Cusola, O.; Valls, C.; Vidal, T.; Tzanov, T.; Roncero, M.B. ACS applied materials and interfaces Vol. 7, num. 25, p. 13834-13841 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b01904 Data de publicació: 2015-06-09 Article en revista
In this work, we studied the influence of the alkyl chain length in enzymatically-oxidized gallates on the development of hydrophobicity on paper-based materials, and further correlated the obtained effect to the redox mechanism of the enzymatic treatment. Laccase (Lac) enzyme was used to oxidize various members of the gallate homologous series in the presence or not of lignosulfonates (SL) to produce several functionalization solutions (FS), which were subsequently applied to cellulosic substrates. The hydrophobicity of the substrates was then assessed by means of water drop test (WDT) and contact angle (WCA) measurements. Hydrophobicity peaked reaching WDT and WCA values around 5000 seconds and 130o respectively, and then decreased with increasing length of the hydrocarbon chain of gallate. Cyclic voltrammetry (CV) was used to study the effect of SL on the redox reactions of several gallates. The intensity of the anodic peak in their voltammograms decreased increasing the chain length of the gallate. The electrochemical behaviour of lauryl gallate (LG) differed from that of other gallates. The fact that the voltammetric curves for SL and LG intersected at a potential of 478 mV indicates an enhancing effect of SL on LG oxidation at high potentials (above 478 mV)
Francesko, A.; Torrent, J.; Torrent-Burgués, J.; Carrion-Fite, F.J.; Macedo, M.M.; Tzanov, T.; Heinze, T. Biomacromolecules Vol. 15, num. 4, p. 1365-1374 DOI: 10.1021/bm4018947 Data de publicació: 2014-03-08 Article en revista
Bacterial-mediated diseases are a major healthcare concern worldwide due to the rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One strategy to manage the bacterial infections while avoiding the emergence of resistant strains implies specific targeting and disruption of bacteria membranes. This work evaluates the potential of nanostructured biopolymer derivatives, nanocapsules (NCs), to disrupt the bacteria cell walls and effectively kill planktonic microorganisms. Two biopolymers, chitosan and cellulose, were chemically modified to synthesize derivatives with improved cationic character (thiolated chitosan and aminocellulose) prior to their processing into nanocapsules via a one-step sonochemical process. The interactions of NCs, displaying an average size of around 250 nm, with bacteria membrane were evaluated using two membrane models: Langmuir monolayers and liposome bilayers composed of a l-a-phosphatidylglycerol phospholipid extracted from Escherichia coli. NCs possessed improved membrane disturbing capacity in comparison to the nonprocessed biopolymer derivatives, by drastically increasing the monolayer fluidity and inducing more than 50% leakage of a dye inserted in the bilayered liposomes. In addition, membrane disturbance was directly proportional to the NCs cationic charge. Whereas evidence showed that thiolated chitosan and aminocellulose interacted with the bacteria membrane through a “carpet model”, the NCs were found to induce larger surface defects and high local perturbance through a “detergent model”. Importantly, the degree of disruption caused by the biopolymer derivatives and NCs correlated well with the antimicrobial capacity against Escherichia coli, selectively killing bacteria cells without imparting toxicity to human fibroblasts.
Seven natural phenols and two synthetic compounds were evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry as enhancers for the oxidation of the lignin model compound veratryl alcohol (VAl) and a sulfonated lignin (SL). Their electrochemical behaviors and catalytic efficiencies (CEs) against both substrates were assessed as a function of pH. A general increase in CE of the phenols was for the first time observed in the oxidation of VAl at pH 7 and 8. Methyl syringate (MS), syringic acid (SRC), and syringaldehyde (SRD) exhibited the highest CEs against VAl among the studied phenolic compounds despite the reduced stabilities of their phenoxy radicals. This was a result of favorable stability−reactivity balances, which were apparently influenced by both the chemical structures of the enhancers and the experimental conditions. Violuric acid (VAc) proved the most efficient compound in oxidizing lignin, followed by SRD and MS, which showed regeneration in the interval of pHs studied
Sixteen phenolic compounds, 14 of which naturally occurring, were compared to the synthetic 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and violuric acid (VA) in terms of their ability to act as mediators/enhancers in: (1) laccase oxidation of veratryl alcohol as a lignin model compound, and (2) electrochemical oxidation of kraft and flax lignins. HPLC analysis revealed that the syringyl-type phenols methyl syringate and acetosyringone were the most efficient natural enhancers in the laccase oxidation of veratryl alcohol. Both compounds, though far from the performance of ABTS were able to generate veratraldehyde in amount similar to that obtained with VA. By contrast, the best performing phenolic enhancers for the electrochemical oxidation of lignins were sinapinaldehyde, vanillin, acetovanillone, and syringic acid. Catalytic efficiencies close to those achieved with ABTS and VA were calculated for these phenolic compounds.
The natural phenolic compounds syringaldehyde and vanillin were compared to the synthetic mediators 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, violuric acid and promazine in terms of boosting efficiency in a laccase-assisted biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Violuric acid and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole revealed to be the most effective mediators of the bioprocess. Nevertheless, laccase-syringaldehyde system also improved the final pulp properties (28% delignification and 63.5% ISO brightness) compared to the process without mediator (23% and 61.5% respectively), in addition to insignificant denaturation effect over laccase. The efficiency of the biobleaching process was further related to changes in non-conventionally used optical and chromatic parameters of pulp, such as (L*), chroma (C*) and dye removal index (DRI) showing good correlation. Adverse coupling reactions of the natural phenolic mediators on pulp lignin were predicted by electrochemical studies, demonstrating the complexity of the laccase-mediator reaction on pulp.