAP10B single-engine aerobatic aircraft flying out of Sabadell Airport and operating in visual flight conditions providing up to 8 seconds of hypogravity for each parabola. Aside from biomedical experiments being conducted, different student teams have flown in parabolic flights in the framework of the international contest ‘Barcelona Zero-G Challenge’, and have published their results in relevant symposiums and scientific journals. The platform can certainly be a good testbed for a proof-of-concept before accessing other microgravity platforms, and has proved to be excellent for motivational student campaigns.
La necesidad de asegurar el correcto funcionamiento de las estructuras en servicio ha hecho de la monitorización de la integridad estructural un área de gran interés. Investigadores en todas las partes del mundo centran sus esfuerzos en el desarrollo de nuevas formas de monitorización contínua de estructuras que permitan analizar e interpretar los datos recogidos durante el proceso de inspección con el objetivo de proveer información sobre el estado actual de la estructura y evitar posibles catástrofes. Para desarrollar un análisis efectivo de los datos, es necesario el desarrollo de metodologías para inspeccionar la estructura con un bajo coste computacional y alta fiabilidad. Estas características deseadas pueden ser encontradas en los sistemas biológicos y pueden ser emuladas mediante herramientas computacionales. El uso de algoritmos bio-inspirados es una reciente técnica que ha demostrado su efectividad en el análisis de datos en diferentes áreas. Dado que estos algoritmos se basan en la emulación de sistemas biológicos que han demostrado su efectividad a lo largo de muchas generaciones, es posible imitar el proceso de evolución y sus características de adaptabilidad al medio usando algoritmos computacionales. Esto es así, especialmente, en reconocimiento de patrones, donde muchos de estos algoritmos brindan excelentes resultados. Algunos ejemplos ampliamente usados son las redes neuronales, los sistemas fuzzy y los algoritmos genéticos. Esta tesis involucra el desarrollo de unas metodologías bio-inspiradas para la detección y clasificación de daños estructurales. El documento está organizado en cinco capítulos. En primer lugar, se incluye una descripción general del problema, los objetivos del trabajo, los resultados obtenidos, un breve marco conceptual y la descripción de los diferentes escenarios experimentales en el Capítulo 1 (Introducción). Los Capítulos 2 a 4 incluyen los artículos publicados en diferentes revistas indexadas. La revisión de los resultados, conclusiones y el trabajo futuro se encuentra en el Capítulo 5. Finalmente, el Anexo A incluye otras contribuciones tales como un capítulo de libro y algunos trabajos publicados en conferencias.
The need of ensure the proper performance of the structures in service has made of structural health monitoring (SHM) a priority research area. Researchers all around the world have focused efforts on the development of new ways to continuous monitoring the structures and analyze the data collected from the inspection process in order to provide information about the current state and avoid possible catastrophes. To perform an effective analysis of the data, the development of methodologies is crucial in order to assess the structures with a low computational cost and with a high reliability. These desirable features can be found in biological systems, and these can be emulated by means of computational systems. The use of bio-inspired algorithms is a recent approach that has demonstrated its effectiveness in data analysis in different areas. Since these algorithms are based in the emulation of biological systems that have demonstrated its effectiveness for several generations, it is possible to mimic the evolution process and its adaptability characteristics by using computational algorithms. Specially in pattern recognition, several algorithms have shown good performance. Some widely used examples are the neural networks, the fuzzy systems and the genetic algorithms. This thesis is concerned about the development of bio-inspired methodologies for structural damage detection and classification. This document is organized in five chapters. First, an overview of the problem statement, the objectives, general results, a brief theoretical background and the description of the different experimental setups are included in Chapter 1 (Introduction). Chapters 2 to 4 include the journal papers published by the author of this thesis. The discussion of the results, some conclusions and the future work can be found on Chapter 5. Finally, Appendix A includes other contributions such as a book chapter and some conference papers.
In this paper, we address the problem of real-time fault detection in wind turbines. Starting from a data-driven fault detection method, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a sensor selection algorithm is proposed with the goal to reduce the computational effort of the fault detection method. Second, an analysis is performed to reduce the data acquisition time needed by the fault detection method, that is, with the goal of reducing the fault detection time. The proposed methods are tested in a benchmark wind turbine where different actuator and sensor failures are simulated. The results demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms that dramatically reduce the number of sensors and the fault detection time.
En una assignatura del grau d'enginyeria d'informàtica, la pràctica de programació ha passat de ser un treball individual a un treball en equip, en principi per parelles. L'alumnat té llibertat total per formar equips amb una intervenció mínima per part del professorat.
L'anàlisi de les parelles formades indica que no hi ha una tendència dels alumnes a associar-se amb alumnes de rendiment semblant, potser perquè paràmetres cognitius generals no regeixen la tria de parella acadèmica.
In a course of the degree of computer science, the programming project has changed from individual to teamed work, tentatively in couples (pair programming). Students have full freedom to team up with minimum intervention from professors.
The analysis of the couples made indicates that students do not tend associate with students with a similar academic performance, maybe because general cognitive parameters do not govern the choice of academic partners.
En aquest treball s’ha dut a terme una activitat pensada per a secundària en la que s’ha desenvolupat un joc de cartes, Material Magic, com a eina de ludificació per a explicar els continguts i conceptes que es demanen al currículum de tecnologia sobre ciència de materials. L'activitat s’ha portat a la pràctica en quatre grups de segon d’ESO, d'uns 17 alumnes per grup, tots de la mateixa escola i de nivells homogenis.
Tanmateix es revisaran, per tal d'entendre més profundament els motius que poden animar als docents a ludificar l’ensenyament de la tecnologia, repassarem les possibilitats que ens donen els jocs a l'hora de fer classe, analitzant de manera crítica l'efectivitat dels jocs en l'educació i veurem algun exemple previs de jocs de cartes per a ensenyar la ciència de materials.
Com es veurà més endavant, els resultats obtinguts han mostrat una motivació extra general per part dels alumnes de secundària a participar en el joc durant les hores lectives de classe, agraint que aquesta fos una activitat divertida, diferent i original, trencant la rutina habitual del dia a dia. Els resultats també han mostrat que no hi ha cap correlació entre les notes de tecnologia dels alumnes amb les notes obtingudes específicament durant el joc, el que anima a pensar que Material Magic pot ajudar a motivar a alumnes acadèmicament menys brillants o menys motivats en la matèria.
El Aprendizaje-Servicio (ApS) ha demostrado ser una de las metodologías de aprendizaje más efectivas al combinar el desarrollo de las competencias técnicas de los estudiantes con su aplicación a un proyecto real y útil para la comunidad. Cuando dicho proyecto se enmarca en una actividad de cooperación, ya sea con una entidad local o en un país del sur, los estudiantes descubren un mundo nuevo y desconocido
para la mayoría de ellos.
El programa UPC-ReuTIlitza es una forma de canalizar el ApS a través de actividades de cooperación. El programa consiste, fundamentalmente, en poner a punto ordenadores procedentes de donaciones de empresas para ser donados a entidades que tienen fines sociales. Se consigue así dar una nueva vida a
ordenadores que de otra forma serían reciclados, en el mejor de los casos, se fomenta la economía circular y se contribuye a la formación de los estudiantes en la competencia “Sostenibilidad y compromiso social”.
Desde que el programa comenzó su andadura se han entregado más de 1600 ordenadores a 181 entidades en 28 países, y han participado casi 3000 estudiantes.
El Aprendizaje-Servicio (ApS) ha demostrado ser una de las metodologías de aprendizaje más efectivas al combinar el desarrollo de las competencias técnicas de los estudiantes con su aplicación a un proyecto real y útil para la comunidad. Cuando dicho proyecto se enmarca en una actividad de cooperación, ya sea con una entidad local o en un país del sur, los estudiantes descubren un mundo nuevo y desconocido para la mayoría de ellos.
El programa UPC-ReuTIlitza es una forma de canalizar el ApS a través de actividades de cooperación. El programa consiste, fundamentalmente, en poner a punto ordenadores procedentes de donaciones de empresas para ser donados a entidades que tienen fines sociales. Se consigue así dar una nueva vida a ordenadores que de otra forma serían reciclados, en el mejor de los casos, se fomenta la economía circular y se contribuye a la formación de los estudiantes en la competencia “Sostenibilidad y compromiso social”. Desde que el programa comenzó su andadura se han entregado más de 1600 ordenadores a 181 entidades en 28 países, y han participado casi 3000 estudiantes.
Service-Learning is one of the most effective learning methodologies, where technical and professional skills are developed while the work performed has a direct and real impact on society. When the developed project is framed in a local or international cooperation activity, then students discover a brand new and unknown world.
The UPC-ReuTIlitza program is a Service-Learning initiative that mainly consists in repairing and updating computers donated by companies, which will be received by social service entities. Doing so, these computers have a longest life, promoting circular economy and contributing to the students’ acquisition of Sustainability and Social Commitment Skill. From the moment this project started, more than 1600 computers have been donated to 181 different organizations in 28 countries, and more than 3000 students have participated.
Sanchez, F.; Cabre, J.; Garcia, J.; Vidal, E.; Lopez, D.; Alier, M.; Martin, C. Jornadas de Enseñanza Universitaria de la Informática p. 111-118 Data de presentació: 2016-07 Presentació treball a congrés
Este artículo presenta una guía para ayudar a los ingenieros a diseñar y desarrollar proyectos sostenibles. Esta guía es la culminación de siete años de trabajos publicados en JENUI. La guía ha sido diseñada para introducir y evaluar la sostenibilidad de los proyectos de ingeniería en general, pero en este trabajo se presenta su aplicación al Trabajo Final de
Grado. Esta herramienta no es simplemente una guía para ayudar a los estudiantes a introducir y estimar la
sostenibilidad de sus proyectos, sino que también es útil para ayudar a los profesores a realizar la evaluación.
La guía se basa en el método socrático y consiste en una matriz en la que cada celda contiene varias preguntas que los estudiantes deben considerar durante el desarrollo del proyecto, y a las que deben responder en el informe final. A cada celda de la matriz se le otorga una valoración, y la suma de todos los valores refleja la sostenibilidad del proyecto. El resultado no es simplemente un número, ya que el estudiante debe escribir un análisis de sostenibilidad en el que responde
a todas las preguntas de la matriz de forma justificada.
Se ha realizado una prueba piloto con algunos estudiantes y se han obtenido buenos resultados, pero el primer Trabajo Final de Grado que usará la metodología propuesta se leerá en julio de 2016.
Este artículo presenta una guía para ayudar a los ingenieros a diseñar y desarrollar proyectos sostenibles. Esta guía es la culminación de siete años de trabajos publicados en JENUI. La guía ha sido diseñada para introducir y evaluar la sostenibilidad de los proyectos de ingeniería en general, pero en este trabajo se presenta su aplicación al Trabajo Final de Grado. Esta herramienta no es simplemente una guía para ayudar a los estudiantes a introducir y estimar la sostenibilidad de sus proyectos, sino que también es útil para ayudar a los profesores a realizar la evaluación.
La guía se basa en el método socrático y consiste en una matriz en la que cada celda contiene varias preguntas que los estudiantes deben considerar durante el desarrollo del proyecto, y a las que deben responder en el informe final. A cada celda de la matriz se le otorga una valoración, y la suma de todos los valores refleja la sostenibilidad del proyecto. El resultado no es simplemente un número, ya que el estudiante debe escribir un análisis de sostenibilidad en el que responde a todas las preguntas de la matriz de forma justificada.
Se ha realizado una prueba piloto con algunos estudiantes y se han obtenido buenos resultados, pero el primer Trabajo Final de Grado que usará la metodología propuesta se leerá en julio de 2016.
This paper presents a guide to help engineers to design and develop sustainable projects. The guide is the culmination of previous studies published over the last seven years in JENUI. The guide has been designed to introduce and evaluate the sustainability of engineering projects in general, but here we pre-sent how it can be applied to the final project of an engineering degree. This tool is a guide for students. to introduce and estimate the sustainability of their projects, but it also helps teachers to assess them. The guide is based on the Socratic Methodology and consists of a matrix where each cell contains several questions that students must consider during the project development and which they must answer in their project report. A positive or negative mark is assigned to every cell, and the sum of all marks states the project sustainability. However, the result is not as simplistic as a final number, but a descriptive sustainability analysis where all questions are answered and every mark justified.
A pilot test with some students has obtained good results, but the first Final Degree Project using the proposed methodology will be read in July 2016.
Growing interest for improving the reliability of safety-critical structures, such as wind turbines, has led to the advancement of structural health monitoring (SHM). Existing techniques for fault detection can be broadly classified into two major categories: model-based methods and signal processing-based methods. This work focuses in the signal-processing-based fault detection by using principal component analysis (PCA) as a way to condense and extract information from the collected signals. In particular, the goal of this work is to select a reduced number of sensors to be used. From a practical point of view, a reduced number of sensors installed in the structure leads to a reduced cost of installation and maintenance. Besides, from a computational point of view, less sensors implies lower computing time, thus the detection time is shortened.
The overall strategy is to firstly create a PCA model measuring a healthy wind turbine. Secondly, with the model, and for each fault scenario and each possible subset of sensors, it measures the Euclidean distance between the arithmetic mean of the projections into the PCA model that come from the healthy wind turbine and the mean of the projections that come from the faulty one. Finally, it finds the subset of sensors that separate the most the data coming from the healthy wind turbine and the data coming from the faulty one.
Numerical simulations using a sophisticated wind turbine model (a modern 5MW turbine implemented in the FAST software) show the performance of the proposed method under actuators (pitch and torque) and sensors (pitch angle measurement) faults of different type: fixed value, gain factor, offset and changed dynamics.
In this paper we describe a higher education teacher training programme developed by the Institute of Education Sciences of our university (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya · BarcelonaTech). The methodology for designing the programme was based on identifying the skills that a teacher should develop and analyzing previous training programmes. Finally, we analyse the first results obtained from the teaching of this programme.
Este artículo se incluye en un proyecto de la Universitat Politècnica de
Catalunya para implementar un programa de formación del profesorado universitario
basado en las competencias del mismo. El proceso se realiza a partir del análisis de las
competencias docentes: tras estudiar con anterioridad qué competencias debería
tener un docente e implementar una primera versión del programa de formación, se
diseña la estructura del programa y se analizan los primeros resultados de su
This work addresses the problem of online fault detection of an advanced wind turbine benchmark under actuators (pitch and torque) and sensors (pitch angle measurement) faults of different type: fixed value, gain factor, offset and changed dynamics. The fault detection scheme starts by computing the baseline principal component analysis (PCA) model from the healthy or undamaged wind turbine. Subsequently, when the wind turbine is inspected or supervised, new measurements are obtained and projected into the baseline PCA model. When both sets of data—the baseline and the data from the current wind turbine— are compared, a multivariate statistical hypothesis testing is used to make a decision on whether or not the wind turbine presents some damage, fault or misbehavior. The effectiveness of the proposed fault- detection scheme is illustrated by numerical simulations on a well-known large offshore wind turbine in the presence of wind turbulence and realistic fault scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an early fault detection, thereby giving the operators sufficient time to make more informed decisions regarding the maintenance of their machines.
Structural Health Monitoring is a growing area of interest given the benefits obtained from its use. This area includes different tasks in the damage identification process, among them, the most important is the damage detection at an early stage which enables to increase the security in mechanisms and systems, reducing risks and avoiding accidents. As a contribution in this topic, this work presents a data-driven methodology for the detection and classification of damages by using multivariate data driven approaches and machine learning algorithms which are validated and compared by using data from real structures in order to determine its behavior. In the methodology, PCA (Principal component analysis) and some pre-processing steps are used as the mechanisms to reduce data and build the features vector with relevant information about the different states of the structures under test. This methodology is validated by using some aluminum plates which are instrumented and inspected by means of PZT transducers attached to them and working in in several actuation phases. Results show a properly damage detection and classification of different simulated and real-damages.