Thiol-acetoacetate-acrylate ternary dual-curing thermosets were prepared by a sequential process consisting of thiol-Michael addition to acrylates at room temperature followed by Michael addition of acetoacetates to acrylates at moderately elevated temperature. The curing sequence can be controlled with the help of the different acidities of the protons on thiol and acetoacetate groups, the favorable pKa of the base used as catalyst and the self-limiting character of Michael additions. The latency of the curing steps can be regulated by selection of the right catalysts, temperature and curing conditions. The properties of the intermediate and final materials can be tuned by changing the structure of the monomers and the contribution of both Michael addition reactions.
En els darrers anys, s¿han desenvolupat noves polítiques internacionals i nacionals per incentivar la millora de l¿eficiència energètica i reduir els impactes ambientals, econòmics i socials derivats de l¿activitat econòmica i industrial. Cal destacar les directrius europees 210/31/UE i 2012/27/UE, relatives a l¿eficiència energètica dels edificis, o les polítiques estratègiques plantejades en el Consell Europeu conegudes com 20-20-20 (per una reducció de les emissions de gasos d'efecte hivernacle, estalvi energètic i proposta de increment en la generació d¿energia mitjançant fonts renovables), que, conjuntament amb la norma internacional de sostenibilitat de la construcció CEN/TC 350, transposada, en l¿àmbit nacional, pel grup de treball AEN/CTN 198, ha generat un marc de treball prou important per caminar cap un entorn més sostenible.Com a resposta a les necessitats actuals i al buit existent per tal d¿avaluar, amb criteri, els sistemes, atenent les polítiques anteriorment esmentades, es desenvolupa un model de simulació, anomenat BuildingSim, basat en llenguatge estàndard, formal gràfic i complert SDL (Specification and Description Language) normat per la ITU-T. Aquest model és capaç d¿atendre a la norma de sostenibilitat (impactes ambientals, econòmics i socials) analitzant l¿estudi de cas escollit segons el seu cicle de vida complert (des del disseny, passant pel procés de la construcció, ús/manteniment i deconstrucció), tenint en compte els processos de reutilització i compensació energètica. El model és capaç d¿utilitzar diferents motors de càlcul termodinàmics internacionalment reconeguts i validats en múltiples estudis i projectes, en un entorn de co-simulació. Els escenaris simulats, es basen en models BIM (Building Information Modeling) que, sota l¿ús d¿algoritmes d¿optimització integrats o força bruta, ens permet trobar la corba òptima per localitzar les millors opcions de disseny per reduir els impactes associats. Segons el plantejament inicial, el model és fàcilment ampliable per entorns de treball diversos, sense necessitat de tenir expertesa en sistemes de programació, comprensible per tots els membres de l¿equip, integrant una visió holística, facilitant la validació i verificació del procés. El model no necessita implementació específica i la verificació, donat que l¿arquitectura del sistema i el propi model de programació són el mateix, és directa.El model pot ser aplicat en desenvolupament tecnològic i investigació, en àmbit formatiu de matèries en sostenibilitat i cooperació, en anàlisis big data, en projectes professionals i/o per ajudar en la presa de decisions polítiques. L¿estructura de la base de dades del model està preparada per intercanviar informació amb bases de dades nacionals i internacionals per tal d¿obtenir la informació necessària per realitzar les simulacions i càlculs pertinents.
Our research group has recently found excellent shape-memory response in “thiol-epoxy” thermosets obtained with click-chemistry. In this study, we use their well-designed, homogeneous and tailorable network structures to investigate parameters for better control of the shape-recovery process. We present a new methodology to analyse the shape-recovery process, enabling easy and efficient comparison of shape-memory experiments on the programming conditions. Shape-memory experiments at different programming conditions have been carried out to that end. Additionally, the programming process has been extensively analysed in uniaxial tensile experiments at different shape-memory testing temperatures. The results showed that the shape-memory response for a specific operational design can be optimized by choosing the correct programming conditions and accurately designing the network structure. When programming at a high temperature (T » Tg), under high network mobility conditions, high shape-recovery ratios and homogeneous shape-recovery processes are obtained for the network structure and the programmed strain level (eD). However, considerably lower stress and strain levels can be achieved. Meanwhile, when programming at temperatures lower than Tg, considerably higher stress and strain levels are attained but under low network mobility conditions. The shape-recovery process heavily depends on both the network structure and eD. Network relaxation occurs during the loading stage, resulting in a noticeable decrease in the shape-recovery rate as eD increases. Moreover, at a certain level of strain, permanent and non-recoverable deformations may occur, impeding the completion and modifying the whole path of the shape-recovery process.
This paper present the design of a cogeneration plant with a Stirling engine, generating electricity using the residual energy as heat of the hot gases from a domestic or industrial furnace outlet. First, the ideal method for calculating the energy needs of hot water of an industrial establishment, taking into account the domestic hot water used in the different devices of the building and the hot water used for heating. Second describes the furnace, to determine the residual heat that will use the Stirling engine to run. In third place is calculated the Stirling engine in accordance with the settings selected and the elements that compose it. Once known operation, the engine is analyzed kinetically and thermodynamically to make their modeling. Finally, technology is analyzed to transform the mechanical energy from Stirling engine into energy that can be used in the building where the installation is implemented. Once created whole process, the calculation of the installation for practical application in a real industrial local becomes, showing the magnitude of the energy obtained and the dimensions of the installation.
An extensive characterization of a sequential dual-curing system based on off-stoichiometric “thiol-epoxy” mixtures was carried out using thiol compounds of different functionality. The intermediate and final materials obtained after each curing stages at different thiol-epoxy ratios were studied by means of thermomechanical and rheological experiments. The storage and loss modulus and the loss factor tan d were monitored during the curing process to analyse gelation and network structure build-up. The critical ratio for gelation was determined making use of the ideal Flory-Stockmayer theory and compared with experimental results. Intermediate materials obtained in the vicinity of the theoretical critical ratio did not have the mechanical consistency expected for partially crosslinked materials, did not retain their shape and even experienced undesired flow upon heating to activate the second curing reaction. The rheological results showed that the critical ratio is higher than the predicted value and that a softening during the second curing stage affects the shape-retention at this ratio. From the thermomechanical results, a wide range of intermediate and final materials with different properties and applicability can be obtained by properly choosing the thiol-epoxy ratio: from liquid-like to highly deformable intermediate materials and from moderately crosslinked (deformable) to highly crosslinked (brittle) final materials.
A complete numerical dynamic analysis of reciprocating compressor mechanism is presented, coupling the instantaneous pressure in the compression chamber, the electric motor torque and the hydrodynamic reactions, which arise from the piston and crankshaft secondary movements. Additionally, non-constant crankshaft angular velocity and the piston and crankshaft misalignment torques have also been considered. Two sensitivity analyses have been carried out to prove that neither the inertial forces in the directions of the secondary movements, nor the oscillations of the angular velocity produce significant differences in the compressor behaviour. Finally, a set of parametric studies has been developed to evaluate the influence of geometrical parameters in the stability of the secondary movements, the friction power losses and the compressor consumption
Morancho, J.; Fernandez-Francos, X.; Acebo, C.; Ramis, X.; Salla, J.; Serra, À. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry Vol. 127, num. 1, p. 645-654 DOI: 10.1007/s10973-016-5376-z Data de publicació: 2017-01 Article en revista
New hyperbranched polymers (HBP) have been
synthesized by reaction of a poly(ethylene imine) with phenyl and t-butyl isocyanates. These HBPs have been characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance of
hydrogen) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Their influence on the curing and properties of epoxy-anhydride thermosets has been studied by different techniques:
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic
mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermogravimetry (TG). The curing kinetics has been studied with DSC. Integral
isoconversional method and the S ¿ esta´k–Berggren model have been used to determine the activation energy and the frequency factor. The kinetic parameters are very similar for all the studied systems at the middle stage of the process, but changes are observed at the beginning and at the end of the process when these modifiers are used. The HBPs reduce the glass transition temperature of the cured
materials. In addition, from the DMA analysis it can be seen that the HBP modifier obtained from phenyl isocyanate hardly changes the storage modulus, but the obtained ones from t-butyl isocyanate decrease it. TG analysis reveals a decrease in the onset temperature of the degradation process upon addition of the HBPs.
Bergadà, J.M.; Prat, J.; Prat-Farran,J.A. ; Prat, J.A.; Carbonell, M.; Soria, M.; Mas de les Valls, E.; Notti, E.; Del Campo, D.; Sala, A.; Avila-Cañellas, M.; Mellibovsky, F. Projecte R+D+I competitiu
Balcazar, N.; Rigola, J.; Castro, J.; Oliva, A. International journal of heat and fluid flow Vol. 62, num. B, p. 324-343 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2016.09.015 Data de publicació: 2016-12-01 Article en revista
A new level-set model is proposed for simulating immiscible thermocapillary flows with variable fluid-property ratios at dynamically deformable interfaces. The Navier–Stokes equations coupled with the energy conservation equation are solved by means of a finite-volume/level-set approach, adapted to a multiple marker methodology in order to avoid the numerical coalescence of the fluid particles. The temperature field is coupled to the surface tension through an equation of state. Some numerical examples including thermocapillary driven convection in two superimposed fluid layers, and thermocapillary motion of single and multiple fluid particles are computed using the present method. These results are compared against analytical solutions and numerical results from the literature as validations of the proposed model.
The spatial filtering of variables in the context of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a common practice. Most of the discrete filters used in CFD simulations are locally accurate models of continuous operators. However, when filters are adaptative, i.e. the filter width is not constant, or meshes are irregular, discrete filters sometimes break relevant global properties of the continuous models they are based on. For example, the principle of maxima and minima reduction or conservation are eventually infringed. In this paper, we analyze the properties of analytic continuous convolution filters and extract those we consider to define filtering. Then, we impose the accomplishment of these properties on explicit discrete filters by means of constraints. Three filters satisfying the derived conditions are deduced and compared to common differential discrete CFD filters on synthetic fields. Tests on the developed discrete filters show the fulfillment of the imposed properties. In particular, the problem of maxima and minima generation is resolved for physically relevant cases. The tests are conducted on the basis of the eigenvectors of graph Laplacian matrices of meshes. Thus, insight into the relations between filtering and oscillation growth on general meshes is provided. Further tests on singularity fields and on isentropic vortices have also been conducted to evaluate the performance of filters on basic CFD fields. Results confirm that imposing the proposed conditions makes discrete filters properties consistent with those of the continuous ones.
The seldom addressed network hierarchy property and its relationship with vulnerability analysis for power transmission grids from a complex-systems point of view are given in this paper. We analyze and compare the evolution of network hierarchy for the dynamic vulnerability evaluation of four different power transmission grids of real cases. Several meaningful results suggest that the vulnerability of power grids can be assessed by means of a network hierarchy evolution analysis. First, the network hierarchy evolution may be used as a novel measurement to quantify the robustness of power grids. Second, an antipyramidal structure appears in the most robust network when quantifying cascading failures by the proposed hierarchy metric. Furthermore, the analysis results are also validated and proved by empirical reliability data. We show that our proposed hierarchy evolution analysis methodology could be used to assess the vulnerability of power grids or even other networks from a complex-systems point of view.
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Hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) has been modified by the addition of propargyl acrylate following a Michael addition reaction. On this polymer (PEI-yne) a copper (I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) has been performed to obtain a multifunctional triazole initiator (PEI-TA). After structural and thermal characterization, this polymer has been used in different proportions as anionic multifunctional macroinitiator in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) homopolymerization. The curing process has been studied by calorimetry and the thermosets obtained have been thermally characterized and compared with thermosets prepared by using 1-methylimidazole (1-MI) as standard initiator. The electron microscopy inspection of the fracture surfaces of the new materials prepared shows the formation of submicrometer particles that should enhance toughness characteristics, changing smooth fracture surfaces in 1-MI initiated materials to multi-planar surface with tortuous and thicker cracks.
The effect of three different organically modified layered silicate clays (Nanomer I.30E, Cloisite 30B and Nanofil SE 3000) on the exfoliation process and on the thermal properties and nanostructure of cured trifunctional epoxy resin based nanocomposites was studied. Optical microscopy showed that the best and poorest qualities of clay distribution in the epoxy matrix were obtained with Nanofil SE 3000 and Nanomer I.30E, respectively. However, the isothermal differential scanning calorimetry scans show that, of the three systems, it is only the Nanomer clay that promotes intra-gallery reaction due to homopolymerisation, appearing as an initial rapid peak prior to the cross-linking reaction. This rapid intra-gallery reaction is not present in the curing curve for the Cloisite and Nanofil systems. This fact implies that the fully cured nanostructure of the Cloisite and Nanofil system is poorly exfoliated, which is confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering which shows a scattering peak for these systems at around 2.53°, corresponding to about 3.5 nm d-spacing.
Ventosa-Molina, J.; Chiva, J.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Muela, J.; Perez, C.; Oliva, A. International journal for numerical methods in fluids DOI: 10.1002/fld.4350 Data de publicació: 2016-12-01 Article en revista
Unstructured meshes allow easily representing complex geometries and to refine in regions of interest without adding control volumes in unnecessary regions.
However, numerical schemes used on unstructured grids have to be properly defined in order to minimise numerical errors.
An assessment of a low-Mach algorithm for laminar and turbulent flows on unstructured meshes using collocated and staggered formulations is presented. For staggered formulations using cell centred velocity reconstructions the standard first-order method is shown to be inaccurate in low Mach flows on unstructured grids. A recently proposed least squares procedure for incompressible flows is extended to the low Mach regime and shown to significantly improve the behaviour of the algorithm.
Regarding collocated discretisations, the odd-even pressure decoupling is handled through a kinetic energy conserving flux interpolation scheme. This approach is shown to efficiently handle variable-density flows.
Besides, different face interpolations schemes for unstructured meshes are analysed.
A kinetic energy preserving scheme is applied to the momentum equations, namely the Symmetry-Preserving (SP) scheme. Furthermore, a new approach to define the far-neighbouring nodes of the QUICK scheme is presented and analysed. The method is suitable for both structured and unstructured grids, either uniform or not.
The proposed algorithm and the spatial schemes are assessed against a function reconstruction, a differentially heated cavity and a turbulent self-igniting diffusion flame. It is shown that the proposed algorithm accurately represents unsteady variable-density flows. Furthermore, the QUICK schemes shows close to second order behaviour on unstructured meshes and the SP is reliably used in all computations.
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A new single-phase scheme for the numerical simulation of free-surface problems on 3-D unstructured meshes is presented. The flow field is obtained from the discrete solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, whereas a conservative level-set method is employed to capture fluid interfaces on an Eulerian approach. The scheme is based on a novel treatment of the interface for the deactivation of the light phase, allowing an optimization of the classic two-phase model for the cases in which the influence of the lighter phase is negligible. The deactivation is performed by directly imposing the appropriate pressure at the surface boundary, and, unlike similar approaches, without the need to treat near-interface velocities. The method is validated against various analytical and experimental references, demonstrating its potential on both hexahedral and unstructured meshes. Moreover, it shows higher numerical stability in comparison to two-phase solvers, as well as significant advantages in terms of computational performance.
Small-scale dynamics is the spirit of turbulence physics. It implicates many attributes of flow topology evolution, coherent structures, hairpin vorticity dynamics, and mechanism of the kinetic energy cascade. In this work, several dynamical aspects of the small-scale motions have been numerically studied in a framework of Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC). To do so, direct numerical simulations have been carried out at two Rayleigh numbers Ra = 10(8) and 10(10), inside an air-filled rectangular cell of aspect ratio unity and pi span-wise open-ended distance. As a main feature, the average rate of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor (Q(G), R-G) has displayed the so-called "teardrop" spiraling shape through the bulk region. Therein, the mean trajectories are swirling inwards revealing a periodic spin around the converging origin of a constant period that is found to be proportional to the plumes lifetime. This suggests that the thermal plumes participate in the coherent large-scale circulation and the turbulent wind created in the bulk. Particularly, it happens when the plumes elongate substantially to contribute to the large-scale eddies at the lower turbulent state. Supplementary small-scale properties, which are widely common in many turbulent flows have been observed in RBC. For example, the strong preferential alignment of vorticity with the intermediate eigenstrain vector, and the asymmetric alignment between vorticity and the vortex-stretching vector. It has been deduced that in a hard turbulent flow regime, local self-amplifications of straining regions aid in contracting the vorticity worms, and enhance the local interactions vorticity/strain to support the linear vortex-stretching contributions. On the other hand, the evolution of invariants pertained to the traceless part of velocity-times-temperature gradient tensor has also been considered in order to determine the role of thermals in the fine-scale dynamics. These new invariants show an incorporation of kinetic and thermal gradient dynamics that indicate directly the evolution and lifetime of thermal plume structures. By applying an identical approach, the rates of the new invariants have shown a symmetric cycling behaviour decaying towards two skew-symmetric converging origins at the lower Ra number. The trajectories near origins address the hot and cold coherent plumes that travel as an average large-scale heat flux in the sidewall vicinities, and denote a periodic spin period close to the plumes lifetime. At the hard turbulent case, the spiraling trajectories travel in shorter tracks to reveal the reduced lifetime of plumes under the dissipative and mixing effects. The turbulent background kinetic derivatives get self-amplified and the trajectories converge to a zero-valued origin indicating that there is no contribution from the plumes to the average coherent large scales of heat flux. These and other peculiar scrutinies on the small-scale motions in RBC have been enlightened, and may have a fruitful consequence on modelling approaches of buoyancy-driven turbulence.
The absorber represents the most critical component in absorption systems and one of the key issues. In this component complex heat and mass transfer phenomena during the absorption process takes place simultaneously. For this reason the development of mathematical models validated against experimental data always constitutes useful tools for the design and improvement of falling film absorbers. A testing device has been designed and built to reproduce absorption phenomena in vertical LiBr-H2O falling film absorbers with the primary objective to obtain experimental data. On the other hand, a mathematical model of falling film absorption of H2O vapour in LiBr aqueous solutions has been implemented. Wave regime is considered by including and solving the Free Surface Deflection Equation. The numerical results are validated using the experimental data.
During the development of this work, the authors have paid careful attention to the verification of experimental data. Such verification consists of performing energy and mass balances in the fluid film side. Important discrepancies were found in our experimental data. Therefore, an extensive study was carried out in order to find the source of such errors. The conclusion is that there is a drag of LiBr solution in the water vapour which increases with the Re number. This mist flow cannot be measured experimentally, but can be evaluated in an indirect way. The mathematical models have been adapted in order to consider the influence of mist flow. On the other hand, in the literature there are not many experimental works related to falling film absorbers which expose enough information to verify the reliability of their experimental data.
Dual curing systems find various uses in industry with the process flexibility they provide which allows tailoring properties at different curing stages in accordance with application requirements. A safe and efficient dual curing scheme is proposed here for a set of mixtures containing different proportions of acrylates and methacrylates. The first curing stage is a stoichiometric aza-Michael addition between acrylates and an amine, followed by photo-initiated radical homopolymerization of methacrylates and remaining acrylates. An analysis of aza-Michael reaction kinetics confirmed that amines react selectively with acrylates, leaving methacrylates unreacted after the first curing stage. It was found that acrylate-rich mixtures achieve complete global conversion at the end of the scheme. However, the highest crosslinking density and thermal resistance was observed in a methacrylate-rich formulation. The resulting materials show a wide range of viscoelastic properties at both curing stages that can be tailored to a variety of industrial application needs.
Roa, J.J.; Jimenez-Pique, E.; Salla, J.; Mateo, A.; Sandoval, D.A.; Fair, J.; Llanes, L. Materials science and engineering A. Structural materials properties microstructure and processing Vol. 676, p. 487-491 DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.09.020 Data de publicació: 2016-10-31 Article en revista
WC–Co cemented carbides are geometrically complex composites constituted for two interpenetrating networks of the constitutive ceramic and metal phases. Accordingly, assessment of microstructural effects on the local mechanical properties of each phase is a challenging task, especially for the metallic binder. In this work, it is attempted by combining massive nanoindentation, statistical analysis, and implementation of a thin film model for deconvolution of the intrinsic hardness and flow stress of the metallic phase. Plotting of yield stress values as a function of the binder mean free path results in a Hall-Petch strengthening relationship with a slope (ky) of 0.98 MPa m1/2. This value points out the effectiveness of WC–Co phase boundaries as strong obstacles to slip propagation; and thus, for toughening of the brittle phase (WC) by means of crack-bridging ductile (Co) reinforcement.
In this article, a simple tool based on Max-Neef et al.’s (1991) Human-Scale Development paradigm to measure current levels of Quality of Life (QoL) for urban environments is presented. Fundamental human needs form the study domains. The process of the system definition and the survey creation is explained. Questions are then classified into needs as the outcome of two consecutive processes: a qualitative one involving both local communities and/or expert groups, and a quantitative one involving the definition of question weights. Complementarily, objective indicators are added, allowing a comparison between subjective and objective data towards an integrative result. In summary, this method can be used to define more holistic urban quality indexes in order to improve decision making processes, policies and plans. At the same time it can be seen as a tool to enhance bottom-up approaches and processes of urban analysis in order to create more liveable places for the dwellers.
Soriano, Francisco; Moreno-Eguilaz, J.M.; Alvarez, J.A.; Riera, J. International journal of automotive technology Vol. 17, num. 5, p. 873-882 DOI: 10.1007/s12239-016-0085-y Data de publicació: 2016-10-03 Article en revista
In this two-part paper, a topological analysis of powertrains for refuse-collecting vehicles (RCVs) based on the simulation of different architectures (internal combustion engine, hybrid electric, and hybrid hydraulic) on real routes is proposed. In this first part, a characterization of a standard route is performed, analyzing the average power consumption and the most frequent working points of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in real routes. This information is used to define alternative powertrain architectures. A hybrid hydraulic powertrain architecture is proposed and modelled. The proposed powertrain model is executed using two different control algorithms, with and without predictive strategies, with data obtained from real routes. A calculation engine (an algorithm which runs the vehicle models on real routes), is presented and used for simulations. This calculation engine has been specifically designed to analyze if the different alternative powertrain delivers the same performance of the original ICE. Finally, the overall performance of the different architectures and control strategies are summarized into a fuel and energy consumption table, which will be used in the second part of this paper to compare with the different architectures based on hybrid electric powertrain. The overall performance of the different architectures indicates that the use of a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with simple control laws can reduce the fuel consumption up to a 14 %.
Soriano, Francisco; Moreno-Eguilaz, J.M.; Alvarez, J.A.; Riera, J. International journal of automotive technology Vol. 17, num. 5, p. 883-894 DOI: 10.1007/s12239-016-0086-x Data de publicació: 2016-10-01 Article en revista
In this two-part paper, a topological analysis of powertrains for refuse-collecting vehicles (RCVs) based on simulation of different architectures (internal combustion engine, hybrid electric, and hybrid hydraulic) on real routes is proposed. In this second part, three different hybrid electric powertrain architectures are proposed and modeled. These architectures are based on the use of fuel cells, ultracapacitors, and batteries. A calculation engine, which is specifically designed to estimate energy consumption, respecting the original performance as the original internal combustion engine (ICE), is presented and used for simulations and component sizing. Finally, the overall performance of the different architectures (hybrid hydraulic, taken from the first paper part, and hybrid electric, estimated in this second part) and control strategies are summarized in a fuel and energy consumption table. Based on this table, an analysis of the different architecture performance results is carried out. From this analysis, a technological evolution of these vehicles in the medium- and long terms is proposed.
This paper is focused on the detailed analysis of a PCM plate heat storage unit with a particular configuration, looking for the maximum contact area with the fluid (water) and the minimum volume to be used in a real household application. In that sense, a numerical study of the thermal and fluid dynamic behaviour of the water flow and the PCM melting-solidification processes, together with the thermal behaviour of the solid elements of the unit, has been carried out. On the other hand, an experimental set-up has been designed and built to validate the numerical model and characterise the performance of the heat storage unit. The purpose of the numerical and experimental study is to present a series of results to describe the heat storage unit performance in function of the time. Thus, after a preliminary design study three different cases have been simulated and tested. A 7.2% of discrepancy between numerical results and experimental data has been evaluated for the heat transfer. The PCM heat storage unit designed is capable to store approx. 75% of the thermal energy from the previous process wasted water heat, and recover part of it to supply around 50% of the thermal energy required to heat up the next process.
A packed-bed thermocline tank represents a proved cheaper thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants compared with the commonly-built two-tank system. However, its implementation has been stopped mainly due to the vessel’s thermal ratcheting concern, which would compromise its structural integrity. In order to have a better understanding of the commercial viability of thermocline approach, regarding energetic effectiveness and structural reliability, a new numerical simulation platform has been developed. The model dynamically solves and couples all the significant components of the subsystem, being able to evaluate its thermal and mechanical response over plant normal operation. The filler material is considered as a cohesionless bulk solid with thermal expansion. For the stresses on the tank wall the general thermoelastic theory is used. First, the numerical model is validated with the Solar One thermocline case, and then a parametric analysis is carried out by settling this storage technology in two real plants with a temperature rise of 100 °C and 275 °C. The numerical results show a better storage performance together with the lowest temperature difference, but both options achieve suitable structural factors of safety with a proper design.
Buj, I.; Zayas F, E.E.; Alvarez, J.A.; Gutierrez, E. International Research/Expert Conference Trends in the Development of Machinery and Associated Technology p. 221-224 Data de presentació: 2016-09-29 Presentació treball a congrés
In the present work, design of a first approach of a test bench prototype for measuring friction in a piston-cylinder system is presented. The bench consists of a motor, belt and pulley transmission, crank mechanism, a piston, a cylinder and a lubrication system. Friction will be determined by means of strain gages placed on the connecting rod of the mechanism. The bench also includes a phonic wheel for acquiring angular speed and angular position signals of the crank. In future research, friction will be studied for different surface finishes obtained by means of honing and plateau honing. Honing processes provide a crosshatch pattern that holds oil and helps lubrication of piston and rings. Honing conditions will be selected with the goal of minimizing friction. Friction is directly related to energy consumption of an engine and, thus, to its environmental impact. Keywords: test bench, friction, piston-cylinder system, honing, roughness.
Rodriguez, I.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Piomelli, U.; Chiva, J.; Borrell, R.; Oliva, A. International ERCOFTAC Symposium on Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Measurements p. 1-6 Data de presentació: 2016-09-21 Presentació treball a congrés
This paper focuses on the effects of surface roughness in the flow past a circular cylinder at different Reynolds numbers. Large eddy simulations of the flow, from subcritical to transcritical Reynolds numbers and at relatively high equivalent sand grain roughness of ks / D = 0:02 are performed. In order to determine the effects of the surface roughness on the boundary layer transition and as a consequence on the wake topology, results are compared to literature available data for the rough and smooth cylinders. Results show that surface roughness triggers the transition to turbulence in the boundary layer at all Reynolds numbers, thus leading to an early separation caused by the increased drag and momentum deficit. In fact, even at subcritical Reynolds numbers boundary layer instabilities are triggered in the roughness sublayer which
eventually lead to the transition to turbulence and the separation before the cylinder apex. For the transcritical Reynolds number (i.e. Re = 4:2x105), transition to turbulence is observed in the attached boundary layer. Largest changes in the flow topology are observed at Re = 4:2x105, as the wake is wider than that of the smooth cylinder at these Reynolds numbers, with larger Reynolds stresses along the boundary layer and the near wake.
Guzman, D.; Mateu, B.; Fernandez-Francos, X.; Ramis, X.; Serra, À. International Conference on Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites p. 1-3 Data de presentació: 2016-09-19 Presentació treball a congrés
This paper presents the results of a detailed method for developing cost-optimal studies for the energy refurbishment of residential buildings. The method takes part of an innovative approach: two-step evaluation considering thermal comfort, energy and economic criteria. The first step, the passive evaluation, was presented previously  and the results are used to develop the active evaluation, which is the focus of this paper. The active evaluation develops a cost-optimal analysis to compare a set of passive and active measures for the refurbishment of residential buildings. The cost-optimal methodology follows the European Directives and analysed the measures from the point of view of non-renewable primary energy consumption and the global costs over 30 years. The energy uses included in the study are heating, domestic hot water, cooling, lighting and appliances. In addition, the results have been represented following the energy labelling scale. The paper shows the results of a multi-family building built in the years 1990–2007 and located in Barcelona with two configurations: with natural ventilation and without natural ventilation. The method provides technical and economic information about the energy efficiency measures, with the objective to support the decision process.
We present a methodology based on weighted networks and dependence coefficients aimed at revealing connectivity patterns between categories. As a case study, it is applied to an urban place and at two spatial levels—neighborhood and square—where categories correspond to human needs. Our results show that diverse spatial levels present different and nontrivial patterns of need emergence. A numerical model indicates that these patterns depend on the probability distribution of weights. We suggest that this way of analyzing the connectivity of categories (human needs in our case study) in social and ecological systems can be used to define new strategies to cope with complex processes, such as those related to transition management and governance, urban-making, and integrated planning.
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of mathematical sociology on 06/09/2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0022250X.2016.1219855
Serra, À.; Ramis, X.; Acebo, C.; Guzman, D.; Belmonte-Parra, A.; Fernandez-Francos, X.; de la Flor, S. Reunión del Grupo Especializado de Polímeros (GEP) de la RSEQ y RSEF p. 43-44 Data de presentació: 2016-09-05 Presentació treball a congrés
Ramis, X.; Konuray, A.; Liendo, F.J.; Fernandez-Francos, X.; Morancho, J.; Salla, J.; Serra, À. Reunión del Grupo Especializado de Polímeros (GEP) de la RSEQ y RSEF p. 261-263 Data de presentació: 2016-09-05 Presentació treball a congrés
It is proposed to use epoxy-thiol systems as Shape Memory Polymers. The work presented here investigates the physical aging behaviour and viscoelastic response of a stoichiometric system based on DGEBA epoxy resin and pentaerythritol tetrakis (thiol) in which the curing reaction i initiated by a latent curing agent. The calorimetric glass transition temperature of the cured systema at 10 K min-1 is 49,9 C.
Rapisarda, D.; Fernández, I.; Palermo, I.; González, M.; Moreno, C.; IEEE transactions on plasma science Vol. 44, num. 9, p. 1603-1612 DOI: 10.1109/TPS.2016.2561204 Data de publicació: 2016-09-01 Article en revista
Within the framework of EUROfusion Program, the Dual Coolant Lithium Lead (DCLL) is one of the four EU breeder blanket concepts that are being investigated as candidates for DEMO. DCLL uses PbLi as the main coolant, tritium breeder, tritium carrier, and neutron multiplier. The main structures, including the first wall, are cooled with helium. The EU program proposed for the next years will consider a DCLL version limited to 550 °C in order to allow the use of conventional materials and technologies. During the first year of EUROfusion activities, a draft design of the DCLL has been proposed. The main blanket performances were adapted to the new specifications and the CAD model of DEMO. The breeder zone has been toroidally divided into four parallel PbLi circuits, separated through stiffening grid radial walls. The PbLi flow routing has been designed to maximize the amount of thermal power extracted by flowing PbLi and to avoid the occurrence of reverse flows due to volumetric heating. Thermal hydraulics, magnetohydrodynamic and neutronics calculations have been performed for the first draft design. The new DCLL design employs Eurofer-alumina-Eurofer sandwich as flow channel insert (FCI).
Schillaci, E.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Antepara, O.; Oliva, A. Journal of physics: conference series Vol. 745, num. 3, p. 1-8 DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/745/3/032114 Data de publicació: 2016-09-01 Article en revista
This paper presents a numerical model that intends to simulate efficiently the surface instability that arise in multiphase flows, typically liquid-gas, both for laminar or turbulent regimes. The model is developed on the in-house computing platform TermoFluids , and operates the finite-volume, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multiphase flows by means of a conservative level-set method for the interface-capturing. The mesh size is optimized by means of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy, that allows the dynamic re-concentration of the mesh in the vicinity of the interfaces between fluids, in order to correctly represent the diverse structures (as ligaments and droplets) that may rise from unstable phenomena. In addition, special attention is given to the discretization of the various terms of the momentum equations, to ensure stability of the flow and correct representation of turbulent vortices. As shown, the method is capable of truthfully simulate the interface phenomena as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability, both in the case of 2-D and 3-D configurations. Therefore it is suitable for the simulation of complex phenomena such as simulation of air-blast atomization, with several important application in the field of automotive and aerospace engines. A prove is given by our preliminary study of the 3-D coaxial liquid-gas jet.
Published under licence in Journal of Physics: Conference Series by IOP Publishing Ltd.
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This paper presents a model which estimates current car fleet energy consumption in Andorra and forecasts such consumption as a reference scenario. The base-year model is built through a bottom-up methodology using vehicle registration and technical inspection data. The model forecasts energy consumption up to 2050, taking into account the fleet structure, the car survival profile, trends in activity of the various car categories, and the fuel price and income elasticities that affect car stock and total fleet activity. It provides an initial estimate of private car energy demand in Andorra and charts a baseline scenario that describes a hypothetical future based on historical trends. A local sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive input parameters and study the effect of its variability. In addition, the scenario analysis explores the most uncertain future aspects which can cause important variability in the results with respect to the Reference scenario and provides a broad estimate of potential energy savings related to different policy strategies
Lopez, J.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.A.; Alvarez, J.A.; Moreno-Eguilaz, J.M.; Ruiz Mansilla, Rafael IEEE transactions on vehicular technology num. 99, p. 1-15 DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2016.2597242 Data de publicació: 2016-08-02 Article en revista
A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) for the thermal management (TM) of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is presented. TM in PHEVs is crucial to ensure good components performance and durability in all possible climate scenarios. A drawback of accurate TM solutions is the higher electrical consumption due to the increasing number of low voltage (LV) actuators used in the cooling circuits. Hence, more complex control strategies are needed for minimizing components thermal stress and at the same time electrical consumption. In this context, NMPC arises as a powerful method for achieving multiple objectives in Multiple input- Multiple output systems. This paper proposes an NMPC for the TM of the High Voltage (HV) battery and the power electronics (PE) cooling circuit in a PHEV. It distinguishes itself from the previously NMPC reported methods in the automotive sector by the complexity of its controlled plant which is highly nonlinear and controlled by numerous variables. The implemented model of the plant, which is based on experimental data and multi- domain physical equations, has been validated using six different driving cycles logged in a real vehicle, obtaining a maximum error, in comparison with the real temperatures, of 2C. For one of the six cycles, an NMPC software-in-the loop (SIL) is presented, where the models inside the controller and for the controlled plant are the same. This simulation is compared to the finite-state machine-based strategy performed in the real vehicle. The results show that NMPC keeps the battery at healthier temperatures and in addition reduces the cooling electrical consumption by more than 5%. In terms of the objective function, an accumulated and weighted sum of the two goals, this improvement amounts 30%. Finally, the online SIL presented in this paper, suggests that the used optimizer is fast enough for a future implementation in the vehicle.
The development of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites goes back over 20 years now, and yet they still have not achieved their full potential. A principal reason for this is the difficulty of obtaining a truly exfoliated nanostructure. The fabrication procedure for such PLS nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin includes several stages, including dispersion of the clay in the resin, intercalation of the resin into the clay galleries, and finally curing of the nanocomposite system. Many attempts have been made to improve the degree of exfoliation in the final nanostructure by modifying the procedures involved in these fabrication stages, and the usual approach is to examine the nanostructure, by techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as a function of the fabrication procedure. We show here, however, that thermal analytical techniques, and in particular differential scanning calorimetry, can complement the techniques of SAXS and TEM in the search for ways in which to achieve improved degrees of exfoliation in PLS nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin.
Complex network theory has been widely used in vulnerability analysis of power networks, especially for power transmission ones. With the development of the smart grid concept, power distribution networks are becoming increasingly relevant. In this paper, we model power distribution systems as spatial networks. Topological and spatial properties of 14 European power distribution networks are analyzed, together with the relationship between geographical constraints and performance optimization, taking into account economic and vulnerability issues. Supported by empirical reliability data, our results suggest that power distribution networks are influenced by spatial constraints which clearly affect their overall performance.
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