The covalent grafting of alkyl gallates on wool through a laccase catalysed reaction in 80/20 (v/v, %)aqueous–ethanol mixture provided in a one-step process a multifunctional textile material with antioxidant, antibacterial and water repellent properties. Gallic acid and its alkyl esters ethyl, propyl, octyl and
dodecyl gallate have been enzymatically grafted on wool fibres in order to study the effect of alkyl chain length on wool functional modification. The capacity of laccase to oxidise these phenolic compounds in an aqueous–organic medium has been verified by electrochemical techniques. The increase of CH2, CH3 groups in the FTIR spectra, together with the XPS analysis of the enzymatically modified fabrics confirmed
the covalent grafting of ester gallates on wool. The result obtained in this work for antibacterial, water repellent as well as antioxidant properties show that the length of the alkyl chain of gallates molecule
play an important role on wool functionalisation.
Chitosan is a biodegradable natural polymer with great potential for pharmaceutical applications due to its biocompatibility, high charge density, nontoxicity, and mucoadhesion properties. Processing techniques for the preparation of chitosan microspheres have been extensively developed
since the 1980s. The present paper describes for the first time a fast and one-step process for the preparation of stable chitosan microspheres by a simple sonochemical method. The microspheres were characterized by their particle size, surface morphology, stability, and drug-entrapment efficiency The average size of the microspheres was found to be around 1 mm with a narrow size distribution, which
enabled them to be used for in vivo applications. The encapsulation of different
dyes into these microspheres was readily achieved with more than 75% efficacy by dissolving them into the organic phase before sonication. The chitosan microspheres demonstrated excellent stability toward acidic and basic conditions ranging from pH 4 to 9, thereby indicating their implementation as possible therapeutic and diagnostic agents. The stability of these microspheres appears to be contributed
from intermolecular imine cross-linking
in addition to other noncovalent interactions. The ability of the surface-exposed amino groups of chitosan microspheres
to undergo chemical conjugation with potential drugs and/or targeting vectors was determined by their reaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and fluorescamine followed by confocal microscopy
'Hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections are a major financial issue in the European healthcare system. The financial impact of these infections counteract medical advances and expensive medical treatments by increasing the length of hospital stay by at least 8 days on average per affected patient, hence adding more than 10 millions patient days in hospitals in Europe per year. The statistics on patient safety in the EU show alarming tendencies : - 1 in 10 patients are affected by hospital-acquired infections - 3 million deaths are caused by hospital-acquired infections An active infection control program of patients and personnel and hygiene measures, have proven to significantly reduce both the number of infections and hospitalisation costs . The SONO project directly addresses the above problems by developing a pilot line for the production of medical antibacterial textiles. The pilot line will be based on the scale-up of a sonochemical process developed and patented at BIU laboratories. The pilot line will use a sonochemical technique to produce and deposit inorganic, antimicrobial nanoparticles on medical textiles, e.g. hospital sheets, medical coats and bandages. Sonicators are used industrially for heavy and light duty cleaning, for water disinfection and for sewage treatment. It is also used in the food industry for emulsification and drying. The proposed concept based on one step sonochemical process to produce nanoparticles and impregnate them as antibacterial factors on textile is novel and does not exist on an industrial scale. The concept has already been proven (and patented ) on a lab scale where sonochemistry was applied to impregnate nanoparticles in a single-step process. It was demonstrated that due to the special properties of the sonochemical method the antibacterial nanoparticles are adsorbed permanently on the fibres even after 70 “laundry cycles”. The sonochemical impregnation process is a one-step procedure in which the nanopa'